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Encyclopedia > Shoghi Effendi
The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died.
The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died.

Bahá'í Faith
Shoghi Effendi resting place This work is copyrighted. ... Shoghi Effendi resting place This work is copyrighted. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... Image File history File links Bahai_star. ...

Central figures

Bahá'u'lláh
The Báb · Abdu'l-Bahá Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born (Persian: ‎ ​), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa, Israel. ... `Abdul-Bahá Sir `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎ ), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...

Key scripture
Kitáb-i-Aqdas · Kitáb-i-Íqán

The Hidden Words
Some Answered Questions The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is the central book of the Baháí Faith, written by Baháulláh, the founder of the religion. ... The Kitáb-i-Íqán (Lit. ... {{Ba[[ == [[Media: --67. ... Some Answered Questions was first published in 1908. ...

Institutions

Administrative Order
The Guardian
Universal House of Justice
Spiritual Assemblies
The Baháí administration refers to the administrative system of the Baháí Faith. ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdul-Bahá to refer to elected leadership councils that govern the Baháí Faith. ...

History

Bahá'í history · Timeline
Bábís · Shaykh Ahmad The history of the Baháí Faith represents over 150 years of growth, and this article will attempt to provide more of the details than is possible in a more general overview of the Baháí Faith The religion claims to be part of a long religious tradition begun by Adam, and... This page is dedicated to providing a basic timeline of the Bábí movement and Baháí Faith. ... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai (1753 - 1826), better known as Shaykh Ahmad, was the founder of a 19th century Shia religious movement in the Persian and Ottoman empires, whose followers were known as Shaykhis. ...

Notable individuals

Shoghi Effendi
Martha Root · Táhirih
Badí‘ · Apostles
Hands of the Cause One of the prominent traveling teachers of the Baháí Faith in the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Táhirih (Arabic: ‎ The Pure One) or Qurratul-`Ayn (Arabic: ‎ Comfort of the Eyes) are both titles of Fátimih Baraghání (b. ... Badí‘ at the age of 15 Badí‘ (Arabic: ‎ )‎(1852 - 1869), born Mirzá Áqá Buzurg-i-Nishapuri, also known by his title the Pride of Martyrs, was the son of `Abdul-Majid-i-Nishapuri, a highly praised follower of the Báb and Baháulláh. ... The Apostles of Baháulláh were nineteen of the most eminent of the early followers of Baháulláh, the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The Hands of the Cause of God are a select group of Baháís, appointed for life, whose main function is to propagate and protect the Baháí Faith on the international level. ...

Selected teachings

Unity of humanity
Unity of religion
Gender equality
Universal education
Science and religion
Auxilliary language The Baháí Faith emphasizes the unity of humanity transcending all divisions of race, nation, gender, caste, and social class, while celebrating its diversity. ... The Baháí Faith states that religion has the same foundation and that there is unity of religion. ... One of main teachings of the Baháí Faith is gender equality; that men and women are equal. ... The theme of education in the Baháí Faith is given quite prominent emphasis. ... A fundamental principle of the Baháí Faith is the harmony of religion and science. ... Auxiliary language in the Baháí Faith focuses on a particular teaching; that the world should adopt an international auxiliary language, and everyone should have to learn only one or two languages. ...

See also

Symbols · Laws
Teachings · Literature
Calendar · Divisions
Baháí laws are laws and ordinances used in the Baháí Faith, according to the instructions of the Baháulláh, and written in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. ... The Baháí teachings represent a considerable number of theological, social, and spiritual ideas that were established in the Baháí Faith by its central figures. ... Baháí literature, like much religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia. ... The Baháí calendar, common to the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years 365 days long and leap years 366 days long as explained within the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. ... The Baháí Faith has had challenges to leadership at the death of every head of the religion. ...

Index of Bahá'í Articles
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Shoghí Effendí Rabbání (March 1, 1897 - November 4, 1957), better known as Shoghi Effendi, was the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957. March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seat of the Universal House of Justice in Haifa, Israel, governing body of the Baháís The Baháí Faith is a religion founded by Baháulláh in 19th century Persia. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


After the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1921, the leadership of the Bahá'í community entered a new phase, evolving from that of a single individual to an administrative order founded on the "twin pillars" of the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, being the executive and legislative branches. `Abdul-Bahá Sir `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎ ), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ...


Shoghi Effendi is not regarded as one of the Central Figures of the Bahá'í Faith. Whereas the works of the three Central Figures constitute the source of the Bahá'í Faith, Shoghi Effendi's writings are effectively limited to commentaries on the works of the Central Figures. Following is a list of members of the Baháí Faith who are in some way prominent. ...

Contents

Background

Shoghi Effendi as a young boy holding the Greatest Name.
Shoghi Effendi as a young boy holding the Greatest Name.

Born in `Akká in March 1897, Shoghi Effendi was related to The Báb through his father, Mírzá Hádí Shírází, and to Bahá'u'lláh through his mother, Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. From the early years of his life, Shoghi Effendi was greatly influenced by `Abdu'l-Bahá, who provided much of his initial training. Shoghi Effendi would pray at every dawn for one hour in his grandfather's room and learned numerous prayers which `Abdu'l-Bahá encouraged him to chant. It was also `Abdu'l-Bahá who insisted that the appellation given to the child should be "Shoghi Effendi", ("Effendi" signifies "Sir"), rather than simply "Shoghi", as a mark of respect towards him. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (984x1524, 558 KB) Summary Scanned in from pg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (984x1524, 558 KB) Summary Scanned in from pg. ... The official symbol of the Baháí Faith is the five-pointed star, as mentioned by Shoghi Effendi: Strictly speaking the 5-pointed star is the symbol of our Faith, as used by the Báb and explained by Him. ... The Old City of Acre in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa, Israel. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born (Persian: ‎ ​), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... `Abdul-Bahá Sir `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎ ), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...


From his early years, Shoghi Effendi was introduced to the suffering which accompanied the Bahá'ís in Akká, including the attacks by Mírzá Muhammad `Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. As a young boy, he was aware of Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd's desire to banish `Abdu'l-Bahá to the torrid deserts of North Africa where He was expected to perish. At one point, Shoghi Effendi was warned not to drink coffee in the homes of any of the Bahá'ís in the fear that he would be poisoned. Mírzá Muhammad `Alí (~1852 - 1937) was the son of Baháulláh and his second wife, Fatimih Khanum. ...


Tablet from `Abdu'l-Bahá

Being the eldest grandson of `Abdu'l-Bahá, from his earliest childhood he had a special relationship with his grandfather. Dr. Baghdadi reports that when Shoghi Effendi was only 5 years old, he was pestering his grandfather to write a tablet for him, which was common for `Abdu'l-Bahá. He wrote the following for his grandson:

"He is God!
O My Shoghi, I have no time to talk, leave me alone! You said 'write' - I have written. What else should be done? Now is not the time for you to read and write, it is the time for jumping about and chanting 'O My God!', therefore memorize the prayers of the Blessed Beauty and chant them that I may hear them, because there is no time for anything else."
(The Priceless Pearl, pg. 8)

Shoghi Effendi then set out to memorize a number of prayers, and chanted them as loud as he could. This caused family members to ask `Abdu'l-Bahá to quiet him down, a request which he apparently refused.


Education

He first attended a French Christian Brothers school in Haifa, then boarding at another Catholic school in Beirut, Shoghi Effendi later attended the Syrian Protestant College (later known as the American University of Beirut) for his final years of high school and first years of university. He reports being very unhappy in school and often returned on vacations to Haifa spent with `Abdu'l-Bahá. La Salle Academy, New York City The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools [[1]], also known as the Christian Brothers, the Lasallian Brothers, the French Christian Brothers, or the De La Salle Brothers, is a Roman Catholic religious teaching order, founded by French Priest Saint Jean-Baptiste de... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


During his studies, he dedicated himself to mastering English - adding this language to the Arabic, French, Persian, and Turkish languages in which he was already fluent - so that he could translate the letters of `Abdu'l-Bahá and serve as His secretary. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


After studying at the American University of Beirut he later went to Balliol College, Oxford in England, where he matriculated in "Economics and Social Sciences", while still perfecting his translation skills. College name Balliol College Named after John de Balliol Established 1263 Sister College St Johns Master Andrew Graham JCR President Jack Hawkins Undergraduates 403 MCR President Chelsea Payne Graduates 228 Homepage Boatclub Balliol College, founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... Face-to-face trading interactions among on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor Economics, as a social science, studies the production, distribution, and consumption of resources. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...


Prelude to Guardianship

The issue of successorship to `Abdu'l Bahá was in the minds of early Bahá'ís, and although the Universal House of Justice was an institution mentioned by Bahá'u'lláh, the institution of the Guardianship was not introduced until the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was publicly read after his death. Bahá'u'lláh's own will mentions Mírzá Muhammad `Alí as following `Abdu'l Bahá in leadership, but he was excommunicated as a covenant-breaker and shunned by Bahá'ís. Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... A seminal document, written in three stages by `Abdul-Bahá. Several sections were written under iminent threat of harm. ... Mírzá Muhammad `Alí (~1852 - 1937) was the son of Baháulláh and his second wife, Fatimih Khanum. ... Note: the term head of the Faith is used throughout the article, it is helpful to note that, since 1963, this refers to the elected nine-member Universal House of Justice. ...


On the occasion of some Persian believers asking him about a successor, `Abdu'l Bahá responded:

"...Know verily that this is a well-guarded secret. It is even as a gem concealed within its shell. That it will be revealed is predestined. The time will come when its light will appear, when its evidences will be made manifest, and its secrets unravelled."
(The Priceless Pearl, pg. 1)

On another occasion, Western believers, hearing of the birth of Shoghi Effendi, wrote to `Abdu'l Bahá and asked if this child is the one mentioned in the Bible in Isaiah 11:6 where it says "a little child shall lead them". The response was:

"Verily, that child is born and is alive and from him will appear wondrous things that thou wilt hear of in the future. Thou shalt behold him endowed with the most perfect appearance, supreme capacity, absolute perfection, consummate power and unsurpassed might... ages and centuries will bear traces of him."
(The Priceless Pearl, pg. 2)

Guardianship

Shoghi Effendi at the time of becoming Guardian in 1921. Taken in Haifa.
Shoghi Effendi at the time of becoming Guardian in 1921. Taken in Haifa.

`Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament is considered one of the four charters of the Bahá'í Administrative Order. In it he laid down the authority of the Guardian and the Universal House of Justice: Image File history File linksMetadata Shoghi_Effendi2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Shoghi_Effendi2. ... A seminal document, written in three stages by `Abdul-Bahá. Several sections were written under iminent threat of harm. ... The Baháí administration refers to the administrative system of the Baháí Faith. ...

"...The Guardian of the Cause of God, as well as the Universal House of Justice to be universally elected and established, are both under the care and protection of the Abha Beauty... Whatsoever they decide is of God. Whoso obeyeth him not, neither obeyeth them, hath not obeyed God; whoso rebelleth against him and against them hath rebelled against God; whoso opposeth him hath opposed God; whoso contendeth with them hath contended with God; whoso disputeth with him hath disputed with God; whoso denieth him hath denied God; whoso disbelieveth in him hath disbelieved in God; whoso deviateth, separateth himself and turneth aside from him hath in truth deviated, separated himself and turned aside from God."
(`Abdu'l-Bahá, The Will and Testament, p. 11)

Passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá

On 29 November 1921, the news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing reached Shoghi Effendi, which left him "in a state of collapse," according to Tudor Pole, the deliverer of the cable. After spending a couple of days in bed, and making the proper arrangements, he arrived in Haifa on 29 December, and a few days later opened `Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament, which was addressed to Shoghi Effendi.


In the Will Shoghi Effendi found that he had been designated as "the Sign of God, the chosen branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God". He also learned that he had been designated as this when he was still a small child.


Shoghi Effendi later expressed to his wife and others that he had no foreknowledge of the existence of the Institution of Guardianship, least of all that he was appointed as Guardian. The most he expected was perhaps, because he was the eldest grandson, `Abdu'l-Bahá might have left instructions as to how the Universal House of Justice was to be elected and he might have been designated as Convener of the gathering which would elect it.


Major accomplishments

During his ministry the Bahá'í Religion developed into a global faith. From the time of appointment until his death, the Bahá'í Faith grew from 100,000 to 400,000 members, and countries of representation went from 35 to 250.


For thirty-six years Shoghi Effendi developed the worldwide Bahá'í community and its administrative structure. Because the Bahá'í community was relatively small and undeveloped when he assumed the leadership of the Faith, he strengthened and developed it over many years to the point where it was capable of supporting the administrative structure envisioned by `Abdu'l-Bahá. Under Shoghi Effendi's direction, National Spiritual Assemblies were formed, and many thousands of Local Spiritual Assemblies sprang up as the Bahá'í Faith spread around the globe. Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdul-Bahá to refer to elected leadership councils that govern the Baháí Faith. ... Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdul-Bahá to refer to elected leadership councils that govern the Baháí Faith. ...


He also appointed 32 living Hands of the Cause, oversaw the completion of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb, appointed the International Bahá'í Council in 1951, launched the Ten Year Crusade in 1953, and acted as the official representative of the Faith to legal authorities in Palestine/Israel throughout many attempts by Covenant-breakers to take authority from him. The Hands of the Cause of God are a select group of Baháís, appointed for life, whose main function is to propagate and protect the Baháí Faith on the international level. ... Shrine of the Báb The Shrine of the Báb is the location where the Bábs remains have been laid to rest. ... In a January 9, 1951 telex to the Baháí world, Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Baháí Council (IBC) as the forerunner of the Universal House of Justice: // Responsibilities Its responsibilities were to: establish links with the Israeli authorities and negotiate with them concerning a establishing a Bah... An event in the Bahai faith, also known as the Ten Year World Crusade. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Note: the term head of the Faith is used throughout the article, it is helpful to note that, since 1963, this refers to the elected nine-member Universal House of Justice. ...


In a more "secular" cause, prior to World War II he supported the work of restoration-forester Richard St. Barbe Baker to reforest Palestine, introducing St. Barbe Baker to religious leaders from the major faiths of the region, from whom backing was secured for such an effort. (Baker, 1970) Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Richard St. ...


Translations and letters

A sample of Shoghi Effendi's signature.
A sample of Shoghi Effendi's signature.

In his lifetime, Shoghi Effendi translated in English many of the writings of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá, as well as such invaluable historical texts as The Dawn-breakers. His significance is not just that of a translator, but he was also the designated and authoritative interpreter of the writings. His translations therefore are a guideline for all future translations of the Bahá'í writings. Image File history File links Shoghiwriting. ... Image File history File links Shoghiwriting. ... Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa, Israel. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) (1817 - 1892), born (Persian: ‎ ​), was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ... `Abdul-Bahá Sir `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎ ), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... The Dawn-breakers or Nabíls Narrative is a historical account of the early Bábí and Baháí Faiths. ...


The only actual book he ever wrote was God Passes By in 1944 to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Faith. He also carried on a voluminous correspondence with believers from all parts of the globe. The total estimated number of letters that Shoghi Effendi wrote are over 30,000.[1],[2] His letters to individuals and assemblies have been compiled into several books which stand out as significant sources of literature for Bahá'ís around the world. God Passes By is a book written by Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Baháí Faith, which provides a brief summary of the history of the Baháí Faith from a Baháí perspective. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


He always signed his letters with simply "Shoghi". In 1922, soon after becoming Guardian, he requested that he be regarded as a "true brother", to be referred in letters and verbal addresses always as Shoghi Effendi, "for I desire to be known by no other name save the one our Beloved Master was wont to utter, a name which of all other designations is the most conducive to my spiritual growth and advancement." (Baha'i Administration, p. 25) `Abdul-Bahá Sir `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎ ), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...


Private life

Marriage

Shoghi Effendi Rabbani was Oxford educated and had an excellent command of the English language. He was highly intelligent and energetic. In 1937, he married Mary Maxwell entitled Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum, a Canadian. She was the only child of May Maxwell, one of the foremost disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and William Sutherland Maxwell, a distinguished Canadian architect. Then herself 27 years old, Mary Maxwell was a tall, athletic active woman. In 1941 she became Shoghi Effendi's principal secretary in English. In 1951, Shoghi Effendi appointed her to the first International Bahá'í Council. Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khanum never had children. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Amatul-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum (1910-2000) Born Mary Maxwell in New York City in 1910, Amatul-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum was raised in Montreal, Québec. ... Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Baháí Faith, designated nineteen Western Baháís as Disciples of Abdul-Bahá and Heralds of the Covenant: Dr. John E. Esslemont Thornton Chase Howard MacNutt Sarah Farmer Hippolyte Dreyfuss-Barney Lillian Kappes Robert Turner Dr. Arthus Brauns Lua Getsinger Joseph Hannan Chester I. Thatcher... In a January 9, 1951 telex to the Baháí world, Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Baháí Council (IBC) as the forerunner of the Universal House of Justice: // Responsibilities Its responsibilities were to: establish links with the Israeli authorities and negotiate with them concerning a establishing a Bah...


Suffering

Rúhíyyih Khanum later published parts of her personal diaries to show glimpses of Shoghi Effendi's life. She recalls a great deal of pain and suffering caused by his immediate family, and the friends in Haifa.

"If the friends only knew how the Master and the Guardian both suffered through the calibre of the local Bahá'ís. Some of them were good. But some were rotten. It's as if, when someone was unsound in the Covenant, they attacked the very body of the Manifestation, or the Exemplar, or the Guardian. I have seen this. It is like poison. He recovers from it, but it causes him untold suffering and it was from such things that the Master described Himself in His Will as 'this broken-winged bird.'"
(Rúhíyyih Khanum, The Priceless Pearl p. 160)
"They [The Master's family] have gone a long way to crushing every ounce of spirit out of the Guardian. By nature he is cheerful and energetic... But the perpetual strife of life with the Master's family... have clouded over him... Shoghi Effendi has been abused. That is the only word for it, abused, abused, abused. By now he has reached the point of a man fighting with his back to the wall. He says he will fight it out to the last round."
(Rúhíyyih Khanum, The Priceless Pearl p. 162)

Family members expelled

Main article: Covenant-Breaking in Shoghi Effendi's Immediate Family

Throughout Shoghi Effendi's life, nearly all remaining family members and descendents of `Abdu'l-Bahá rebelled against his authority at some point, and were expelled by him as Covenant-breakers. Other branches of Bahá'u'lláh's family had already been declared Covenant-breakers in `Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament. Covenant-Breaking See main article: Covenant-breaker Covenant-breakers are those who claim to be Baha’is but who deny the legitimacy of `Abdul-Bahá, Shoghi Effendi (the Guardian) or the Universal House of Justice as Centres of the Baháí Faith or who wilfully oppose their authority. ... Note: the term head of the Faith is used throughout the article, it is helpful to note that, since 1963, this refers to the elected nine-member Universal House of Justice. ... Baháulláh (Arabic: ‎ Glory of God) was the founder and prophet of the Baháí Faith. ...


In the case of the expulsion of Ruhi Afnan, it received public attention, and created particular hardships for Shoghi Effendi's family life.


Unexpected death

The Guardian's Resting Place in London at the New Southgate Cemetery
The Guardian's Resting Place in London at the New Southgate Cemetery

Shoghi Effendi's passing came unexpectedly in 1957 as he was traveling to Britain and caught the Asiatic flu. The news flashed around the world in the following cable: Image File history File links Shoghi_Effendi_resting_place. ... Image File history File links Shoghi_Effendi_resting_place. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Shoghi Effendi beloved of all hearts sacred trust given believers by Master passed away sudden heart attack in sleep following Asiatic flu. Urge believers remain steadfast cling institution Hands lovingly reared recently reinforced emphasized by beloved Guardian. Only oneness heart oneness purpose can befittingly testify loyalty all National Assemblies believers departed Guardian who sacrificed self utterly for service Faith."
Ruhiyyih
(Priceless Pearl, p. 447)

According to the framework of the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá, it was not possible to appoint a successor, and the legislative body "possessing the exclusive right to legislate on matters not explicitly revealed" was not yet established in the world. Furthermore, The Guardian left no will as attested to by the Hands of the Cause, who were required to ratify his selection. All of the 27 living Hands of the Cause unanimously signed a statement shortly after the passing of Shoghi Effendi stating that he had died "without having appointed his successor..." (see full text). The Hands of the Cause of God are a select group of Baháís, appointed for life, whose main function is to propagate and protect the Baháí Faith on the international level. ...


Ministry of the Custodians

The suddenness of his death caught the Bahá'í world off-guard, and the Bahá'í Faith was temporarily stewarded by the Hands of the Cause, who elected among themselves 9 "Custodians" to serve in Haifa as the head of the Faith. They reserved to the "entire body of the Hands of the Cause" the responsibility to determine the transition of the International Bahá'í Council into the Universal House of Justice, and that the Custodians reserved to themselves the authority to determine and expel Covenant-breakers. (Ministry of the Custodians, p. 34) The Hands of the Cause in the Bahai Faith are a select group of appointed believers whose main function is to help propagate and protect the Bahai Faith on the international level. ... In a January 9, 1951 telex to the Baháí world, Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Baháí Council (IBC) as the forerunner of the Universal House of Justice: // Responsibilities Its responsibilities were to: establish links with the Israeli authorities and negotiate with them concerning a establishing a Bah... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... Note: the term head of the Faith is used throughout the article, it is helpful to note that, since 1963, this refers to the elected nine-member Universal House of Justice. ...


Election of the Universal House of Justice

At the end of the Ten Year Crusade, planned by Shoghi Effendi and concluding in 1963, the Universal House of Justice was first elected. As its first order of business, the Universal House of Justice evaluated the situation caused by the fact that the Guardian had not appointed a successor. It determined that under the circumstances, given the criteria for succession described in the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá, there was no legitimate way for another Guardian to be appointed. An event in the Bahai faith, also known as the Ten Year World Crusade. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... A seminal document, written in three stages by `Abdul-Bahá. Several sections were written under iminent threat of harm. ...


Therefore, although a succession of Guardians is envisioned in the Will and Testament, Shoghi Effendi remains the first and last occupant of this office. This is disputed by relatively small groups of Bahá'ís who claim that the Guardianship continues. See Bahá'í divisions. The Baháí Faith has had challenges to leadership at the death of every head of the religion. ...


Publications

  • Effendi, Shoghi (1974). Bahá'í Administration. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-166-3.
  • Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-020-9.
  • Effendi, Shoghi (1976). Principles of Bahá'í Administration, 4th ed., London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-900125-13-6.

References

  • Giachery, Ugo (1973). Shoghi Effendi - Reflections. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-050-0.
  • Khadem, Riaz (1999). Shoghi Effendi in Oxford. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-423-9.
  • Rabbani, Ruhiyyih (1969). The Priceless Pearl, Hardcover, London, UK: Bahá'í Publishing Trust: 2000. ISBN 1-870989-91-0.
  • Effendi, Shoghi (1974). Bahá'í Administration. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-166-3.
  • Richard St. Barbe Baker [1970] (1985). My Life, My Trees, 2nd edition, Forres: Findhorn. ISBN 0-905249-63-1.
  • Khadem, Riaz (1999). Shoghi Effendi in Oxford. Oxford: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-423-9.

Amatul-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum Amatul-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum (1910-2000), born Mary Maxwell was the wife of Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Baháí Faith from 1921-1957. ... Amatul-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum Amatul-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khanum (1910-2000), born Mary Maxwell was the wife of Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Baháí Faith from 1921-1957. ... Richard St. ...

See also

The Baháí administration refers to the administrative system of the Baháí Faith. ... Seat of The Universal House of Justice For the building, see the Seat of the Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice is the supreme governing institution of the Baháí Faith. ... The Baháí Arc from the International Archives building Baháí World Centre The name given to the administrative center of the Baháí Faith. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Shoghi Effendi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2133 words)
Shoghi Effendi is not regarded as one of the Central Figures of the Bahá'í Faith.
Shoghi Effendi later expressed to his wife and others that he had no foreknowledge of the existence of the Institution of Guardianship, least of all that he was appointed as Guardian.
Shoghi Effendi's passing came unexpectedly in 1957 as he was traveling to Britain and caught the Asiatic flu.
The Life of Shoghi Effendi (5341 words)
Shoghi Effendi's ministry as the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith began in 1921, after a thirty year period of Bahá'í history which he said would be remembered as a time of "tragedies and triumphs...
Shoghi Effendi decided that the maintenance of his correspondence with individual Bahá'ís around the world as well as with the assemblies was essential for the protection and growth of the Cause.
Through the American Bahá'í community, Shoghi Effendi established the "charter"[48] for all national Assemblies by means of the 1927 Bahá'í National Constitution, and the "pattern"[49] for all local Assemblies by means of the By-Laws of the Spiritual Assembly of New York, drafted in 1931.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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