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Encyclopedia > Shock therapy
Psychiatry
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Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Biological psychiatry, or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Cross-cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural and ethnic context of mental disorder and psychiatric services. ... Behavioral medicine is an interdisciplinary field of medicine concerned with the development and integration of psychosocial, behavioral and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and illness. ... Forensic psychiatry is a subspeciality of psychiatry. ... Liaison psychiatry, also known as consultative psychiatry or consultation-liaison psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that specialises in the interface between other medical specialties and psychiatry, and concerns itself with patients with problems in both physical and mental health, as well as patients who may report physical symptoms as... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ...

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Psychotherapies This list includes notable medical doctors specializing in the field of psychiatry. ... Categories: | | ... This is a list of famous physicians in history: // Thomas Addis (1881–1949) — pioneered urine testing and the study of renal diseases Virginia Apgar (1909–1974) — anesthesiologist who devised the Apgar score used after childbirth Hans Asperger (1906–1980) — Austrian paediatrician after whom Aspergers Syndrome is named Jean Astruc... This is a list of psychiatric drugs or medications used by psychiatrists to treat mental illness or distress. ... This is a list of psychiatric drugs used by psychiatrists to treat mental illness or distress. ... This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...


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Shock therapy is the deliberate and controlled induction of some form or state of shock for the purpose of psychiatric treatment. Shock therapy attempts to produce this state artificially and under controlled conditions, on the premise that states of shock can induce improvement in the patient's mental state once the patient recovers. This article is about the medical condition. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ...


Various types of shock therapy were common until the mid or late 20th century. However, doubts over long-term benefits, ethical concerns, and advances in psychiatric drugs, psychotherapies and supportive services led to decreased use. Electroconvulsive therapy is the only type of shock therapy still practiced in the 21st century, though highly controversial and intended to be mainly restricted to severe cases of depression and bipolar disorder which have not responded to other kinds of therapies. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ...

Contents

History

Physicians have noticed for thousands of years that a person's mental state sometimes changes dramatically following recovery from physiopathological shock or brain seizures, whether induced by a head injury, an intense febrile illness such as malaria, or chemically induced loss of consciousness or convulsions. In the time of the Roman Empire, for instance, electric fish were used to provide electric shocks to ill patients. For example, Scribonius Largus used it in AD 47 for treating persistent headaches. It is said that the Emperor Claudius himself was one of his patients. The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... Mental status examination, or MSE, is a medical process where a clinician working in the field of mental health (usually a social worker, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse or psychologist) systematically examines a patients mind. ... Seizures (or convulsions) are temporary alterations in brain function expressing themselves into a changed mental state, tonic or clonic movements and various other symptoms. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... An electric fish is a fish that can generate electric field]s. ... Scribonius Largus was the court physician to the Roman emperor Claudius. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other Romans named Claudius see Claudius (gens). ...


Other instances of medical use of shock therapy were Paracelsus, who used seizures induced by camphor to treat psychosis in the 16th century; Drs. Jean LeRoy (France, 1745), Robert Whytt (London, 1751) and Leonard Yealland (London, 1917), all of whom used weak (non-convulsive) faradic electrical shocks to treat various "nervous, hypochondriac, or hysteric" cases as well as men suffering "shell-shock". Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Robert Whytt (born 1714 in Edinburgh; died 1766) was professor of theory of medicine at the University of Edinburgh. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ...


The rationale which supported the shock treatment strategy may also have been partly related to the 18th century rational in medicine which saw the 'breaking of the will' of the patient as necessary to cure insane persons.


With the rise of more biological explanations for mental disease at the end of the 19th century, the search for biological treatments also increased. In a short decade between the 1920s and the 1930s, several methods were developed by scientists who started to experiment with shock-inducing techniques. Due to the absence of any effective therapeutic approaches to mental disease, and because it sometimes lead to remarkable immediately observable changes in patients, in the next two or three decades shock therapy became one of the most widely used tools of psychiatry. Hundreds of thousands of patients were subjected to it, including many important personalities, such as writers Ernest Hemingway and Janet Frame, poets Sylvia Plath and Robert Lowell, performer Paul Robeson, rock star Lou Reed, film actresses Frances Farmer, Vivien Leigh, Clara Bow and Gene Tierney, pianists Vladimir Horowitz and Oscar Levant, talk show host Dick Cavett, mathematician John Forbes Nash, author and philosopher Robert Pirsig and politician Thomas Eagleton. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Janet Paterson Frame ONZ, CBE, (August 28, 1924 - January 29, 2004) was the New Zealand author of eleven novels, four collections of short stories, a book of poetry, a childrens book, and a three volume autobiography. ... Sylvia Plath (October 27, 1932 – February 11, 1963) was an American poet, novelist, and short story writer. ... Robert Lowell (March 1, 1917–September 12, 1977), born Robert Traill Spence Lowell, IV, was a highly regarded mid-twentieth-century American poet. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, Communist sympathizer, Spingarn Medal winner, and Lenin Peace Prize laureate. ... Lewis Allan Lou Reed[1] (born March 2, 1942 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Frances Elena Farmer (September 19, 1913 – August 1, 1970) was an American film actress. ... Vivien Leigh (November 5, 1913 – July 8, 1967) was an English actress. ... Clara Gordon Bow (July 29, 1905 – September 27, 1965) was an American actress and sex symbol, best known for her silent film work in the 1920s. ... Gene Tierney (November 19, 1920 – November 6, 1991) was an American actress. ... Vladimir Samoylovych Horowitz (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Ukrainian-born, American classical pianist. ... Oscar Levant (December 27, 1906 - August 14, 1972) was an American pianist, composer, author, comedian, and an actor, better known for his mordant character and witticisms, on the radio and in movies and television, than his music. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... John Forbes Nash, Jr. ... Robert Maynard Pirsig (born September 6, 1928) is a popular American novelist. ... Thomas Eagleton and George McGovern on July 24, 1972 cover of Time magazine after his nomination for vice president on the Democratic ticket Thomas Eagleton on August 7, 1972 cover of Time Magazine after his withdrawal for vice president on the Democratic ticket. ...


Though popular in the first half of the 20th century, most shock therapies are now considered ineffective or too risky for general use. Only electroconvulsive therapy- also referred to as ECT- is still used today. It is reserved for particularly severe, treatment-resistant and life-threatening mental illness that hasn't responded to other treatments. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity. ...


Forms of shock therapy

  • Malarial fever therapy involves the inoculation of malarial protozoa into the bloodstream of patients, in order to provoke episodes of intense fever and unconsciousness, which are sometimes followed by convulsions. The method was discovered by an Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) in the 1910s, who got the Nobel Prize for his discovery. For a while, it was used for treating the general paresis of the insane, caused by tertiary syphilis. It is no longer used.
  • Insulin shock therapy involves injecting a patient with a large amount of insulin, which causes convulsions and coma by provoking brain hypoglycemia. It was discovered by Polish physician and researcher Manfred Sakel (1900-1957) in 1933 and was used well until the 1950s for the treatment of depression and psychosis. However, the insulin coma could become irreversible, and a 1939 report found the procedure had a 1.3% mortality from this cause [1]. It is also rarely used now.
  • Metrazol shock therapy involves injecting a patient with Metrazol (cardiazol), a drug that quickly induces powerful brain seizures. It was discovered by Hungarian physician and researcher Ladislas J. Meduna (1896-1964) in 1934 and further researched by Francis Reitmann [2] It was soon superseded by electroconvulsive therapy, because it was difficult to control and had many adverse effects. The violence of the convulsions produced hairline fractures in the vertebrae of many patients, especially those who already suffered from vitamin D deficiency due to the poor diet in psychiatric hospitals [3].
  • Pharmacological shock was a general term for shock therapy by injecting chemicals such as insulin or metrazol [4]. Psychiatrists in the 1930s also experimented with other chemicals including camphor [5] or ammonium chloride [6] to induce convulsions in their patients.
  • Electroconvulsive therapy or ECT, involves inducing a grand mal seizure in a patient by passing an electrical current through the brain. It was discovered by Italian researchers Ugo Cerletti (1877-1963) and Lucio Bini (1908-1964). It is used today, albeit with restricted indications, such as usually treatment resistant depression or bipolar affective disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder or anxiety disorders. In these cases, it is considered a safe and effective procedure, when carried out under a clinical protocol which involves EEG monitoring, application of muscle blocking agents and general anesthesia or sedation. A typical course of ECT involves between six and twelve treatment sessions spaced every other day. The number of treatments is determined by the rate of the patient's response.

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Julius Wagner-Jauregg Julius Wagner-Jauregg was born on March 7th, 1857, in Wels, Austria. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... General paresis, also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a now-rare neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain and central nervous system. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Insulin shock therapy is a treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis and drug addiction which involves injecting a patient with massive amounts of insulin, which causes convulsions and coma. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycæmia in the UK) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. ... Manfred Joshua Sakel, Polish neurophysiologist and psychiatrist, was born on June 6, 1900, in Nadvorna, in the former Austria-Hungary Empire (now Ukraine). ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... Metrazol is the commercial trademark of pentetrazol, pentamethylenetetrazol, or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a drug used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant (another commercial name is Cardiazol). ... Ladislas Joseph Meduna (1896-1964) was a Hungarian neurologist who discovered the first effective drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. ... Dr. Francis Reitmann (died 1954) was a British psychiatrist. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... This article is about stress fractures in bones. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... In mathematics, a deficient number or defective number is a number n for which &#963;(n) < 2n. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Ammonium chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt with a biting taste. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity. ... This article is about the medical term, epileptic seizure, as distinct from psychogenic non-epileptic seizure. ... Ugo Cerletti (September 26, 1877 - July 25, 1963) was an Italian neurologist. ... Lucio Bini (1908-1964) was an Italian psychiatrist and professor at the University of Rome, Italy. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Girl wearing electrodes for electroencephalography Person wearing electrodes for electroencephalography Portable recording device for electroencephalography Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or, in special cases, subdurally or in the cerebral cortex. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Sedation is a medical procedure involving administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure, such as endoscopy, vasectomy, or minor surgery with local anaesthesia. ...

Mechanisms of action

The mechanism of action by which shock therapies might exert any lasting effect is unknown. A generic defense mechanism might be at work following a state of shock. Alternatively a post-traumatic stress reaction might be induced. Long-standing neural networks or cognitive-behavioural patterns, associated with psychopathology, could potentially be disrupted. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ...


When shock therapies were most used, science had no effective tools to study their effects. Studies about the underlying mechanism of electroconvulsive therapy, commonly known as ECT, still continue. Many hypotheses have been proposed, including potential effects on neurotransmitters, and a possibliity that transcranial electroshock induces neoneurogenesis (i.e., the growth of new neurons) in some areas of the brain which are involved with the control of emotions and memory.[citation needed] Since treatment-resistant clinical depression is associated to a neuron loss in the same areas, this might explain a therapeutic effect. However, the long-term efficacy of ECT is unclear and relatively unstudied, and the procedure is actually associated with memory loss and other adverse effects. Most ECT patients have memory loss related only to the time covering the course of treatment. Some memory of this period is usually recovered by a majority of ECT patients. Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ...


See also

The History of mental illness has long been a process of trial and error guided by public attitudes and medical theory with each society developing its own responses. ... Psychosurgery is a term for surgeries of the brain involving procedures that modulate the performance of the brain, and thus effect changes in cognition, with the intent to treat or alleviate severe mental illness. ... Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also known as electroshock, is a controversial psychiatric treatment in which seizures are induced with electricity. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Board of Control for England & Wales (1939) The Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Board of Control 1938 (London: HMSO)
  2. ^ Reitmann, F. (1939) Cardiazol therapy of schizophrenia: some statistical data. The Lancet 233(6026): 439–40.
  3. ^ McCrae, N. (2006) ‘A violent thunderstorm’: Cardiazol treatment in British mental hospitals. History of Psychiatry 17: 67–90.
  4. ^ Ross, J.R.; Rossman, I.M.; Cline, W.B.; Schwoerer, O.J. & Malzberg, B. (1941) The pharmacological shock treatment of schizophrenia: a two-year follow-up study from the New York State Hospitals with some recommendations for the future. American Journal of Psychiatry 97: 1007-1023.
  5. ^ McCrae, ibid. p.68.
  6. ^ Dax, E. C. (1940) Convulsion therapy by ammonium chloride. Journal of Mental Science 86: 660–667

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shock Therapy -- Shock Treatment it's not good for the brain (1635 words)
The pamphlet which was supplied to the public from six State operated shock facilities, the Guardianship and Administration Board, the Office of the Public Advocate and elsewhere, contained false and misleading information which served to recklessly misguide the most vunerable members of the community, and their family and friends.
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The device used for extracorporeal shock wave therapy is very similar to the one currently used in non-surgical treatment of kidney and gall-bladder stones.
The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy was recently described in a paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons in New Orleans on February 8, 2001 (http://www.acfas.org/prshckwavthera.
Amazingly, normal-weight and moderately obese patients reported that their chronic-plantar-fasciitis pain had dropped to zero the day after shock wave therapy (pain was rated on a scale from zero to five, with five representing the most intense-possible discomfort), and even severely obese individuals detected a drop-off in pain.
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