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Encyclopedia > Shivaji
Image:Example.of.complex.text.rendering.svg This article contains Indic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Indic characters; or irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.
Shivaji Bhosle
Chhatrapati
Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (statue at Raigad)
Reign 1674 - 1680
Coronation June 6, 1674
Titles High Protector of the Maratha Empire
Born February 19, 1627
Birthplace Shivneri Fort, near Pune, India
Died April 3, 1680
Place of death Raigad Fort
Successor Sambhaji
Wives Sai bai
Soyarabai
Putalabai
Kashibai
Sagunabai
Manjulabai
Sakavaarbai
Gunvantibai
Issue Sambhaji, Rajaram, and six daughters
Father Shahaji
Mother Jijabai

Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले) (Born:February 19, 1627, Died: April 3, 1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. Image File history File links Example. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 532 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Shivajis Raigad fort File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 532 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Shivajis Raigad fort File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Shivneri Fort a historic military fortification located around 105 km from Pune, a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Second wife of Shivaji. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1670-1700 AD) was the younger son of the first Chattrapati Shivaji, step-brother of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji, and took over the Maratha Empire as the third Chattrapati after his brother was tortured and killed by Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. ... Shahaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Maloji Bhonsale of Verul in present day Maharashtra. ... Jijabai with the infant Shivaji Jijabai was the mother of Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ...


He is considered a great hero in India, especially in the present-day state of Maharashtra. Using guerrilla tactics well-suited to the rugged mountains and valleys of the region, he annexed a portion of the then dominant Mughal empire and the Sultanate of Bijapur. , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605...


Stories of his exploits have entered into folklore. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Historical background

The land of Maharashtra , in central-west India, was ruled by a local dynasty, the Satavahanas from 300 BC to 230 AD. After which, it constantly morphed into many different kingdoms. , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...


In 1292, Ala-ud-din Khilji, an Islamic invader, defeated the Yadavas of Devagiri, but the Yadavas continued to rule till 1310. A branch of the Yadavas ruled parts of Konkan and Khandesh regions of Maharashtra for a century thereafter[citation needed]. Although the Maratha capitals fell to invaders, the regional lords held their power base and influence. For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... The Khilji or Khalji were a dynasty of Indian rulers. ... The Yadavas of Devagiri, Seuna/Sevuna or Yadava dynasty (Marathi: देवगिरीचे यादव) (850 - 1334) was an Indian dynasty, which during their peak ruled present day Maharashtra, north Karnataka and parts of Madhya Pradesh from their capital at Devagiri(or Deogiri) (present-day Daulatabad in Maharashtra). ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... Districts comprising the Khandesh region of Maharashtra. ...


In 1453, an invasion of Bahamani in the region of Vishalgarh resulted in a defeat of Yadavas. Over time, an understanding evolved between the sultanates, and the local regional lords and their erstwhile master Yadavas. The Yadavas became a vassal of Bahamani. In 1492, the Bahamani sultanate broke into five kingdoms each called a Shahi. April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ...


In 1565, the allied Deccan sultanates vanquished the Vijayanagara Empire at Talikota. By the time Shivaji began his military career, power in the region was shared by three Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Most of the Marathas continued as soldiers and noblemen of the Sultanates as the sultanates engaged in a continuous game of mutual alliances and aggressions. The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Vijayanagara (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ, English: ) is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. ... Battle of Talikota or Tellikota (January 26, 1565) fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Deccan sultanates resulted in a rout for Vijayanagara and ended the last great Hindu kingdom in South India. ... Map of Somalia including the self-proclaimed boundary of Somaliland Northern Somali sultanates In the late Nineteenth Century, two sultanates emerged and ruled Northern Somalia, an area stretching as far west to Burco from Las Khorey. ... Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ... Golconda is a ruined city and fortress 11 km west of the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the door of the Lodge of the Heralds. ...


Like his ancestors, Shahaji (Shivaji's father) was a major player in the Deccan Wars. At that time, Shahaji was a regent for the young Nizam of Ahmednagar. Together with the prime minister of Nizamshah, Malik Amber, he put up a stiff resistance to the advancing forces of the Mughal emperor and thereafter defeated them. Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Language(s) Dakhni , later Urdu Government Monarchy Nizam  - 1720-1748 Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah I  - 1869-1911 Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI History  - Established 1720  - Operation polo 1948 Qamaruddin Khan,Asaf Jah I Nizam, a shortened version of Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ...


However, tired of the unsettled conditions, Shahaji Raje left Nizamshah's service and joined Adilshah of Bijapur, who gave him a higher title of 'Sar Lashkar'.[1] Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ...


The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan again attacked the Ahmednagar Kingdom of Nizamshah. At this critical hour, Shahaji Raje returned to the military service of Nizamshah to help stiffen-up the defences. Meanwhile, a prominent Maratha sardar Lakhuji Jadavrao was murdered on the order of the Nizamshah, and this was not acceptable to Shahaji, and it prompted him to raise the banner of independence and establish an independent kingdom. Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. ... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ...


Early life

Shivaji with Jijamata
Shivaji with Jijamata

It was during this unsettled period that Shivaji was born. His birth was in independent country, as proclaimed by his father, Shahaji. Perhaps, that was the main contributing reason for his life long desire for independence. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 798 KB) Summary The inspiring statue of young Maharaj with Jija mata on top of Shivneri (as far as i can remember) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 798 KB) Summary The inspiring statue of young Maharaj with Jija mata on top of Shivneri (as far as i can remember) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


The actual date of Shivaji's birth was under controversy but now settled on date as 19 February 1627.[citation needed] Shivaji was born in Shivneri Fort, Junnar, 60 kilometres north of Pune and about 100 kilometres east of Mumbai. He was named Shiva, after the local Goddess Shivai, to whom his mother Jijabai had prayed for a son. Jijabai had several other sons before Shivaji who did not survive. Shivneri Fort a historic military fortification located around 105 km from Pune, a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Shivneri Fort Junnar is a city in the Pune district of the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Jijabai with the infant Shivaji Jijabai was the mother of Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire. ...


Shahaji, Shivaji's father, attempted to build on the ruins of the Nizamshahi kingdom of Ahmednagar, but was defeated by a much larger combined force of the Mughals and Adilshah in 1636. He was forced to leave the region around Pune. He was inducted by Adilshah of Bijapur and was offered a distant jagir - land holdings, at present-day Bangalore, but he was allowed to keep his old land tenures and holdings in Pune. Shahaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Maloji Bhonsale of Verul in present day Maharashtra. ... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... The Adil Shahi of Adilshahi were a dynasty of Indian sultans, who ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur from 1490 to 1686. ... A Jagir is a small territory granted by a ruler to an army chieftain (called a sardar in Marathi language) in recognition of his military service. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ...


Shivaji started his rise to power in what is now the state of Maharashtra in the coastal Deccan or central western regions, close to the power centres of South-Central India. , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...


Foundation of empire

Given these circumstances, Shahaji appointed the young Shivaji under the care of his mother Jijabai to manage the Pune holdings. A small council of ministers was appointed to assist and train Shivaji in the administration which included Shamrao Nilkanth as Peshwa (Prime Minister), Balkrishna Pant as Muzumdar, Raghunath Ballal as Sabnis, Sonopant as Dabir and Dadoji Konddeo as teacher. Apart from these ministers, military commanders Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar were appointed to train Shivaji in martial arts. In 1644, Shahaji had Lal Mahal built in Pune for his wife and his son Shivaji. The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ... Dadoji Konddeo (Marathi: दादोजी कोंडदेव) (also known as Dadaji Konddev and Dadoji Kondadev) was a 16th century martial arts expert from India, particularly known for his loyalty towards his master Shahaji, the father of Maratha empire founder Shivaji. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ...


A royal seal was handed to Shivaji which reads in Sanskrit: The Privy Seal of England can be traced back to the reign of King John. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

  • "This is the royal seal of Shivaji, son of Shahaji. This royal seal is for the welfare of people. This seal (the rule of the seal) will grow like the new moon grows."

Thus Shivaji started his career as an independent young prince of a small kingdom on a mission. Shivaji used the title of Raja (king) only after Shahaji's death.


His mother made an indelible impression on him with her teachings, with her love of the homeland and its people. Shivaji learned much from his father's failed attempts at political independence: his exceptional military capabilities and achievements, his knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindu ethos, patronage of the arts, his war strategies and peacetime diplomacy. He was inspired and informed by his family's vision of independence and freedom. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... ...


Furthermore, his mother, having lost her father and three brothers to a treacherous plot hatched by the regional king Nizamshah, was opposed to those who she considered alien rulers, due to their derision and callousness toward the local population. Jijabai thus instilled in Shivaji a natural love for self-determination and an aversion to external political domination.


Her piety and commitment to indigenous culture and her recounting of tales from the great Indian epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana molded Shivaji's character and helped him to be peerless (as confirmed by even otherwise inimical chroniclers, Khafi Khan) especially in his tolerant attitude towards other religions as well as in his fair and kind treatment of women and non-combatants.


Shahaji's vision, Jijabai's and Dadoji Konddeo's teachings and motivation, and the able training by military commanders such as Gomaji Naik Pansambal and Baji Pasalkar were the main influences which groomed Shivaji into a brave and fearless military leader as well as a responsible administrator. Young Shivaji, energetic and enthusiastic as he was, wasted no time in setting off on a path of freedom and glory. Shahaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Maloji Bhonsale of Verul in present day Maharashtra. ... Jijabai with the infant Shivaji Jijabai was the mother of Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Empire. ... Dadoji Konddeo (Marathi: दादोजी कोंडदेव) (also known as Dadaji Konddev and Dadoji Kondadev) was a 16th century martial arts expert from India, particularly known for his loyalty towards his master Shahaji, the father of Maratha empire founder Shivaji. ... Gomaji Naik was a renowned warrior and military adviser in the army of Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonslé, founder of the Maratha Empire in 17th century India. ...


Confrontation with the Regional Sultanates

At the age of 17 Shivaji carried out his first military action by attacking and capturing Torna fort of the Bijapur kingdom, in 1645. By 1647 he had captured Kondana and Rajgad forts and had complete control of the Pune region. // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... 1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sinhagad: View of Fort sinhagad from foothills Sinhagad: View from Fort sinhagad Sinhagad is a hill fort located near the city of Pune, India. ... Rajgad literally means King of forts is one of the most glorious forts of Maharashtra. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ...


By 1654 Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast. In a bid to sabotage this move of the Marathas under Shivaji's able leadership, Adilshah had his father - Shahaji arrested by deceitful means, and he sent one army against Sambhaji, Shivaji's elder brother at Bangalore (with Farradkhan at its head) and another against Shivaji at Purandhar (with Fattekhan at its head). However both Bhonsle brothers defeated the invading armies securing the release of their father. Afzal Khan, the great warrior, was then sent to destroy Shivaji, in an effort to put down what was seen by Bijapur as a regional revolt. Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... Shahaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Maloji Bhonsale of Verul in present day Maharashtra. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Purandhar (or Purandar) is a taluka of the Pune district of Maharashtra, India. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ... Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ...


Battle of Pratapgarh/ Pratapgad

Main article: Battle of Pratapgarh

Afzal Khan, after leaving Bijapur to confront Shivaji, first desecrated the temples of goddess Bhavani in Tuljapur and Pandharpur. The intent was to get a roiled, disturbed, and shaken Shivaji out in the open to face him in a pitched battle. Instead, Shivaji sent a letter saying he was not eager to face Afzal Khan and sought some type of understanding. Shivaji upon carefully weighing his options calmly decided to confront and surprise Afzal Khan under the guise of diplomatic negotiations. A meeting was arranged between Afzal Khan and Shivaji at the foothills of Fort Pratapgad. Afzal Khan was described as a person of large physical stature leading a battle hardened veteran army, considered this assignment as a small matter of stamping out a pesky regional chieftain. He calculated that by killing Shivaji, he would be rid of the Maratha challenge to his king. Pratapgad Fort Pratapgad (also spelt as Pratapgarh, Pratapgadh)is a massive fort located in the Sahyadri mountain range of western Maharashtra, India, 25 kilometres from Mahabaleshwar. ... Battle of Pratapgad was a land battle that took place on November 10, 1659 at the fortPratapgarh the city of Satara, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Afzal Khan of Adilshah. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ... Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ... Tulja Bhavani of Tuljapur Bhavani is a ferocious aspect of Hindu goddess Shakti or Devi. ... Tuljapur is a town lying in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Vithoba of Pandharpur Pandharpur is a town in district Solapur in state of Maharashtra in Western India. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ...

Wagh nakh (Tiger Claw)
Wagh nakh (Tiger Claw)

Shivaji, acutely aware of the danger facing him, prepared carefully and diligently for this encounter; he secretly armed himself with sharp metal razor weapon called wagh nakh (tiger claw), and chilkhat (armour) prior to the meeting. Afzal Khan embraced him before the commencement of supposed negotiations and then surreptitiously proceeded to stab him with a khanjar (Middle-eastern dagger) hidden in his clothes. Shivaji survived the attack unscathed, protected by body armour he wore under his clothes. In response, Shivaji counter-attacked Afzal Khan with the wagh nakh and bich'hwa, spilling his blood and entrails on the ground. Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ... The khanjar (Arabic خنجر) is the traditional dagger of Oman. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ...


Thereupon, Afzal Khan's Hindu deputy, Krishnaji Bhaskar Kulkarni and his bodyguard Sayyed Banda attacked Shivaji with swords but Jiva Mahala, Shivaji's personal bodyguard fatally struck them down with a single stroke of 'dandpatta' (medieval weapon). Meanwhile a stunned and wounded Afzal Khan managed to stumble out of the tent to get help but was immediately slain by Shivaji's associate Sambhaji Kavji, before he could get help or raise an alarm. Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ... Afzul Khan was a Bijapuri general killed by Shivaji at Pratapgadh in 1658. ...


In the ensuing battle of Pratapgarh in the dense forests, which was fought on November 30, 1659, Shivaji's armies set upon Bijapur's forces and engaged them in swift flanking maneuvers. Battle of Pratapgad was a land battle that took place on November 10, 1659 at the fortPratapgarh the city of Satara, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Afzal Khan of Adilshah. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


Immediately after slaying Afzal Khan, Shivaji sped up the slope towards the fortress with his lieutenants and ordered cannons to be fired. This was a signal to his infantry, which had been strategically placed under the cover of the densely covered valley, to immediately attack the Afzal Khan's (Adilshahi) forces.


Maratha troops commanded by Shivaji's Sardar Kanhoji Jedhe swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers. The hand to hand combat was intense resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's leiutenant, was wounded in the early part of the battle and subsequently fled the field, leaving his soldiers to fend for themselves in the face of a swift and ferocious Maratha attack.


Meanwhile, Shivaji's commander Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of the main portion of Adilshahi troops. Afzal Khan's (Adilshahi) artillery was made ineffective by his sudden attack at close quarters, while the rest of their troops succumbed to the Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar, Ragho Atre swooped down and attacked the large Adilshahi cavalry before they were able to be fully prepared for battle and succeeded in completely routing them in short order.


The Maratha cavalry under Netaji Palkar galloped at full speed towards the nearby village Wai, in hot pursuit of retreating Adilshahi forces, who were attempting to join the part of their reserve forces stationed there. The retreating forces of Afzal Khan were engaged in battle before they could regroup or join their comrades in Wai, and were utterly defeated.


This great and complete victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people.


All contemporary powers of the Indian subcontinent were shocked with the unambiguous outcome of this decisive battle. Immediately after the battle, Shivaji in the brilliant and lightning moves of cavalry conquered the area between Pune right up to the Panhala fort (near Kolhapur), stretching over 200 km.


The Follow-up Attack


Subsequently, a shaken Sultan of Bijapur lamenting the loss of his leading general, Afzal Khan, sent an imposing and elite Pashtun army to subdue and defeat Shivaji before he could gather more strength and substantially expand his army. In the resulting war of Panhalgadh, Bijapur's Pashtun (Afghan) army was out flanked, out fought and decimated by the fast moving and tough Maratha troops, who killed thousands of Pashtuns. The battle lasted for several hours and was very bloody and in the end Bijapuri forces unconditionally surrendered to Shivaji. Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


This surprising and improbably crushing defeat of the elite Muslim force in the Deccan raised the hopes and confidence of the Hindus across India and helped to coalesce the emerging Maratha nation as a united force under Shivaji's able leadership. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...


The confidence of the Marathas was now on the rise and an inspired Shivaji began to consolidate and expand his kingdom by pushing the boundaries of Mughal and Sultanate Kingdoms out of his homeland, Maharashtra. This in turn made him a high level threat to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, who now identified Shivaji the Maratha as a major enemy of the Mughal Empire.


Battle of Kolhapur

Main article: Battle of Kolhapur

To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the nascent Maratha power, another army, this time numbering over 10,000, was sent against Shivaji, commanded by renowned Bijapuri general Rustemjaman. With cavalry of 5000 Marathas, Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on 28 December 1659. In a swift movement, Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while other two portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. The hand-to-hand combat was ferocious, the action was interspersed with the Maratha war cry "Har Har Mahadev" (hail to Lord Shiva), with "Allahu Akbhar" (God is great) the Muslim war cry. In a bloody pitched battle, the Bijapuri forces folded under the ferocious Maratha onslaught and in the ensuing panic, Rustemjaman fled the battlefield. Battle of Kolhapur was a land battle that took place on December 28, 1659 near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Rustemjaman of Adilshah. ... , Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापूर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


Shivaji's Mavale/Maratha soldiers clearly demonstrated their courage and martial tendency by fearlessly attacking in a pitched battle the combined and formidable Bijapur army made up of elite forces of Arab, Abyssinian, Persian and Afghan mercenaries. This news made the mighty Mughal empire more alarmed at the successes of the upstart Maratha - Shivaji, who was now derisively called "Mountain Rat" by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. He was now actively preparing to bring the full might and resources of the Mughal Empire to bear down on the potential Maratha threat, as he was not one to tolerate any challenge to his rule.


Battle of Pavan Khind

Main article: Battle of Vishalgarh
In the battle of Panhala Raja, Shivaji escaped through this pass

In 1660, Adil Shah sent Siddi Johar - an Abyssinian general of great repute. He was eager to put down Shivaji once again, and this time he committed all the manpower and resources available to him in his kingdom to this end. He ordered his large and imposing army north to Kolhapur, Maharashtra to confront and defeat Shivaji once and for all. Battle of Pavankhind was a rear guard battle that took place on July 13, 1660 at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu and Siddi Masud of Adilshah. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x700, 567 KB) nilesh I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x700, 567 KB) nilesh I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


At that time Shivaji was camped at the fort Panhala with a small part of his army, near present day Kolhapur, on the borders of his dominion. Siddi Johar's very large and intimidating army camped near Panhala, cutting off supply routes to the fort. Shivaji, in a bold move, decided to escape to a nearby fort Vishaalgad, where he could regroup his soldiers to fight a decisive battle. , Panhala is a scenic hill station (3177 feet above sea level) 18 km northwest of Kolhapur, in Kolhapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... , Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापूर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... , Panhala is a scenic hill station (3177 feet above sea level) 18 km northwest of Kolhapur, in Kolhapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ...


Shivaji sent misleading messages to Siddi Johar indicating that he was willing to negotiate and was looking for accommodation, understanding and mercy. With this news Adilshahi soldiers relaxed somewhat, and Shivaji escaped under the cover of a very stormy night. Johar's soldiers captured a small group of the Marathas apparently including Shivaji, only to realize he was a look-alike dressed like Shivaji, sent out to create a diversion and facilitate the real king's escape. It did not take much time for Siddi Johar's soldiers to realize that the imposter was Shivaji's barber and that Shivaji and his army were headed to Vishaalgad.


A large enemy cavalry, in hot pursuit of Shivaji's infantry and foot soldiers would probably have overtaken and captured him. Sensing that enemy cavalry was fast closing in on them Shivaji sought to avoid defeat and capture. And indeed, this very likely eventuality was avoided by Shivaji in a last minute rear-guard defensive move. Baji Prabhu Deshpande, a brave Sardar along with 300 Maratha soldiers, volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of Vishaal Gad. Baji Prabhu Deshpande Baji Prabhu Deshpande 2 Baji Prabhu Deshpande (Marathi: बाजी प्रभू देशपांडे) (died 1660) was one of the lieutenants (also known as sardar) of Chattrapati Shivaji, founder of the Maratha empire. ...


In the ensuing battle of Pavan Khind, Baji Prabhu Deshpande fought relentlessly, at times with scimitars curved swords in both hands. He was almost fatally injured but he held on for precious minutes and only succumbed to his injuries after hearing cannon fire from Vishaal Gad, signalling Shivaji had reached safety of the fort. Battle of Pavankhind was a rear guard battle that took place on July 13, 1660 at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu and Siddi Masud of Adilshah. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ...


Ghod Khind was covered with blood of 300 Marathas who willingly gave up their lives and fought to the last man for the cause of freedom, along with that of 1286 of Adilshah's brave and elite troops. Baji Prabhu Deshpande and his men's bravery, sacrifice and heroic stand at Pavan Khind is a very popular story in the annals of the great and illustrious Maratha history. And has been recited as a folk lore in Maharashtra in many inspiring renditions.


Thereafter a truce was made between Shivaji and Adilshahi through Shahaji, acknowledging and formally recognizing the independence of Shivaji's Kingdom. Also, as the terms of peace, the fort at Panhala was awarded to Siddi Johar. , Panhala is a scenic hill station (3177 feet above sea level) 18 km northwest of Kolhapur, in Kolhapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ...


This remained the situation until the death of Shahaji. Henceforth the Marathas became a formal and recognized power in the Deccan. Ghod Khind (khind = " a narrow mountain pass") was renamed Pavan Khind (Sacred Pass) in honor of Bajiprabhu Deshpande and the soldiers who selflessly fought and died to save their king and country. A small memorial stands even today in the pass in recognition of the heroism of Bajiprabhu and his courageous men. Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ...


This battle was one of the last serious challenges to Shivaji from the regional sultanates, from now on the attention of the mighty Mughal empire would be firmly focused on danger posed by the emerging Maratha nation under the able leadership of Shivaji and his potential challenge to their supremacy in the Indian sub-continent.


Clash with the Mughals

Shaista Khan

Toward the end of 1660, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan, his maternal uncle with a large army to defeat Shivaji in the Deccan. Within three years in 1663, Shivaji had lost most of his conquests to a relentless attack by a well-trained, well supplied and vastly larger Mughal army. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Mirza Abu Talib, better known by his title Shaista Khan, was a subahdar and general in the army of the Mughal Empire. ...


Shaista Khan, seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. His vast and professional army numbering over 100,000 was more than a match for Shivaji's troops and he was an experienced commander who had defeated Shahaji (Shivaji's father) in the same region in 1636. Although he held Pune for almost a year, he had little further success. He had set up his residence at Lal Mahal, Shivaji's palace, in the city of Pune. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ...


Shaista Khan kept the security in Pune very tight. Shivaji planned a daring attack on Shaista Khan amidst tight security. In April 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for a procession; Shivaji planned an attack using the wedding party as cover. The Marathas disguised themselves as the bridegroom’s procession and entered Pune. Shivaji, having spent much of his youth in Pune, knew his way around the city and his own palace of Lal Mahal. Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


After overpowering and slaying the palace guards, the Marathas broke into the mansion by breaking through a wall. Shivaji confronted Shaista Khan and with a slash of his sword he severed three of Shaista Khan's fingers as he fled through an open window. The Khan narrowly escaped death and was taken to a safe place by his servant maids. Shaista Khan lost his son, many of his guards, and soldiers in the raid.


Within twenty-four hours of this daring attack, Amir-ul-Umra, Shaista Khan left Pune and headed North towards Agra. An angered Aurangzeb transferred him to distant Bengal as a punishment for bringing embarrassment to the Mughals with his very personal and ignoble defeat in Pune.[2]


Surat and Mirza Raja Jai Singh

In 1664 Shivaji invaded Surat, an important Mughal trading city, and looted it to replenish his now depleted treasury and also as a revenge for the capture and looting of Maratha territory by Shaista Khan. For other uses, see Surat (disambiguation). ...


Shivaji acquired immense wealth from Surat, which was then one of the largest and an important trading centers in the Mughal Empire. The money was sorely needed for expanding and strengthening of his army, upgrading of equipment, and safeguarding of captured territories. Following the raid on Surat, Gujarat, Shivaji continued to capture forts belonging to both Mughals and Bijapur and to expand his dominions.


Aurangzeb was enraged and sent a renowned Rajput General, Mirza Raja Jai Singh I, a Hindu Raja, to defeat Shivaji with another imposing and huge army. The Mughal force proved to be unstoppable in the early battles and Shivaji decided to come to terms with Aurangzeb. In the treaty of Purander, signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh, Shivaji agreed to give up all of his 23 forts and 400,000 rupees to the Mughals. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal Sardar and serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb. Shivaji's clandestine intentions in doing this were to defeat his enemies, the Bijapur and Golconda Kingdoms using Aurangzeb's army and then to take on the mighty Mughals. Mirza Raja Jai Singh (July 15, 1611-August 28, 1667) was ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). ... For other uses, see Sardar (disambiguation). ...


Trip To Agra and Escape

In 1666, Aurangzeb summoned Shivaji to Agra, along with his six year old son Sambhaji, on the occasion of his fiftieth birthday. In the court, on 12 May 1666, Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdars (Commanders) of his court. Offended by this petty gesture, Shivaji stormed out of court and was promptly placed under house arrest, under the watch of Fulad Khan, Kotwal of Agra. 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ...


From his spies, Shivaji learned that Aurangzeb planned to shift him to Raja Vitthaldas's Haveli and then to kill him. As a result Shivaji planned his escape. He feigned almost fatal sickness and requested to send most of his contingent back to Deccan. Thereafter, on his request, he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints, fakirs, and temples in Agra as offerings for getting well.


After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets, Shivaji disguised himself as a palanquin bearer and managed to escape without being recognized. Sambhaji, his six year old son had been smuggled out a couple of days earlier. Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan (Southern region) to the safety of their homeland, disguised as sadhus (holy men/Sanyasins). Some accounts claim that after the escape, rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji. Japanese Palanquin Indian Palanquin A palanquin aka palkhi is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ...


Some accounts claim that Shivaji and Sambhaji both hid in large crates that were filled with sweets (confectionery) being donated to various charities in the Agra city to escape the imprisonment. However, this method of escape has been questioned by many historians.


Dr. Ajit Joshi in a well researched book published in Marathi language (Agryahun Sutka, 1997) has conducted a careful examination of all the available evidence about Shivaji's visit to Agra and various reports pertaining to his subsequent escape, in official/historical Mughal and Rajput documents. His conclusion is that Shivaji likely disguised himself as a Brahmin Pundit after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds and escaped by mingling in within the departing priestly entourage.


Preparing for War

In the years 1667-69, Shivaji adopted a low profile and began to aggressively build up his army. The Mughals had the impression that he was now a spent force and would not cause them any more trouble. However, Shivaji was on a war-footing, directing efforts for an all out war by increasing the size of his army, acquiring arms, horses, armour and other war materials. Then in January 1670 Shivaji launched a major, concerted and multi-pronged assault on Mughal garrisons in Maharashtra.


The force of Shivaji's attacks was overwhelming and within six months he had regained most of his old territory and more. His army was much larger now: about 40,000 cavalry, backed by 60,000 infantry, a strong navy and a potent artillery. From 1670 to 1674 Shivaji continued to actively and aggressively expand his territory at the expense of the Mughals who were now facing major pressures on their treasuries as their war related expenses outstripped the incoming tax revenues.


Shivaji rapidly expanded his kingdom to include major portions of Maharashtra and far in to the south including Karnataka and Tamilnadu.


Battle of Sinhagad

Bust of Tanaji on top of Sinhagad Fort, Pune
Bust of Tanaji on top of Sinhagad Fort, Pune

One fort on the outskirts of Pune, Kondana, was still under Mughal control. Uday Bhan Rathod, a brave Rajput was the fort keeper. He led an army of about 1500 Rajputs and Mughals for the protection of the fort. Uday Bhan had maintained strict vigil around the fort. On February 4, 1670 Shivaji deputed one of his most senior and trusted generals, Tanaji Malusare, to head a mission to capture Kondana. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 776 KB) Summary Sinhagad is not far from Pune. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 776 KB) Summary Sinhagad is not far from Pune. ... For the sport which developed into badminton, see Poona (sport). ... Sinhagad: View of Fort sinhagad from foothills Sinhagad: View from Fort sinhagad Sinhagad is a hill fort located near the city of Pune, India. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Tanaji Malusare, also known as Sinha (the Lion), was a renowned warrior and military leader in the army of Shivaji, a maharaja of Maharashtra in 17th century India. ...


Tanaji Malusare surveyed the fort and its defenses very meticulously for some days. The fort was extremely well guarded. One very sheer cliff caught Tanaji's eye. This side was least guarded as one could not possibly imagine climbing the fort from this steep side. Tanaji decided to scale this cliff to enter the fort. He used a monitor lizard named "Yeshwanti" with a rope tied around its body for climbing this cliff on a moonless night. Perhaps this was the first time in the history of wars where a lizard was used to climb a fort. Species Many, see text. ...


The Common Indian Monitor (Varanus bengalensis) found locally in present day Maharashtra is the species of Monitor Lizard is also known as ghorpad in Marathi. These Monitor lizards are famous for their ability to cling to smooth surfaces, and were traditionally trained for this purpose by herders in the area. Binomial name (Daudin, 1802) Bengal monitor (Varanus bengalensis), also known as the Common Indian Monitor, is a monitor lizard found throughout Bangladesh and India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ...


As the advance party reached the top, they threw ropes for others to climb. Meanwhile Tanaji's brother Suryaji had moved close to the gates of the fort, namely Kalyan Darwaja, with another 300 Mavalas (Maratha Soldiers). The gates were soon opened and once inside, all his soldiers joined Tanaji in the surprise attack.


Tanaji and Uday Bhan came face to face and a fierce fight ensued. A solid blow from Uday Bhan broke Tanaji's shield. He continued the fight until another fatal blow from Uday Bhan staggered Tanaji and a counter blow then killed Uday Bhan. Seeing their leader mortally wounded, the Maratha soldiers became tentative and started to back-up and retreat. Suryaji, then stepped in front and center to rally them and to get them to be back on the offensive. His exhortations and his leadership lifted the Maratha spirit. The Marathas now determinedly commenced their attack on the Mughal defenders with great courage and tenacity, and captured the fort.


This battle is quite popular in Marathi folklore and is retold as a reminder of the glory and sacrifice that was the Maratha war of Independence.


When Shivaji learned that he had lost his brave, loyal and trusted friend, he said "Gad ala, pun sinha geyla", meaning We have won the fort, but lost the Lion. Thenceforth Kondana fort was formally named Sinhagad (the Lion fort) in honour of the great Tanaji Malusare. Sinhagad: Sinhagad @ sunrise Sinhagad: View from atop Sinhagad Sinhagad: View from the Pune Darwaja Sinhagad (Lion Fort in Marathi) is a fort located near the city of Pune, India, situated on a hill which rises 800 metres above the surrounding countryside. ...


Coronation

Shivaji was formally crowned Chhatrapati ("Chhatrapati= Chief, head or King of Kshatriyas", representing the protection he bestowed on his people) on June 6, 1674 at the Raigad fort, and given the title Kshatriya Kulavantas Sinhasanadheeshwar Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Pandit Gaga Bhatt, a renowned Brahmin from Varanasi, officially presided over the ceremony declaring that Shivaji's lineage was bonafide and recognized Kshatriya. A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ... Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ...


He was bestowed with the Zaanva, in Hindi the Janeu (sacred thread), with the Vedas and was bathed in an abisheka. Shivaji had insisted on an Indrabhishek ritual, which had fallen into disuse since the 9th century. Henry Oxinden (later Acting President of the Bombay Presidency) from the British East India Company was present at the ceremony. Upanayanam perhaps better known outside India by the name Sacred thread ceremony, is a Hindu rite-of-passage ritual. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


Shivaji then was conferred with the title of “shakkarta” (he started his own calendar). A few days later a second ceremony was carried out, this time according to the Bengal school of Tantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri. For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... This article is an overview of Tantra and an in-depth look at the Tantra of Hinduism. ...


Southern expedition (Dakshin digvijaya)

Toward the end of 1676, Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India with a massive force of 50,000 (30,000 cavalry & 20,000 infantry). The first major alliance made by the monarch was with Abul Hasan, the Qutb Shahi Sultan of Golconda. They began a campaign against the Bijapur Karnataka, including the Shivaji's own half-brother, Vyankoji Bhonsla. He defeated and captured the forts at Vellore and Gingee in modern-day Tamilnadu. These victories proved quite crucial during future wars. Jinjee served as Maratha capital for 9 years during 27 years of war. The Qutb Shahi dynasty was the ruling family of the kingdom of Golconda in southern India. ... Vellore Fort This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Gingee Fort also known as Chinji or Jinji in Tamil Nadu, India is one of the few surving forts in Tamil Nadu - which is much more popular for its temples than forts. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ...


Death and succession

Chhatrapati Shivaji died at 12 noon, 3rd April, in 1680 at Raigad, after running a fever for three weeks. It is said that he died due to contracting a disease Bloody Flux, Intestinal anthrox. The funeral ceremony was arranged in Raigad in presence of his son Rajaram, and Soyarabai. After Shivaji's death, his elder son Sambhaji and Soyrabai , fought for control of the kingdom. After a brief struggle Sambhaji was crowned king. Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ...


A few years after Shivaji's death, Aurangzeb's son, Prince Akbar, rebelled against his father and was sheltered by Sambhaji. Thereupon, Aurangzeb, his army, entourage and the royal court moved to the Deccan in 1681 to wage an all out war for the complete destruction of Maratha power. This was the beginning of the twenty seven year war, initially the Marathas were overwhelmed by the might and the great power of the Mughal empire. Under the overpowering and unrelenting Mughal assault the endangered Maratha capital was moved and evacuated from Raigad to Jinjee in the south and for a time it seemed that Aurangzeb's objective of stamping out the Maratha threat would be achieved. However, in the following months and years the tide of the war began to change.


The Marathas adapted very well to the Mughal menace and fought Aurangzeb to a stalemate. And towards the end of the second decade the Marathas gathered more strength and began to turn the tide of the war. The Mughal forces were dealt several serious body blows by able Maratha generals like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav. They effectively employed lightning fast and highly mobile attacks, tactics initially developed and effectively used by Shivaji.


Eventually a broken, defeated Aurangzeb retreated in sickness from the Deccan in 1705. The final Mughal withdrawal came two years later. He had spent most of his remaining resources and manpower trying to defeat the Marathas and ended up significantly weakening the once mighty Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb's heirs never again challenged the Marathas and were themselves finally overtaken and utterly dominated by the Peshwa's Maratha Sardars, namely Scindia and Holkar, within eighty years of Shivaji's death.


This 27 year war, was a tribute to Shivaji's genius, in which even after his death, Maratha forces felt a great sense of privilege to fight to honour his memory to expel Aurangzeb out of the Deccan to preserve the Maratha self-rule swarajya and expand upon Shivaji's goals of independent Maharashtra and Hindustan. Swarajya is [[Marathi]] word. ...


Jadunath Sarkar, a noted Indian historian and a scholar, estimates that about 500,000 Mughal soldiers and 200,000 Marathas died during this decades long epic struggle for dominance.


Shivaji's leadership and successes contributed significantly to stiffening up of Hindu assertiveness and resurgence in post Islamic India. He was the first of many great Indian leaders and the most successful in the fight for freedom, for Swaraj.

Ruins of the Raigad Fort, which served as a capital for Maratha Empire.

Image File history File links Raigad. ... Image File history File links Raigad. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ...

Rule

Shivaji was an able and competent administrator and established a government that included such modern concepts as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir) and internal intelligence.[3] Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijayadurg on the west coast. The Maratha navy held its own against the British, Portuguese and Dutch till Maratha internal conflict brought their downfall in 1756. This article is about the governmental body. ... This article is about a journal. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Sindhudurg fortress Sindhudurg(Marathi सिंधुदुर्ग) is a fortress which occupies an islet in the Arabian Sea, just of the coast of Maharashtra in western India. ... vijaydurg (vijay=victory; durga=fort) vijaydurga is a fort built by Shivaji in the Sindhudurga district in Maharashtra. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Naval redirects here. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all socio-economic groups to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. To this day he is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military, fort architecture, society and politics. He was one of the most clever rulers of the post Mughal era who had built up his empire on the ruins of the falling Mughal empire.


Shivaji occupies a special place in the hearts of many Marathi and other people in India due in part to his, well documented, high moral code of conduct and his courageous campaigns against the power of the Mughals and the Nizams. He laid the foundations of the modern Marathi identity and infused it with strong martial, moral and chivalric traditions. In his times he squarely and unflinchingly faced daunting challenges such as repeated invasions by huge Mughal and regional Sultanate armies, that would have defeated a lesser leader.


Shivaji successfully lead and marshalled his forces to cope and overcome several major enemy invasions of his territories. He was also relentless and inexorable in expanding his kingdoms boundaries. His success was driven by his fierce and urgent determination to establish a free and independent homeland (Vatan), and in this goal he was supported by the high level of loyalty, respect and commitment that he received from his followers and citizens.


In the earlier years of Shivaji's leadership he commanded a small force of loyal followers, they had few resources and lacked sufficient military hardware and equipment. He overcame these initial shortcomings by extensive use of hit-and -run guerrilla type tactics, and he captured much equipment from his enemies and thus his strength and confidence grew with every success he achieved.


He was an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-maneuvering, time and time again, his vastly bigger and determined enemies.


Toward the end of his reign he had built up the Maratha forces to be over one hundred thousand strong, and was able to effectively keep the embedded Mughal forces in check and on the run while expanding his kingdom southward to Gingee, Tamil Nadu.


Shivaji had successfully established a viable and growing kingdom that was stable and well defended. He had built a large standing army and constructed several strategically placed forts which served as a Hindu bulwark against aggressive and active Islamic powers within India. His brilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields and his acute management and administrative skills helped him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India.


Character

During his long military career and his many campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.


Shivaji was once offered as a war booty an extremely beautiful young lady, by an uninformed Maratha captain. She was the daughter-in-law of a defeated Muslim Amir (local ruler) of Kalyan, Maharashtra. Shivaji was reported to have told the lady that her beauty was mesmerizing and that if his mother was as beautiful as her, he would have been beautiful as well. He told her to go back to her family in peace, unmolested and under his protection. His behaviour, was noted by those around him, to be always of the highest moral caliber. He clearly and unambiguously embodied the virtues and ideals of a true nobleman.


Throughout his long career he boldly risked his life, his treasure and his well being to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and uphold freedom and independence. And in that lay the foundations of the greatness of Chhattrapati Shivaji Maharaj, which was based not as much on his successes on or off the battlefields, or on the strength of his arms, or his clever strategies or his noble birth but was truly based on his selfless and courageously fierce actions he undertook against any and all odds, on behalf of his beloved Vatan (sacred homeland/nation).


He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propeled by his sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country which lead him to directly challenge the dangerous, powerful and oppressive rule of the Nizams and the Mughals. His legacy is heroism, selflessness, freedom, independence, brotherhood and unwavering courage, and as such he is a great role model for the ages.


Shivaji struck a deep chord with his followers and the citizenary. And the high level of admiration and respect he earned from his followers and subjects sets him apart from most other Indian kings or chieftains in the recorded Indian history. Even today he is venerated in India and especially in the state of Maharashtra with awe and admiration and is viewed as a hero of epic proportions.


Revolution in military organisation

Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions (though the term "commando" is modern).[4] Shivaji was responsible for a lot of changes in military organization. These include - For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ...

  • A standing army belonging to the state called paga;
  • Horses belonged to the state; no individual in his army was allowed to own horses;
  • Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who used to work for eight months in the field and supported four months in war. This light infantry was his innovation and they were the ones who excelled in commando like actions;
  • The introduction of an intelligence department, a navy, and regular chain-of-command;
  • Introduction of field craft viz. Guerrilla warfare, commando actions, flank attacks;
  • Innovation of weapons and innovative use of traditional weapons like tiger claw or 'Baghnakh'. 'Vita' was a weapon invented by Shivaji;
  • Militarisation of almost the entire society, including all classes, with the entire population of settlements and villages near forts involved in their defense.

Forts

Main article: Shivaji's Forts
Pratap Gad
Pratap Gad

Shivaji constructed a chain of 300 or more forts running over a thousand kilometres across the rugged Western Ghats.Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor should deliver it to the enemy. The officers (Sabnis, Havladar, Sar-i-naubat) acted jointly and provided mutual check. Pratapgad Fort Shivaji is well known for his forts; he was in possession of around three hundred at the time of his death. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 975 KB) Summary Pratapgad with the Bhagava fluttering, reminding of Shivaji Maharajs Hindavi Swaraj Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 975 KB) Summary Pratapgad with the Bhagava fluttering, reminding of Shivaji Maharajs Hindavi Swaraj Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ...


Promotion of Sanskrit

The house of Shivaji was one of the Indian royal families who were well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted it. The root can be traced from Shahaji who supported Jayram Pindye and many like him. Shivaji's seal was prepared by him. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Shivaji continued this trait and developed it further. He named his forts as Sindhdurg, Prachandgarh, Suvarndurg etc. He named Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature viz. Nyayadhish, Senapati etc. He got Rajya Vyavahar Kosh (a political treatise) prepared.


After his death Sambhaji, who was himself a Sanskrit scholar (his verse - Budhbhushanam), continued it. His grandson Shahu spent his entire childhood in Mughal captivity, which affected his taste. But even he showered gifts on learned Brahmins. Serfoji II from the Thanjavur branch of the Bhosle continued the tradition by printing the first book in Marathi Devnagari. Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Champion Of Arts, Skills & Healthcare - Serfoji II Rajah Serfoji II (1777–1832) was the Maratha ruler of the Kingdom Of Tanjore (also known as Thanjavur). He was a descendant of Shivaji. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ...


Sambhaji issued one danapatra (donation plaque) which is in Sanskrit composed by himself in which he writes about his father as:

  1. Yavanarambha gritat mlechakshaydiksha: It means - Shivaji had taken a sacred oath and was on mission to defeat invaders
  2. Dillindraman pradhvanspatu: One who has defeated the Mughal Emperor of Delhi
  3. Vijayapuradhishwar prathtarmanya bhujchachayay: One whose help was sought by Adilshahi King of Vijaypur

Religion

As per legend, the family deity of the Bhosles, goddess Bhavani gave a divine sword to Shivaji.
As per legend, the family deity of the Bhosles, goddess Bhavani gave a divine sword to Shivaji.

Shivaji made available to Ramdas a fort named Parali Fort to establish his permanent monastery there. The fort was subsequently renamed as “Sajjangad”(Fort of Holy People). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tulja Bhavani of Tuljapur Bhavani is a ferocious aspect of Hindu goddess Shakti or Devi. ...


Chhatrapati Shivaji was a devout Hindu and he respected all religions within the region. Shivaji had great respect for Warkari saints like Tukaram and Sufi Muslim pir Shaikh Yacub Baba Avaliya of Konkan .[5]. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sant Tukaram (तुकाराम) (c. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ...


He also visited Mouni Maharaj temple and Samadhi at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near to Gargoti) in Kolhapur district. Shahaji had donated a huge piece of land to Shaha-Sharif Durgah of Ahmednagar. (The names "Shahaji", the father of Shivaji, and "Sarfoji", the uncle of Shivaji, are derived in deference to this Shah Sharifji.) Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... , Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापूर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... Shahaji Bhosale was the eldest son of Maloji Bhonsale of Verul in present day Maharashtra. ...


Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion. The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs. One-third of his army was Muslim, as were many of his commanders: his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari; Darya Sarang was chief of armoury; Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy; and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery. A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Maulana Haider Ali Kohari (b. ...


Shivaji had respect for the Sufi tradition of Islam.[6] Shivaji used to pray at the mausoleum of the great Sufi Muslim saint Baba Sharifuddin. He also visited the abode of another great Sufi saint, Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan, and sought his blessings. He called Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri bahut thorwale bhau, meaning "great elder brother". Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... , Ratnagiri (Marathi:रत्नागिरी) is a city in India, located in the southwestern part of Maharashtra State on the Arabian Sea coast, in the Ratnagiri district. ...


Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian and Bernier, a French traveler, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought back converts like Netaji Palkar & Bajaji in to Hinduism. He prohibited slavery in his kingdom. François Bernier (1625 – 1688) was a French physician and traveller, born at Joué-Etiau /Anjou. ... Netaji Palkar was the first Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) in the army of Shivaji, the legendary king in 17th century India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Shivaji applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state.[6] There are many instances in folklore, which describes Shivaji's respect for women, irrespective of their religion, nationality, or creed.


Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote: Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from...


"Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for him alone."[6][7][8] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Remembering the King

A statue of Shivaji in the Birla Mandir, Delhi
A statue of Shivaji in the Birla Mandir, Delhi

Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later. He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1754 KB) Description: Statue of Shivaji Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2006 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 27th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1754 KB) Description: Statue of Shivaji Source: photo taken by User:Deepak Date: 26th December 2006 Permission: User:Deepak released it on 27th December 2005 under CC-BY-SA-2. ... On August 8, 1942, Gandhi led the Quit India Movement, a move for early independence. ...


School texts in Maharashtra describe Shivaji's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity. A popular quotation: Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is a state in west-central India. ...


"Maratha tituka melavava
Maharashtra Dharma vadhavava"


translates "Bring as many people into Maratha domain as possible; and grow the Maharashtra Creed "[9] The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


A political party, the Shiv Sena, claims to draw inspiration from Shivaji. Shiv Sena (Devanāgarī: शिव सेना Śīv Senā), meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shivaji is a nationalist political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is currently the president of the party. ...


The Maratha Light Infantry, one of the oldest and distinguished regiments of the Indian Army has "Bol Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj ki Jai" as its battle cry. The Maratha Light Infantry (MLI) Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. ...


The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The Interstate Bus Terminal of New Delhi has also been named after Shivaji. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... CST Railway Station Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (better referred to by its acronym CST) - is a historic railway station on Mumbai suburban railway. ... , Bombay redirects here. ... Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (IATA: BOM, ICAO: VABB), formerly Sahar International Airport, is an airport in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ...


Indian Navy has the School of Naval Engineering named INS SHIVAJI. The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ...


In the novel The Ark, the Indian ship is named Shivaji.


Literature and Movies

Shivaji is a source of inspiration for a number of artists, directors, actors, writers, shahir (ballad composer), poets and orators. In Marathi, Bhalaji Pendharkar directed on the movie, 'Raja Shivaji' in which the main role was played by the famous Marathi actor Chandrakant Mandare. Apart form this movie, 'Maratha tituka melawawa','Gad ala pan sing gela' and many more movies specially in Marathi were made on his and his associates' life. Chandrakant Mandare, a welknown marathi actor and a great artist. ...


Sriman yogi is a novel written on Shivaji's life by Ranjit Desai. Raja Shivachhatrapati is a biography authored by Babasaheb Purandare on his life which was later brought out as Jaanata Raja (जाणता राजा), a musical tale of Shivaji's life. Kusumagraj has composed a famous poem on Shivaji's general Prataprao Gujar' Vedat Marathe vir daudale sat'. performed Lata Mangeshkar and Hridayanath Mangeshkar. Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar, popularly known in Maharashtra, India, and in the larger Marathi community as Kusumagraj, was a well-known and renowned Marathi poet. ... Lata Mangeshkar (Marathi/Hindi:लता मंगेशकर) (born September 28, 1929) is an Indian singer. ... Hridaynath (pronounced ri-they-naath) is a musician from India. ...


Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar wrote 'Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete' (When Raigad awakes), a play based on the complex relationship between Shivaji and Sambhaji. Shahir like Tulsidas and Agandas had written heroic ballads on him. Kavi Bhushan has composed in Hindi, a famous work 'Shivraj Bhushan'. Vasant Shankar Kanetkar Vasant Shankar Kanetkar or Vasant Kanetkar (March 20, 1922 - December 29, 2000) was an Indian playwright who wrote in the Marathi language. ... -1...


Associates

Some of Shivaji's close associates were also his primary army chieftains, and have entered folklore along with him. These include:

Under Shivaji, many men of talent and enterprise rose into prominence. They carried forward his mission and ensured the defeat of the Mughals in the War of 27 years. These include Ramchandrapant amtya, Santaji Ghorpade, Dhanaji Jadhav, Parsoji Bhosale, Harji raje Mahadik and Kanhoji Angre. Tanaji Malusare, also known as Sinha (the Lion), was a renowned warrior and military leader in the army of Shivaji, a maharaja of Maharashtra in 17th century India. ... Baji Prabhu Deshpande Baji Prabhu Deshpande 2 Baji Prabhu Deshpande (Marathi: बाजी प्रभू देशपांडे) (died 1660) was one of the lieutenants (also known as sardar) of Chattrapati Shivaji, founder of the Maratha empire. ... Gomaji Naik was a renowned warrior and military adviser in the army of Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonslé, founder of the Maratha Empire in 17th century India. ... Firangoji Narsala was a renowned Maratha warrior and military leader in the army of Shivaji Chhatrapati, a Maharaja of Maharashtra, in 17th century India. ... Murarbaji Deshpande is well known for the battle of Purandar where he faced the mighty Dilerkhan. ... Santaji Ghorpade was one of Sambhajis associates and a famous Maratha warrior. ... Maulana Haider Ali Kohari (b. ... Prataprao Gujar (actual name Kudtoji Gujar) was the second Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) of Shivajis army,which was probably the most successful guerilla force in 17th century India. ... Netaji Palkar was the first Sarnaubat (Commander-in-chief) in the army of Shivaji, the legendary king in 17th century India. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Santaji Ghorpade was one of Sambhajis associates and a famous Maratha warrior. ... Kanhoji Angre or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angre (? – 1729) was the first notable chief of the Maratha Navy in 18th century India. ...


Accounts of contemporary foreign travellers

Many foreign travellers who visited India during Shivaji's time wrote about him.

  • The Abbe Carre was a French traveller who visited India around 1670; his account was published as Voyage des Indes Orienteles mele de plusiers histories curieuses at Paris in 1699. Some quotes: "Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble that great king of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus."
  • The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India. "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."

For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... François Bernier (1625 – 1688) was a French physician and traveller, born at Joué-Etiau /Anjou. ...

References

  1. ^ ShivaShahi Retrieved on 2006-12-24
  2. ^ Itihaas - Shivaji assumes the title of Chattrapati. Sify Corporation. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
  3. ^ Kamat, K. L.. Short Bio: Maratha King Shivaji. Kamat's Potpourri. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  4. ^ Kasar, D.B., Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005)
  5. ^ Patil, Vishwas - "Sambhaji", Mehta Publishing House, Pune (2006) ISBN 81-7766-651-7
  6. ^ a b c Zakaria, Rafique, "Communal Rage in Secular India", Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003)
  7. ^ Central Chronicle Letter D. Pande. Retrieved on 2007-03-07
  8. ^ Book Review IMC India. Retrieved on 2007-03-07
  9. ^ Purandare, Babasaheb - "Shivrayancha Itihaas" series in Maharashtra Times, 2004-2005

Further Reading

  • Shivchatrapati- Ek Magowa by Dr Jysingrao Bhausaheb Pawar.
  • Apte, B.K. (editor), Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume, Bombay: University of Bombay (1974-75)
  • Duff, Grant, History of Marhattas, Oxford University Press, London Link - http://books.google.com/books?id=FKQ9AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=subject:%22Maratha+(Indic+people)%22#PRA1-PR21,M1.
  • V.D.Katamble, [Shivaji the Great], Pune : Balwant Printers - English Translation of popular Marathi book "Shrimanyogi".
  • Kasar, D.B., Rigveda to Raigarh - Making of Shivaji the Great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005)
  • Patil, Vishwas - Sambhaji, Mehta Publishing House, Pune (2006) ISBN 81-7766-651-7
  • Purandare B. M. (author), Raja Shivachhatrapati, he is the most popular and most enigmatic historian of Maratha times, especially that of Shivaji. He is revered throughout Maharashtra as "Shivashahir".
  • Sriman Yogi
  • Joshi, Ajit, Agryahun Sutka, Marathi, Pune: Shivapratap Prakashan (1997)
  • More, Vasantrao, James Laine: A research scholar or a barbarian?, Marathi, Shivsangram Prakashan (2004), Kolhapur
  • Parulekar, Shyamrao, Yashogatha Vijaya durg, Vijay Durg (1982)
  • Jyotirao Phule, Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle Yanche Powade, Marathi, (1869)
  • Sarkar, Jadunath, Shivaji and his times, Calcutta
  • Zakaria, Rafique, Communal Rage in Secular India, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai (2003)
  • Work of D. G. Godse
  • Rajendra Ghorpade Mouni maharaj guru of raje shivaji

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See also

Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... The Bhonsle or Bhonsale were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India . ... The Marathi people or Maharashtrians (Marathi: मराठी माणसं or महाराष्ट्रीय) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, that inhabit the Maharashtra region and state of western India. ... This is a list of people whose names in English are commonly appended with the phrase the Great, or who were called that or an equivalent phrase in their own language. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Maratha king Shivaji Bhonsale The Marāthās is a collective term referring to a group of Hindu, Marathi language speaking castes of warriors and peasants, hailing mostly from the Indian state of Maharashtra. ...

External links

  • Chhatrapathi Shivaji
  • Listen Shivaji's Stories(Powade)
Preceded by
new state
Chhatrapati of the
Maratha Empire

1674 – 1680
Succeeded by
Sambhaji
Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1670-1700 AD) was the younger son of the first Chhatrapati Shivaji, step-brother of the second Chhatrapati Sambhaji, and took over the Maratha Empire as the third Chhatrapati after his brother was tortured and killed by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. ... Tarabai (1675-1761) was a queen of the Maratha Empire in India. ... Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in state of Maharashtra, India). ... Balaji Vishwanath Bhat (1680 – April 2, 1719), better known as Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, was the first of a series of hereditary Peshwas (Marathi for Prime Minister) hailing from the Bhatt family who gained effective control of the Maratha Empire during the eighteenth century. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Combatants Maratha Empire Durrani Empire Commanders Sadashivrao Bhau, Ibrahim Khan Gardi Ahmed Shah Durrani, Najib-ud-Daula, Shuja-ud-Daula Strength 40,000 cavalry, 200 pieces of artillery, 15,000 infantry, 15,000 Pindaris accompanied by 300,000 non-combatants (pilgrims and camp-followers 41,800 cavalry, 120-130 pieces... The First Anglo-Maratha War was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the Great Britain and Maratha Empire in India. ... The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 - 1805) was a second conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India. ... The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 1818) was a final and decisive conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India, which left Britain in control of most of India. ... For Peshwa Balaji Bajirao of Pune, see Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... Shivaji. ... Battle of Pratapgad was a land battle that took place on November 10, 1659 at the fortPratapgarh the city of Satara, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Afzal Khan of Adilshah. ... Battle of Kolhapur was a land battle that took place on December 28, 1659 near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Rustemjaman of Adilshah. ... Battle of Pavankhind was a rear guard battle that took place on July 13, 1660 at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu and Siddi Masud of Adilshah. ... Battle of Surat was a land battle that took place on January 5, 1664 near the city of Surat, Gujarat, India between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the InayatKhan of Mughal. ... Battle of Sinhagad was a night battle that took place on February 4, 1670 in the fort of Sinhhagad,near the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha narvir Tanaji and the Udaybhan of Mughal. ... Battle of Palkhed was a land battle that took place on February 28, 1728 at the village of Palkhed, near the city of Nashik, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha Peshwa, Baji Rao I and the Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad. ... The Battle of Vasai was fought between the Marathas and the Portuguese rulers of Vasai, a village lying near Bombay in the present-day state of Maharashtra, India. ... Combatants Maratha Empire Durrani Empire Commanders Sadashivrao Bhau, Ibrahim Khan Gardi Ahmed Shah Durrani, Najib-ud-Daula, Shuja-ud-Daula Strength 40,000 cavalry, 200 pieces of artillery, 15,000 infantry, 15,000 Pindaris accompanied by 300,000 non-combatants (pilgrims and camp-followers 41,800 cavalry, 120-130 pieces... The Battle of Poona took place on 25 October 1802 near Pune between the rival factions of the Maratha Confederacy. ... Belligerents British East India Company Maratha Empire Commanders General Lake Joe Dimaggio 6th Earl of Sweatervest] General Bourquin Strength 4,500 19,000 Casualties and losses 400 2 The Battle of Delhi took place on September 11, 1803, between 4,500 British troops under General Lake, and 19,000 Marathas... Combatants United Kingdom Maratha Confederacy Commanders Arthur Wellesley Sindhia, Ragojee Bhonsla Strength 4,500 infantry, 2,000 cavalry 50,000 infantry, 100 cannons Casualties 3,657 6,000 The Battle of Assaye occurred September 23, 1803 near the village of Assaye in south-central India. ... The Battle of Farrukhabad took place on November 14, 1803, between a small British force under General Lake, and an army of 60,000 Marathas under Jeswunt Rao Holkar. ... The Battle of Khadki (Kirkee) took place on November 5th 1817 between the forces of the English East India Company and those of Bajirao II the Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy. ... The Battle of Mahidpur was fought during the Third Anglo-Maratha War between the Marathas and the British at Mahidpur, a town in the Malwa region, on December 21, 1817. ... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ... The Bhonsle or Bhonsale were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India . ... Sir Syaji Rao Gaekwad III, Maharaj of Baroda The Gaekwad or Gaikwad (once rendered as Guicowar) (Gujarati: ગાયકવાડ ; Marathi: गायकवाड) was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-eighteenth century until 1947. ... The Sindhia, also spelled Scindia , Sindia, or Shinde are a prominent Maratha family in India. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... See Ahmad Shah Qajar for the Persian ruler (1909-1925). ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... Lohagad (the Iron fort) is one of the many hill forts of Chatrapati Shivaji. ... Pratapgad Fort Pratapgad (also spelt as Pratapgarh, Pratapgadh)is a massive fort located in the Sahyadri mountain range of western Maharashtra, India, 25 kilometres from Mahabaleshwar. ... Raigad was the capital of Shivajis kingdom. ... Sindhudurg fortress Sindhudurg(Marathi सिंधुदुर्ग) is a fortress which occupies an islet in the Arabian Sea, just of the coast of Maharashtra in western India. ... Sinhagad: Sinhagad @ sunrise Sinhagad: View from atop Sinhagad Sinhagad: View from the Pune Darwaja Sinhagad (Lion Fort in Marathi) is a fort located near the city of Pune, India, situated on a hill which rises 800 metres above the surrounding countryside. ...

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