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Encyclopedia > Shiva laser

The Shiva laser was an extremely powerful 20 beam infrared neodymium glass (silica glass) laser built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 1977 for the study of inertial confinement fusion and long-scale-length laser-plasma interactions. It was capable of delivering a ~.5 to 1 nanosecond pulse of approxametly 10.2 kilojoules of infrared light at 1.062 microns (μm) wavelength (thus achieving a peak power of ~20 terawatts) to a target and ultimately achieved fusion fuel compression to densities of about 50 to 100 times liquid hydrogen density. The Shiva laser provided the highest power, highest energy on target and highest fuel compression of any laser up until its sucessor the Nova laser though, due to the fact that it used such a long wavelength of light for target compression (unlike its frequency doubled and frequency tripled sucessors), target compression and heating was hampered by the production of hot (high kinetic energy) electrons which allowed the hydrogen and deuterium ions to remain relatively cool. John Holzrichter, director of the ICF program at the time said: "The laser beam generates a dense plasma where it impinges on the target material. The laser light gives up its energy to the electrons in the plasma, which absorb the light. The rate at which that happens depends on the wavelength and the intensity. On Shiva, we were heating up electrons to incredible energies, but the targets were not performing well. We tried a lot of stuff to coax the electrons to transfer more of their energy to the target, with no success". The Shiva target chamber utilized high-resolution, high-speed optical and x-ray diagnostic instruments for the characterization of the hot, dense plasmas created during implosion. Shiva was decomissioned in 1981. Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... The materials definition of a glass is a uniform amorphous solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous molten material cools very rapidly, thereby not giving enough time for a regular crystal lattice to form. ... Laser (US Air Force) A LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical device which uses a quantum mechanical effect called stimulated emission (discovered by Einstein while researching the photoelectric effect) in order to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. ... This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ... There are several types of compression: physical compression data compression multimedia compression image compression audio compression video compression bandwidth compression audio level compression compression (functional analysis) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Nonlinear optics is the branch of optics that describes the behaviour of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance of one atom in 6500 of hydrogen. ... ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... The word plasma has a Greek root which means to be formed or molded (the word plastic shares this root). ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...

Shiva amplifier chains showing spatial filter tubes (white) and Nd:Glass amplifier structures (short blue tubes closest to camera).
Shiva amplifier chains showing spatial filter tubes (white) and Nd:Glass amplifier structures (short blue tubes closest to camera).
View inside the Shiva target chamber, 1978.
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View inside the Shiva target chamber, 1978.

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See also

Laser (US Air Force) A LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) is an optical device which uses a quantum mechanical effect called stimulated emission (discovered by Einstein while researching the photoelectric effect) in order to generate a coherent beam of light from a lasing medium of controlled purity... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... Inertial confinement fusion using lasers rapidly progressed in the late 1970s and early 1980s from being able to deliver only a few joules of laser energy to a fusion target to being able to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. ... The following is a list of laser types, their operational wavelengths, and their applications. ... Experiments directed toward developing fusion power are invariably done with dedicated machines which can be classified according to the principles they use to confine the plasma fuel and keep it hot. ...

External links

A movie of the Shiva laser system showing beamlines and target chamber


Details of the Shiva laser system and achievements


 
 

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