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Encyclopedia > Shipwreck
Shipwreck of the SS American Star
Shipwreck of the SS American Star
Shipwreck in the Saugatuck River mouth in Westport, Connecticut

A shipwreck or sunken ship can refer to the remains of a wrecked ship or to the event that caused the wreck, such as the striking of something that causes the ship to sink, the stranding of the ship on rocks, land or shoal, or the destruction of the ship at sea by violent weather. Shipwrecked is the past tense of shipwreck. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1322 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: SS America (1940) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1322 KB) Other versions of this file File links The following pages link to this file: SS America (1940) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The SS America was an ocean liner built in 1940 for the United States Lines. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1009x370, 140 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1009x370, 140 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Saugatuck River is a short river in southwestern Connecticut in the United States, approximately 25 mi (40 km) long. ... Location in Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region South Western Region Incorporated 1835 Government  - Type Representative town meeting  - First selectman Gordon F. Joseloff  - Town meeting moderator Alice H. Shelton Area  - City 86. ...

Contents

Types of shipwrecks

Historic shipwrecks are attractive to maritime archaeologists because they preserve historical information; for example, studying the wreck of Mary Rose revealed information about seafaring, warfare and life in the 1500s. Military wrecks that were caused by a skirmish at sea are studied to find details about the historic event and reveal much about the battle that occurred. Discoveries of treasure ships, often from the period of European colonisation, which sunk in remote places, leaving few living witnesses, such as the Batavia, do occur but only very infrequently. Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIIIs navy, completed in 1546 The Mary Rose was an English Tudor warship of the carrack type and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. ... Early 17th century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng Hes ships. ... For the historic phenomenon of colonization and imperialism, see main article colonialism (and also decolonization). ... For other meanings of Batavia see Batavia The Batavia was a ship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), built in 1628 in Amsterdam, which was struck by mutiny and shipwreck during her maiden voyage. ...


Some contemporary wrecks, such as the Prestige or Erica, are of interest primarily because of the potential harm to the environment. Other contemporary wrecks are scuttled in order to spur reef growth, such as Adolphus Busch and the Ocean Freeze. Wrecks like Adolphus Busch and many historic wrecks such as SS Thistlegorm are of interest to recreational divers who enjoy diving shipwrecks because they are often interesting to explore, provide large habitats for many types of marine life and have an interesting history. Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe, March, 2002 The Prestige was an oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large oil spill. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Adolphus Busch Colonel Adolphus Busch (July 10, 1839 – October 10, 1913) was the founder of the Anheuser-Busch. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Adolphus Busch Colonel Adolphus Busch (July 10, 1839 – October 10, 1913) was the founder of the Anheuser-Busch. ... The SS Thistlegorm was British armed Merchant Navy ship built in 1940 by Joseph Thompson & Son in Sunderland, England. ... Recreational diving is a type of diving that uses SCUBA equipment for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment. ...


A very few shipwrecks are famous catastrophes like the wrecks of the Titanic or Estonia. There are also thousands of wrecks that were not lost at sea but have been abandoned or sunk. These are typically smaller vessels such as fishing vessels. These vessels can provide an interesting recreational dive but are usually of little interest to historians. They may pose a hazard to navigation and may be removed by Port authorities. These vessels are sometimes referred to as abandoned or derelicts. RMS Titanic was a British Olympic class passenger liner that became famous for her collision with an iceberg on 14 April 1912 and dramatic sinking on 15 April 1912. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ... For the port authority in the New York City area, see Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. ...


Shipwrecks and the law

Shipwreck law determines important legal questions regarding wrecks, perhaps the most important question being the question of ownership.

MSC Napoli beached off Branscombe
MSC Napoli beached off Branscombe

The British Protection of Wrecks Act, enacted to protect historic wrecks, controls access to wrecks such as Cattewater Wreck which can only be visited or investigated under licence. The British Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 also restricts access to wrecks which are sensitive as war graves. The Protection of Military Remains Act in some cases creates a blanket ban on all diving, for others divers may visit provided they do not touch, interfere with or penetrate the wreck. In the United States waters shipwrecks in state waters are regulated by the Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987. This act is much more lenient in allowing more open access to the shipwrecks. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... MSC Napoli is a United Kingdom-flagged container ship. ... The Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 (1973 c. ... The Cattewater Wreck is a wooden three-masted, skeleton-built vessel. ... The Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 (1986 c. ... A war grave is a place where war dead are buried. ...


Following the beaching of the MSC Napoli, as a result of severe damage incurred during European windstorm Kyrill, there was confusion in the press and by the authorities about whether people could be prevented from helping themselves to the flotsam which was washed up on the beaches at Branscombe. Many people took advantage of the confusion and helped themselves to the cargo. This included many BMW motorbikes [1] and empty wine casks as well as bags of disposable nappies. The legal position under the Merchant Shipping Act 1995 is that any such finds and recovery must be reported within 28 days to the Receiver of Wreck [2]. Failure to do so is an offence under the Merchant Shipping Act and can result in a criminal record for theft by finding [3]. After several days, the police and Receiver of Wreck, in conjunction with the landowner and the contracted salvors established a cordon to prevent access to the beach [4]. A similar situation occurred after the wreck of the MV Cita in 1997. MSC Napoli is a United Kingdom-flagged container ship. ... Kyrill (IPA: ) is the name given to a low pressure area that evolved into an unusually violent European windstorm, forming an extratropical cyclone with hurricane-strength winds. ... Categories: Stub ... Branscombe is a village in the East Devon district of the English county of Devon. ... Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), is an independent German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles. ... The Receiver of Wreck, a post defined under the Merchant Shipping Act 1995 is an official of the British government whose main task is to process incoming reports of wreck in order to: Give legitimate owners the opportunity to retrieve their property Ensure that law-abiding finders of wreck receive... The Receiver of Wreck is an official of the British government whose main task is to process incoming reports of wreck in order to give the legitimate owner the opportunity to retrieve their property ensure that law-abiding finders of wreck receive an appropriate reward This involves researching ownership, liaising... The Receiver of Wreck is an official of the British government whose main task is to process incoming reports of wreck in order to give the legitimate owner the opportunity to retrieve their property ensure that law-abiding finders of wreck receive an appropriate reward This involves researching ownership, liaising... It has been suggested that Treasure hunting (marine) be merged into this article or section. ... On 26 March 1997, Marine Vessel (MV) Cita pierced its hull when running aground on rocks off the south coast of the Isles of Scilly. ...


A very important international Convention aiming at the protection of underwater cultural heritage (including wrecks) is the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.


Salvage of wrecks

Often, attempts are made to salvage recently wrecked ships to recover the whole or part of the ship, its cargo, or its equipment. A good example of this was the salvage of the Kaiserliche Marine High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow in the 1920s. The unauthorised salvage of wrecks is called wrecking. It has been suggested that Treasure hunting (marine) be merged into this article or section. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... It has been suggested that Gutter Sound be merged into this article or section. ... Wrecking is the practice of taking valuables from a ship which has foundered near or close to shore. ...


As a general rule, civilian shipwrecks are considered fair game for salvage; military wrecks, however, remain under the jurisdiction--and hence, protection--of the government that lost the ship, or that government's successor. Hence, a German U-boat from World War II still technically belongs to the German government, even though the Third Reich is long-defunct. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Older wrecks are often protected from pillaging and looting through national laws protecting cultural heritage. Internationally they may be protected by a State ratifying the Unesco Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. In this case pillaging is not allowed. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. ...


Causes

Shipwreck , by Claude Joseph Vernet.
Shipwreck , by Claude Joseph Vernet.

Ships are lost for many reasons, including: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1106x820, 139 KB) Shipwreck , 1759 , Oil on canvas, 96 x 134,5 cm , Groeninge Museum, Bruges Joseph Vernet (1714-1789) File links The following pages link to this file: Shipwreck Claude Joseph Vernet ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1106x820, 139 KB) Shipwreck , 1759 , Oil on canvas, 96 x 134,5 cm , Groeninge Museum, Bruges Joseph Vernet (1714-1789) File links The following pages link to this file: Shipwreck Claude Joseph Vernet ... Joseph Vernet, by Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun. ...

Steamer New York in c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... Mutiny is the act of conspiring to disobey an order that a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) are legally obliged to obey. ... “Saboteur” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... Polish wz. ... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Construction in place of an artificial reef from hollow tile blocks Ship about to be scuttled to act as an Artificial Reef An artificial reef is a man-made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. ... Target practice refers to any exercise (often military) in which projectiles are fired at a specified target, usually to improve the aim of the person or persons firing the weapon. ... Insurance fraud or false insurance claims are insurance claims filed with the intent to defraud an insurance provider. ...

Equipment failure

Failure or leaking of the hull is a serious problem that can lead to the loss of buoyancy and the sinking of the vessel. Even the hulls of large modern ships have cracked in heavy storms. Leaks between the hull planks of wooden vessels is a particular problem. A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical bodys atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ...


Failure of the means of propulsion, such as engines, sails or rigging, can lead to the loss of a ship. When the ship's movement is determined only by currents or the wind and particularly by storms, a common result is that the ship is unable to avoid natural hazards like rocks, shallow water or tidal races. An engine in the broadest sense, is something that produces an output effect from a given input. ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, Netherlands A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical bodys atmosphere, especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ... Tidal race occurs when the movement of water due to the tide is particularly fast in a location. ...


Instability

Instability is caused by the centre of mass of the ship rising above the metacenter resulting in the ship tipping on its side or capsizing. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The metacentric height (GM) is a characteristic of a ship which helps determines its stability in the water. ... A team at the 2005 ISAF Team Racing World Championship narrowly avoids capsizing. ...


This can lead to a sinking if the openings on the upper side of the side are not watertight at the time of the capsise. To remain buoyant, the hull of a vessel must prevent water entering the large air spaces of the vessel (known as downflooding). Clearly for the ship to float, the submerged parts of the hull will be watertight, but the upper parts of the hull must have openings to allow ventilation to compartments, including the engine room, for crew access, and and to load and unload cargo.


Bad weather

Poor weather can cause several problems:

  • wind
  • low visibility
  • cold
    Ivan Aivazovsky's painting shows a handful of survivors clinging to the mast of a sunken ship.
    Ivan Aivazovsky's painting shows a handful of survivors clinging to the mast of a sunken ship.

Wind causes waves which result in other difficulties. Waves make navigation difficult and dangerous near shallow water. Also, waves create buoyancy stresses on the structure of a hull. The weight of breaking waves on the fabric of the ship force the crew to reduce speed or even travel in the same direction as the waves to prevent damage. Also, wind stresses the rigging of sailing ships. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1817 × 1200 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Ninth Wave (1850), by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1817 × 1200 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Ninth Wave (1850), by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Russian: , Armenian: - Hovhannes Aivazovsky July 29, 1817 - May 5, 1900) was a Russian painter of Armenian descent, most famous for his seascapes, which constitute more than half of his paintings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ocean Waves, see I Can Hear the Sea Ocean waves Ocean surface waves are surface waves that occur in the upper layer of the ocean. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The force of the wind pushes ships in the direction of the wind. Vessels with large windage suffer most. Although powered ships are able to resist the force of the wind, sailing vessels have few defences against strong wind. When strong winds are imminent, sailing vessels typically have several choices: Windage is a force created on an object by friction when there is relative movement between air and the object. ...

  • try to position themselves so that they cannot be blown into danger
  • shelter in a harbour
  • anchor behind a sheltering landform

Many losses of sailing ships were caused by sailing, with a following wind, so far into a bay that the ship became trapped upwind of a lee shore, being unable to sail into the wind to leave the bay. A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... A stocked ships anchor. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... In geography, a bay or gulf is a collection of water that is surrounded by land on three sides. ... Lee (red) and windward (green) shores, given wind from due east (blue arrows) The terms lee shore and weather or windward shore describe a stretch of shoreline with respect to the wind direction, and is of particular importance when sailing. ...


Low visibility caused by fog, mist and heavy rain increase the navigator's problems. Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... Dramatic morning mist Mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. ... Rain is a type of precipitation, a product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ...


Cold can cause metal to become brittle and fail more easily. A build-up of ice high on the ship can cause instability. A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ...


Fire

Fire can cause the loss of ships in many ways. The most obvious way would be the loss of a wooden ship which is burned until watertight integrity is compromised. The detonation of cargo or ammunition can cause the breach of a steel hull. Often a large fire causes a ship to be abandoned and left to drift. Should it run aground beyond economic salvage, it becomes a wreck. In certain cases, the use of seawater to extinguish a fire results in loss of buoyancy, as was the case for the liner SS Normandie. The Normandie was a French ocean liner built in Saint-Nazaire France for Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. ...


Navigation errors

Many shipwrecks have occurred when the crew of the ship allowed the ship to collide with rocks, reefs, icebergs, or other ships. Accurate navigation is made more difficult by poor visibility in bad weather. Also, many losses happened before modern navigation aids such as GPS, radar and sonar were available. Until the twentieth century, the most sophisticated navigational tools and techniques available - dead reckoning using the magnetic compass, marine chronometer and ships logbook (which recorded the vessels heading and the speed measured by log) or celestial navigation using marine chronometer and sextant - were sufficiently accurate for journeys across oceans but lacked the precision to avoid reefs close to shore. A reef surrounding an islet. ... Icebergs at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg at Cape York, Greenland Iceberg, Témpanos, Patagonia, Argentina. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... Dead reckoning (DR) is the process of estimating ones current position based upon a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon measured velocity, time, heading, as well as the effect of currents or wind. ... This article is about the navigational tool. ... A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... logbook aboard the frigate Grand Turk A Logbook is a book for recording readings from the log (see also maritime log). ... A chip log is a navigational tool used by mariners to determine speed through the water. ... Celestial Navigation is the 15th episode of The West Wing. ... A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ...


Even today, when highly accurate navigational equipment is readily available and universally used, there is still scope for error. Using the incorrect horizontal datum for the chart of an area may mislead the navigator, especially as many charts have not been updated to use modern data. It is also important for the navigator to appreciate that charts may be significantly in error, especially on less frequented coasts. For example, a recent revision of the map of South Georgia in the South Atlantic showed that previous maps were in some places in error by several kilometres. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Geodetic system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Leo Terram Propriam Protegat(Latin) Let the Lion protect his own land or May the Lion protect his own land Anthem God Save the Queen Capital Grytviken (King Edward Point) Official languages English Government British overseas territory  -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II  -  Commissioner Alan Huckle Area  -  Total 3... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Over the centuries, many technological and organisational developments have been used to reduce accidents at sea including:

Pilotage is the use of fixed visual references on the ground or sea to guide oneself to a destination. ... A HDR image of a traditional lighthouse For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... Red buoy in San Diego Harbor. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... This article is about the navigational tool. ... Portion of chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America. ... A marine chronometer is a timekeeper precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... A log is a device used in navigation to measure the speed of a ship. ... Cutaway of Anschütz gyrocompass The following description refers to the gyrocompasses used on ships. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... Radio navigation is the application of radio frequencies to determining a position on the earth. ... Satellite navigation systems use radio time signals transmitted by satellites to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Small shipyard in Klaksvík (Faroe Islands), reparing fishing vessels Fish ladder and shipyard in Grave, the Netherlands Construction hall of Schichau Seebeck Shipyard, Bremerhaven Gdynia Shipyard Shipyards and dockyards are places which repair and build ships. ... Floodability is a characteristic of the construction of a ship to resist flooding. ... A pump is a mechanical device used to move liquids or gases. ...

State of preservation

The Vasa is one of the oldest and most well-preserved ships salvaged in the world, due to the low salinity of the Baltic Sea
The Vasa is one of the oldest and most well-preserved ships salvaged in the world, due to the low salinity of the Baltic Sea

Many factors determine the state of preservation of a wreck: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 700 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 385 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 700 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Vasa (or Wasa[2]) is a 64-gun warship, built for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden 1626-1628. ...

  • the ship's construction materials
  • the salinity of the water the wreck is in
  • the level of destruction involved in the ship's loss
  • whether the components or cargo of the wreck were salvaged
  • whether the wreck was demolished to clear a navigable channel
  • the depth of water at the wreck site
  • the strength of tidal currents at the wreck site
  • the exposure to surface weather conditions at the wreck site
  • the presence of marine animals that consume the ship's fabric
  • temperature

Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Treasure hunting (marine) be merged into this article or section. ... “Ebb tide” redirects here. ...

Construction materials

Exposed wooden components decay quickly. Often the only wooden parts of ships that remain after a century are those that were buried in silt or sand soon after the sinking. An example of this is the Mary Rose. Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... Silt is soil or rock derived granular material of a specific grain size. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIIIs navy, completed in 1546 The Mary Rose was an English Tudor warship of the carrack type and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. ...


Steel and iron, depending on their thickness, may retain the ship's structure for decades. As corrosion takes place, sometimes helped by tides and weather, the structure collapses. Thick ferrous objects like cannons, steam boilers or the pressure vessel of a submarine often survive well underwater in spite of corrosion. The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Not to be confused with Canon. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled steam and water vapor, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure. ... Steel Pressure Vessel A pressure vessel is a closed, rigid container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure different from the ambient pressure. ... USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...


Propellers, condensers, hinges and port holes were often made from non-ferrous metals such as brass and phosphor bronze, which do not corrode easily. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up condenser in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 3. ...


Salinity of water

Shipwrecks typically decay rapidly when in sea water; shipwrecks in some fresh water lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North America, have remained intact with little degradation. There are two reasons for this. Iron-based metals corrode much more quickly in sea water due to the dissolved salt present; the sodium and chloride ions chemically accelerate the process of metal oxidation which, in the case of ferrous metals, leads to rust. Bacteria found in sea water cause the wood on ships to rot more quickly than in fresh water. In some sea areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, salinity is very low, and centuries-old wrecks have been preserved in reasonable condition. Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... A blacksmith removing rust with sand prior to welding Rust damage in automobiles can create hidden dangers. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ...


Loss, salvage and demolition

An important factor in the condition of the wreck is the level of destruction at the time of the loss or shortly afterwards due to the nature of the loss, salvage or later demolition. It has been suggested that Treasure hunting (marine) be merged into this article or section. ...


Examples of severe destruction at the time of loss are:

  • being blown onto a beach, reef or rocks during a storm
  • collision with another ship
  • destruction in warfare

After the loss the owners of the ship may attempt to recover valuable parts of the ship or its cargo. This can cause damage.


Shipwrecks in shallow water near busy shipping lanes are often demolished to reduce the danger to other vessels.


Depth, tide and weather

Wrecks are slowly broken up by exposure to breaking waves, the weather and the tides. Additionally, wrecks in deeper water suffer more degradation due to higher levels of water pressure.


Temperature

Extreme cold (such as in a glacial-fed lake) can slow degradation of organic ship materials. Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ...


See also

The UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 2 November 2001 (2001 Convention) is an important international treaty aimed at saving the underwater cultural heritage. ... Reearchers investigating the archaeology of shipwrecks need to understand the processes by which a wreck site is formed so that they can allow for the distortions in the archaeological material caused by the filtering and scrambling of material remains that occurs during and after the wrecking process. ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... This list of shipwrecks is of those sunken ships whose remains have been located. ... A disaster is a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property, livelihood or industry, often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystems and environment. ... The Receiver of Wreck is an official of the British government whose main task is to process incoming reports of wreck in order to give the legitimate owner the opportunity to retrieve their property ensure that law-abiding finders of wreck receive an appropriate reward This involves researching ownership, liaising... Banco Chinchorro is a atoll reef near Belize that is one of the worlds premiere shipwreck diving spots. ... It has been suggested that Treasure hunting (marine) be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

Hans Blumenberg, Shipwreck with Spectator: Paradigm of a Metaphor for Existence (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997)


External links

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Shipwrecks

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YOJOE.COM | Shipwreck (153 words)
Shipwreck was first released as part of the fourth series (1985).
Shipwreck came with a silver pistol, a silver hook that was attached by a fl string to a handle, and a green and yellow parrot "Polly".
In India in 1993, Shipwreck was released with slight paint differences and with differently colored accessories.
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