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Encyclopedia > Ship transport

Ship transport is primarily used for the carriage of people and non-perishable goods, generally referred to as cargo. Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Download high resolution version (2048x915, 100 KB)Containership CMA CGM Balzac in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium. ... Download high resolution version (2048x915, 100 KB)Containership CMA CGM Balzac in the port of Zeebrugge Belgium. ... Water transportation is the intentional movement of water over large distances. ... For the steam locomotives, see SR Merchant Navy Class. ... “USMM” redirects here. ... This article is about transported goods. ...


Although the historic importance of sea travel has lost much importance due to the rise of commercial aviation, it is still very effective for short trips and pleasure cruises. Nonetheless, sea transport remains the largest carrier of freight in the world. The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ...


While slower than air transport, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of moving large quantities of non-perishable goods. More than 6 billion tons of cargo were delivered by sea in 2005[citation needed]. In addition to cargo carriage, one can consider scientific voyages and races as forms of ship transport. Transport by water is significantly less costly than transport by air for trans-continental shipping. Look up aviation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ...


Ship transport is often international by nature, but it can be accomplished by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. This is frequently undertaken for purposes of commerce, recreation or military objectives. When a cargo is carried by more than one mode, the transport is termed intermodal. Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Diagram of Sailboat, in this case a typical monohull sloop with a bermuda or marconi rig. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...


Ships have long been used for warfare, with applications from naval supremacy to piracy, invasions and bombardment. Aircraft carriers can be used as bases of a wide variety of military operations. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A naval force has command of the sea when it is so strong that its rivals cannot attack it directly. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire directed against fortifications, troops or towns and buildings. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea...


Ship transport is used for a variety of unpackaged raw materials ranging from chemicals, petroleum products, and bulk cargo such as coal, iron ore, cereals, bauxite, and so forth. So called "general cargo" covers goods that are packaged to some extent in boxes, cases, pallets, barrels, and so forth. Since the 1960s containerization has revolutionized ship transport. A chemical tanker is a type of tanker designed to transport chemicals in bulk. ... Knock Nevis, the largest ship in the world. ... A bulker is a large vessel, often used for non-liquid cargo. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... Bauxite with penny Bauxite with core of unweathered rock Bauxite is an aluminium ore. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ...


History

Main article: Maritime history

The first craft were probably types of canoes cut out from tree trunks. The colonization of Australia by Indigenous Australians provides indirect but conclusive evidence for the latest date for the invention of ocean-going craft; land bridges linked southeast Asia through most of the Malay Archipelago but a strait had to be crossed to arrive at New Guinea, which was then linked to Australia. Ocean-going craft were required for the colonization to happen. Maritime history is a broad thematic element of global history. ... It has been suggested that Canadian canoe be merged into this article or section. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ...


Early sea transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, and often, in earlier times with smaller vessels, a combination of the two. For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ...


Also there have been horse-powered boats, with horses on the deck providing power [1].


Ship transport was frequently used as a mechanism for conducting warfare. Military use of the seas and waterways is covered in greater detail under navy. Look up warfare in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...


In the 1800s the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced using wood or coal. Now most ships have an engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some specialized ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam. // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A paddle steamer, paddleboat, or paddlewheeler is a ship driven by one or more paddle wheels driven by a steam engine. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Pallets made their first major appearance during World War II, when the United States military assembled freight on pallets, allowing fast transfer between warehouses, trucks, trains, ships, and aircraft. Because no freight handling was required, fewer personnel were required and loading times were decreased. A wooden pallet A plastic pallet with nine legs, which can be lifted from all four sides A Pallet can also be a small, hard, or temporary bed (a term heavily used in the southern United States to describe a makeshift bed consisting of a blanket and a pillow on... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Old warehouses in Amsterdam Inside Green Logistics Co. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Flying machine redirects here. ...

A view of Seattle Container Terminal.
A view of Seattle Container Terminal.

While rudimentary freight containers, then known as lift vans, were used in the United States as early as 1911, it was not until the 1950s that containers started to revolutionize freight transportation. One pioneering railway was the White Pass and Yukon Route, who acquired the world's first container ship, the Clifford J. Rogers, built in 1955, and introduced containers to its railway in 1956. Starting in the 1960s the use of containers increased steadily. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 638 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Port of Seattle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 638 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Port of Seattle Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... The White Pass and Yukon Route (WP&Y, WP&YR) (AAR reporting marks WPY) is a narrow gauge railroad linking the port of Skagway, Alaska with Whitehorse, the capital of Canadas Yukon Territory. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Clifford J Rogers may refer to: Clifford Joy Rogers (1897–1962), Governor of Wyoming , the worlds first container ship, operated by the White Pass and Yukon Route railroad Clifford J. Rogers, author writing on military history This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same...


Standards for containers were issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) between 1968 and 1970, ensuring interchangeability between different modes of transportation worldwide. The containers became known as ISO containers for this reason. Either 20 feet or 40 feet, these "boxes" revolutionized not only the means of transport, but the logistic chain from the supplier to the final customer. Road, railway and even air transport adapted to make these boxes a "unit of intermodal transport." Once placed into the container, the goods do not undergo any other handling prior to reaching the destination. What is handled is thus the container and not the contents, eliminating the concept of "breaking bulk." “ISO” redirects here. ...


Containers are specially designed to be easily handled, stored, transported, and give a number of advantages:

  • fewer damages and breakages,
  • less loss and theft,
  • cheaper handling due to more efficiency in loading and discharge

An example of such a major intermodal project was the $740,000,000 Port of Oakland intermodal rail facility begun in the late 1980s.[1][2] The Port of Oakland was the first major port on the Pacific Coast of the United States to build terminals for container ships. ...


More and more, containers are transported aboard specialized integral container ships. The holds are arranged in a system of cells and rails, making it possible to quickly move containers in and out of the hold.


Economies of scale have dictated an upward trend in sizes of container ships in order to reduce costs. One limit on ship size is the "Suezmax" standard, or the largest theoretical ship capable of passing through the Suez Canal, which measures 14,000 TEUs. Such a vessel would displace 137,000 DWT, be 400 meters long, more than 50 meters wide, have a draft of nearly 15 metres, and use more than 85 MW to achieve 25.5 knots, specifications met by the Emma Mærsk. Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Suez Canal fully loaded, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... Emma Mærsk Size comparison of some of the longest ships. ...


Beyond Suezmax lies the "Malaccamax" (for Straits of Malacca) ship of 18,000 TEUs, displacing 200,000 DWT, 470 meters long, 60 meters wide, 16 meters of draft, and using more than 100 MW for 25.5 knots. This is most likely the limit before a major restructuring of world container trade routes.[3] The biggest constraint of this design, the absence of a capable single engine, has been overcome by the MAN B&W K108ME-C. Malaccamax is a naval architecture term for the largest ships capable of fitting through the Straits of Malacca. ... The Straits of Malacca is a narrow stretch of water between Peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... The MAN B&W K108ME-C is a low speed two stroke Diesel Engine Designed by the danish constructor MAN B&W Diesel. ...


The ultimate problem was the absence of a manufacturer capable of producing the propeller needed for transmitting this power, which would be about 10 metres in diameter, and weigh 130 tonnes. One has since been built for the Emma Mærsk. Other constraints, such as time in port and flexibility of service routes are similar to the constraints that eventually limited the growth in size of supertankers. A supertanker is an unofficial nickname that applies to a certain class of tanker ship built to transport very large quantities of liquids; in practice this typically refers to crude oil. ...


As of the new M/V Emma Mærsk container ships can carry up to 12,000 containers, and the total value of cargo per vessel can reach $300 million. The ceaseless transit of these containers (at any given time, between 5 million and 6 million units) entails a great deal of risk. Emma Mærsk Size comparison of some of the longest ships. ...


Merchant shipping

2005 registration of merchant ships (1,000 GRT and over) per country.
2005 registration of merchant ships (1,000 GRT and over) per country.[4]

A nation's merchant fleet comprises the ships that are used to transport cargo during times of peace and war. A country's merchant marine or Merchant Navy is the combination of the fleet with the people who man it. There are a number of terms applied to the people who operate the ships, from merchant sailor to merchant mariner, to simply sailor or mariner. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1363x645, 50 KB) Summary Merchant marine by country, from CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Merchant marine List of merchant marine capacity by country... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1363x645, 50 KB) Summary Merchant marine by country, from CIA factbook Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Merchant marine List of merchant marine capacity by country... For the steam locomotives, see SR Merchant Navy Class. ...


According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook, the world total number of merchant ships of 1,000 Gross Register Tons or over was 30,936. Statistics for individual countries are available at the List of merchant marine capacity by country. The World Factbook 2007 (government edition) cover. ... For ton as a unit of mass, see ton The freight ton or measurement ton is a unit of volume used for describing ship capacities (tonnage) or cargo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ...


Professional mariners

For more details on this topic, see Seafarer's professions and ranks.

Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carry unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. A ship's complement can generally be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, and other. A vessel is, say, like a town in that everything works such that. ...


Deck department

For more details on this topic, see Deck department.
An able seaman stands iceberg lookout on the bow of the freighter USNS Southern Cross during a re-supply mission to McMurdo Station, Antarctica; circa 1981.
An able seaman stands iceberg lookout on the bow of the freighter USNS Southern Cross during a re-supply mission to McMurdo Station, Antarctica; circa 1981.

Officer positions in the deck department include but not limited to: Master and his Chief, Second, and Third officers. The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are Able Seaman and Ordinary Seaman. The deck department is responsible for safely receiving, discharging, and caring for cargo during a voyage. ... Image File history File links Lookout. ... Image File history File links Lookout. ... McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ... The deck department is responsible for safely receiving, discharging, and caring for cargo during a voyage. ... Master Mariner is the official title of someone qualified to command a ship; the qualification is colloquially called a Masters Ticket. The term was introduced in the mid 19th century, and is usually held by the chief officer/first mate as well as the captain). ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Mate (C/M) or Chief Officer is a licensed member and head of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Second Mate (2/M) or Second Officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... The third officer of a merchant vessel. ... This article is about a civilian occupation. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks In the United States Merchant Marine, an Ordinary Seaman or OS is an entry-level position in a ships deck department. ...


A common deck crew for a ship includes:

Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Mate (C/M) or Chief Officer is a licensed member and head of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Second Mate (2/M) or Second Officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... The third officer of a merchant vessel. ... The boatswain on a modern merchant ship supervising cargo operations. ... This article is about a civilian occupation. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks In the United States Merchant Marine, an Ordinary Seaman or OS is an entry-level position in a ships deck department. ...

Engineering department

For more details on this topic, see Engineering department.

A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operate and maintain the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. Marine Engineering staff also deal with the "Hotel" facilities onboard, notably the sewage, lighting, air conditioning and water systems. They deal with bulk fuel transfers, and require training in firefighting and first aid, as well as in dealing with the ship's boats and other nautical tasks- especially with cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. On LPG and LNG tankers however, a cargo engineer works with the deck department during cargo operations, as well as being a watchkeeping engineer. The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... LPG might be an initialism or abbreviation for: Liquified petroleum gas Laboratoire de Planetologie, Grenoble, France Literary Press Group of Canada Landwirtschaftliche Produktionsgenossenschaft (German, obsolete/historical) Long period grating This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled until it becomes liquid, and it is stored in tanks. ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ...


A common Engineering crew for a ship includes:

Many American ships also carry a Qualified Member of the Engine Department. Other possible positions include Motorman, Machinist, Electrician, Refrigration Engineer, and Tankerman. Engine Cadets are trainee engineers who are completing sea time necessary before they can obtain a watchkeeping licence. A Chief Engineer is a licensed mariner in charge of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. ... A First Assistant Engineer (also called the Second Engineer in some countries) is a licensed member of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. ... A Second Assistant Engineer or Third Engineer is a licensed member of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For alternate meanings see Edmonton Oilers and Houston Oilers An oiler is a ship, also called a tanker, that can carry a liquid cargo of petroleum, or a naval support vessel that carries fuel to naval ships at sea, and can transfer the fuel during underway operations. ... A wiper is the most junior crewmember in the engine room of a ship. ... A Qualified Member of the Engineering Department or QMED is a senior unlicensed crewmember in the engine room of a ship. ... A machinist is a craftsman who uses machine tools to make parts or alter parts by cutting away excess material. ... TVA electricians, Tennessee, 1942. ...


Steward's department

For more details on this topic, see Steward's department.

A typical Steward's department for a cargo ship would be composed of a Chief Steward, a Chief Cook, and a Steward's Assistant. All three positions are typically filled by unlicensed personnel. Main article: Ship transport Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, and each of these roles carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. ... Main article: Ship transport Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, and each of these roles carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Steward (often shortened to steward) is the senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards Department of a ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Cook (often shortened to Cook) is a senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Stewards Assistant or SA is an unlicensed, entry-level crewmember in the Stewards Department of a merchant ship. ...


The chief steward directs, instructs, and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals; cleaning and maintaining officers' quarters and steward department areas; and receiving, issuing, and inventorying stores.


On large passenger vessels, the Catering Department is headed by the Chief Purser and managed by assistant pursers. Although they enjoy the benefits of having officer rank, they generally progress through the ranks to become pursers. Under the pursers are the department heads - such as chief cook, head waiter, head barman etc. They are responsible for the administration of their own areas. A ships purser, or just purser is the person on a ship responsible for the handling of money on board. ...


The chief steward also plans menus; compiles supply, overtime, and cost control records. May requisition or purchase stores and equipment. May bake bread, rolls, cakes, pies, and pastries.


A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the Steward's Assistant, the Chief Cook, and other Steward's Department crewmembers. Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Stewards Assistant or SA is an unlicensed, entry-level crewmember in the Stewards Department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Cook (often shortened to Cook) is a senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards department of a merchant ship. ...


In the United States Merchant Marine, in order to be occupied as a chief steward a person has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard. Because of international conventions and agreements, all chief cooks who sail internationally are similarly documented by their respective countries. “USMM” redirects here. ... A United States Merchant Mariners Document (front). ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ...


Other Departments

For more details on this topic, see Seafarer's professions and ranks#Other.

Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including Junior Assistant Purser, Senior Assistant Purser, Purser, Chief Purser, Medical Doctor, Professional Nurse, Marine Physician Assistant, and Hospital Corpsman, are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard. Pilots are also merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard. A vessel is, say, like a town in that everything works such that. ... A ships purser, or just purser is the person on a ship responsible for the handling of money on board. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... This article is about the occupation. ... The HM rating symbol (a caduceus). ... left|Signal flag H(Hotel) - Pilot on Board Boarding is tricky, as both vessels are moving and cannot afford to slow down. ...


Life at sea

The tanker SS Overseas Alice takes seas over the bow during a 1981 run from New Orleans to Panama.
The tanker SS Overseas Alice takes seas over the bow during a 1981 run from New Orleans to Panama.

Mariners live on the margins of society, with much of their life spent beyond the reach of land. They face cramped, stark, noisy, and sometimes dangerous conditions at sea. Yet men and women still go to sea. For some, the attraction is a life unencumbered with the restraints of life ashore. Sea-going adventure and a chance to see the world also appeal to many seafarers. Whatever the calling, those who live and work at sea invariably confront social isolation. Image File history File links Ovrseas_alice. ... Image File history File links Ovrseas_alice. ...


Findings by the Seafarer's International Research Center indicate a leading cause of mariners leaving the industry is "almost invariably because they want to be with their families." U.S. merchant ships typically do not allow family members to accompany seafarers on voyages. Industry experts increasingly recognize isolation, stress, and fatigue as occupational hazards. Advocacy groups such as International Labor Organization, a United Nations agency, and the Nautical Institute are seeking improved international standards for mariners.


Ocean voyages are steeped in routine. Maritime tradition dictates that each day be divided into six four-hour periods. Three groups of watchkeepers from the engine and deck departments work four hours on then have eight hours off watchkeeping. However there are many overtime jobs to be done daily. This cycle repeats endlessly, 24 hours a day while the ship is at sea. Members of the steward department typically are day workers who put in at least eight-hour shifts. Operations at sea, including repairs, safeguarding against piracy, securing cargo, underway replenishment, and other duties provide opportunities for overtime work. One’s service aboard ships typically extends for months at a time, followed by protracted shore leave. However, some seamen secure jobs on ships they like and stay aboard for years. This article is about maritime piracy. ... Underway Replenishment. ...


In rare cases, veteran mariners choose never to go ashore when in port. Further, the often quick turnaround of many modern ships, spending only a matter of hours in port, limits a seafarer's free-time ashore. Moreover, some foreign seamen entering U.S. ports from a watchlist of 25 high-risk countries face restrictions on shore leave due to security concerns in a post 9/11 environment. However, shore leave restrictions while in U.S. ports impact American seamen as well. For example, the International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots notes a trend of U.S. shipping terminal operators restricting seamen from traveling from the ship to the terminal gate. Further, in cases where transit is allowed, special "security fees" are at times assessed. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... The International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots is the marine division of the International Longshoremens Association. ...


Such restrictions on shore leave coupled with reduced time in port by many ships translate into longer periods at sea. Mariners report that extended periods at sea living and working with shipmates who for the most part are strangers takes getting used to. At the same time, there is an opportunity to meet people from a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Recreational opportunities have improved aboard some U.S. ships, which may feature gyms and day rooms for watching movies, swapping sea stories, and other activities. And in some cases, especially tankers, it is made possible for a mariner to be accompanied by members of his family. However, a mariner’s off duty time is largely a solitary affair, pursuing hobbies, reading, writing letters, and sleeping.


On modern ocean going vessels, typically registered with a flag of convenience, life has changed immensely in the last 20 years. Most large vessels include a gym and often a swimming pool for use by the crew. Since the Exxon Valdez Incident, the focus of leisure time activity has shifted from having Officer and Crew bars, to simply having lounge-style areas where officers or crew can sit to watch movies. With many companies now providing TVs and DVD players in cabins, and enforcing strict smoking policies, it is not surprising that the bar is now a much quieter place on most ships. In some instances games consoles are provided for the officers and crew. The officers enjoy a much higher standard of living on board ocean going vessels. Crews are generally poorly paid, poorly qualified and have to complete contracts of approx 9 months before returning home on leave. They often come from countries where the average industrial wage is still very low, such as the Philipines or India. Officers however, come from all over the world and it is not uncommon to mix the nationality of the officers on board ships. Officers are often the recipients of university degrees and have completed vast amounts of training in order to reach their rank. Officers benefit on board by having larger, more comfortable cabins, table service for their meals, etc. Contracts average at the 4 month mark for officers, with generous leave. Most Ocean going vessels now operate an Unmanned Engineroom System allowing engineers to work days only. The engine room is computer controlled by night, although the duty engineer will make inspections during unmanned operation. Engineers work in a hot, humid, noisy atmosphere. Communication in the engineroom is therefore by hand signals and lip-reading, and good teamwork often stands in place of any communication at all. For information on the band Flag of Convenience created by Steve Diggle and John Maher of the Buzzcocks, see http://www. ... This article is about the tank vessel Exxon Valdez. ... The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. ...

  Typical ship transport occupations
←Junior   
Unlicensed   
   Senior→
   Licensed
Deck: Ordinary Seaman Able Seaman BoatswainCarpenter 3rd Mate2nd MateChief Mate CaptainPilot
Engine: WiperOiler QMED Electrician 3rd Engr2nd Engr1st Engr Chief Engineer
Steward: Steward's Assistant Chief Cook Chief Steward Purser  

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A United States Merchant Marine license. ... The deck department is responsible for safely receiving, discharging, and caring for cargo during a voyage. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks In the United States Merchant Marine, an Ordinary Seaman or OS is an entry-level position in a ships deck department. ... This article is about a civilian occupation. ... The boatswain on a modern merchant ship supervising cargo operations. ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ... The third officer of a merchant vessel. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Second Mate (2/M) or Second Officer is a licensed member of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Mate (C/M) or Chief Officer is a licensed member and head of the deck department of a merchant ship. ... Captain Sir Arthur Henry Rostron receiving a loving cup from Margaret Brown for his rescue of RMS Titanic survivors Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks Captain is the traditional customary title given to the person in charge of a ship at sea. ... Signal flag H(hotel) - Pilot on Board Columbia River Bar Pilot Boat Chinook Columbia River Bar Pilots helicopter A pilot is a mariner who guides ships through dangerous or congested waters, such as harbours or river mouths. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... A wiper is the most junior crewmember in the engine room of a ship. ... An oiler is one of the most junior crewmember in the engine room of a ship (senior only to a wiper). ... A Qualified Member of the Engineering Department or QMED is a senior unlicensed crewmember in the engine room of a ship. ... TVA electricians, Tennessee, 1942. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Second Assistant Engineer or Third Engineer is junior to the First Assistant Engineer in the engine department of a merchant vessel and is usually in charge of boilers, fuel, auxiliary engines, condensate and feed systems. ... The First Assistant Engineer or Second Engineer supervises the daily maintenance and operation of the engine department and reports directly to the Chief Engineer. ... A Chief Engineer is a licensed mariner in charge of the engineering department on a merchant vessel. ... Main article: Ship transport Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, and each of these roles carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of a seafaring vessel. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Stewards Assistant or SA is an unlicensed, entry-level crewmember in the Stewards Department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Cook (often shortened to Cook) is a senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards department of a merchant ship. ... Main article: Seafarers professions and ranks A Chief Steward (often shortened to steward) is the senior unlicensed crewmember working in the Stewards Department of a ship. ... A ships purser, or just purser is the person on a ship responsible for the handling of money on board. ...

Merchant Navy/Merchant Marine

Many countries have their own merchant fleets.


British Merchant Navy

For more details on this topic, see British Merchant Navy.
The British Red Ensign.
The British Red Ensign.

The British Merchant Navy or simply Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For the steam locomotives, see SR Merchant Navy Class. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Civil_Ensign_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...


For long periods of the last millennium, the Merchant Navy had the largest merchant fleet in the world, but it has slipped down the rankings. Today, there are 429 ships of 1,000 GRT or over, making a total of 9,181,284 GRT (9,566,275 DWT). These are split into the following types: bulk carrier 18, cargo 55, chemical tanker 48, container 134, liquefied gas 11, passenger 12, passenger/cargo 64, petroleum tanker 40, refrigerated cargo 19, roll on/roll off 25, vehicle carrier 3. There are also 446 ships registered in other countries, and 202 foreign-owned ships registered in the UK. (2005 CIA estimate) THE GRT GROUP The GRT Group is promoted by GR Thangamaligai South Indias leading jewellery house, established in 1964 by Mr. ... THE GRT GROUP The GRT Group is promoted by GR Thangamaligai South Indias leading jewellery house, established in 1964 by Mr. ... In numerical analysis and functional analysis, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) refers to wavelet transforms for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. ...


Canadian Merchant Navy

For more details on this topic, see Canadian Merchant Navy.

Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations created its own Merchant Navy in a large-scale effort in World War Two. The Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the allies merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Eventually thousands of Canadians served in the Merchant Navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ships", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship". A school at St. Margaret's Bay, Nova Scotia trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning Pools", Merchant Navy barracks were built in Canadian ports. Considered a fourth branch of the Canadian military, after the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force, the Canadian Merchant Navy suffered a higher casualty rate of the four services. Sadly, after the war, Canadian Merchant Navy veterans were denied veterans benefits and official recognition for decades. This injustice was not corrected until the 1990s and many individual cases remain unresolved. Source: This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain. ... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ...


Swiss Merchant Marine

For more details on this topic, see Merchant Marine of Switzerland.

Switzerland has a civilian high seas fleet of merchant vessels, whose home port is Basel, in Switzerland. The first ships were purchased and operated by the government in order to ensure the supply of critical resources during World War II. After the war, a privately owned merchant fleet emerged, spurred in part by government subsidies that paid for the fleet's operation up until 1953. Somewhat unusually for a landlocked country, Switzerland has a long tradition of civilian navigation, both on its lakes and rivers, and on the high seas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Merchant Navy. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


As of 2006, 26 ships (mostly container carriers) totalling 479,624 tons, operated by five shipping companies, fly the Swiss flag. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... The flag of Switzerland. ...


United States Merchant Marine

Seal of the US Merchant Marine
Seal of the US Merchant Marine
For more details on this topic, see United States Merchant Marine.

The United States Merchant Marine is made up of the nation's civilian-owned merchant ships and the men and women that crew them. The merchant marine transports cargo and passengers during peace time. In time of war, the merchant marine[5] is an auxiliary to the Navy, and can be called upon to deliver troops and supplies for the military. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “USMM” redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ...


The people of the merchant marine are called merchant mariners, and are civilian except in times of war, when, in accordance with the Merchant Marine Act of 1936 they are considered military personnel. The Merchant Marine Act of 1936 is a United States federal law. ...


As of 2006, the United States merchant fleet numbered 465 ships[6] and approximately 69,000 people. Seven hundred ships owned by American interests but registered, or flagged, in other countries are not included in this number .


Ships and watercraft

Further information: Ship and Merchant ship

Ships and other watercraft are used for ship transport. Various types can be distinguished by propulsion, size or cargo type. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, such as the Everglades, some craft, such as the hovercraft, are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or through) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up size in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Map of the Everglades ecoregion as delineated by the WWF. Satellite image from NASA. The yellow line encloses two ecoregions, the Everglades and the South Florida rocklands. The South Florida rocklands ecoregion includes the Florida Keys and offshore islands and two patches within the Everglades. ... A Hovercraft, or Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV), is an amphibious vehicle or craft, designed to travel over any sufficiently smooth surface - land or water - supported by a cushion of slowly moving, low-pressure air, ejected downwards against the surface close below it. ...


Most modern merchant ships can be placed in one of a few categories, such as:

Bulk carriers are cargo ships used to transport bulk cargo items such as ore or food staples (rice, grain, etc.) and similar cargo. It can be recognized by the large box-like hatches on its deck, designed to slide outboard for loading. A bulk carrier could be either dry or wet. Most lakes are too small to accommodate bulk ships, but a large fleet of lake freighters has been plying the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway of North America for over a century.
Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport. Informally known as "box boats," they carry the majority of the world's dry cargo. Most container ships are propelled by diesel engines, and have crews of between 20 and 40 people. They generally have a large accommodation block at the stern, directly above the engine room.
Tankers are cargo ships for the transport of fluids, such as crude oil, petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas and chemicals, also vegetable oils, wine and other food - the tanker sector comprises one third of the world tonnage.
Reefer ships are cargo ships typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs.
Roll-on/roll-off ships are cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railway carriages. RORO vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances still often have built-in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels.
Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. Their shallow hulls mean that they can get through reefs where sea-going ships usually cannot (sea-going ships have a very deep hull for supplies and trade etc.).
Ferries are a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, but also other forms, carrying (or ferrying) passengers and sometimes their vehicles. Ferries are also used to transport freight (in lorries and sometimes unpowered freight containers) and even railroad cars. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, is sometimes called a waterbus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels.
Cruise ships are passenger ships used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year as of 2006. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets such as the Asia-Pacific region are generally serviced by older tonnage displaced by new ships introduced into the high growth areas.
Cable layer is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. A large superstructure, and one or more spools that feed off the transom distinguish it.
A tugboat is a boat used to manoeuvre, primarily by towing or pushing other vessels (see shipping) in harbours, over the open sea or through rivers and canals. They are also used to tow barges, disabled ships, or other equipment like towboats.
A dredger is a ship used to excavate in shallow seas or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location.
A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Most barges are not self-propelled and need to be moved by tugboats towing or towboats pushing them. Barges on canals (towed by draft animals on an adjacent towpath) contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were outcompeted in the carriage of high value items due to the higher speed, falling costs, and route flexibility of rail transport.

Ships do exist that fall outside these categories, such as Semi-submersible heavy-lift ships. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1649x1080, 527 KB) Summary The Sabrina I photographed from atop the Astoria-Megler Bridge. ... Main article: Merchant ship A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship used to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as cereals, coal, ore, and cement. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... A mini-bulker taking on cargo in Brest. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ... The ill-fated SS Edmund Fitzgerald, built in the classic dual superstructure style with her wheelhouse up near the bow. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Saint Lawrence Seaway in its broadest sense (see Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes as far as Lake Superior. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Resim_057. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... An intermodal train carrying both shipping containers and highway semi-trailers in piggyback service, on flatcars, passes through the Cajon Pass in February, 1995. ... A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design A Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ... Location of a ships engine room In a ship, an engine room is where the main engine(s), generators, compressors, pumps, fuel/lubrication oil purifiers and other major machinery are located. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x436, 79 KB)Caption: 030628-N-6077T-003 Central Command Area of Responsibility (Jun. ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... A vegetable oil or vegoil is an oil extracted from oilseeds or another plant source. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 340 pixel Image in higher resolution (1905 × 810 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) IMO number : 9238703 Name : SALICA FRIGO Flag : Spain Callsign : EBTL Ship type : Refrigerated cargo carrier Gross tonnage : 7207 Keel date : 2001 File links... The reefer is a type of ship typically used to transport perishable commodities which require temperature-controlled transportation, mostly fruits, meat, fish, vegetables, dairy products and other foodstuffs. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Food from plant sources Food is any substance normally eaten or drunk by living organisms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Loading a ro-ro passenger car ferry Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trailers or railroad cars. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... This article is about transported goods. ... Car redirects here. ... Utility trailer A Trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle. ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Feedership with containers at Hamburg, public domain from www. ... Coastal trading vessels, also known as coasters, are shallow-hulled ships used for trade between locations on the same island or continent. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links PrideofRotterdam. ... The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries car ferry on the Dover-Calais route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and possibly their vehicles, on a relatively short-distance, regularly-scheduled service. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... A New York Water Taxi docks at Pier 11 near Wall Street. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 486 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 622 pixel, file size: 583 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... A passenger ship is a ship whose primary function is to carry passengers. ... A cruising sailboat anchored in the San Blas Islands, in Panama. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 756 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cable Layer at the Port of Astoria, Oregon. ... A cable layer is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ... Transom (probably a corruption of Latin transtrum, a thwart, in a boat; equivalents are French traverse, croisillon, German Losholz) is the architectural term given to the horizontal lintel or beam which is framed across a window, dividing it into stages or heights. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A tugboat shown turning a large RORO cargo ship. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... Towing is the process of pulling or drawing behind a chain or line. ... // To push something is to move it by the application of force. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The towboat Angelina pushes a barge in New Orleans. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1632 × 1232 pixel, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dredge_No-4, Bonanza Creek, Dawson, Yukon, Canada Picture taken August 10th, 2005 by Janothird File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia... ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Self propelled barge carrying crushed stone near Wuhan, China. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... A tugboat shown turning a large RORO cargo ship. ... The towboat Angelina pushes a barge in New Orleans. ... A towpath on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal A towpath is a road or track that runs alongside the banks of a river, canal or other inland waterway. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in Britains Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of pack horses were the only means of mass transit by road of raw materials and finished products... “railroads” redirects here. ... MV Mighty Servant 2 carries USS from Dubai to Newport, R.I., in 1988. ...


Ship transport infrastructure

Further information: Port

For a port to efficiently send and receive cargo, it requires some infrastructure. Harbors, seaports and marinas host watercraft, and consist of components such as piers, wharfs, docks and roadsteads. For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... For other uses of this word, see Marina (disambiguation). ... For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ... Metung Wharf on Bancroft Bay, Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia A wharf is a fixed platform, commonly on pilings, roughly parallel to and alongside navigable water, where ships are loaded and unloaded. ... A dock is an area of water between two piers or alongside a pier, forming a chamber used for building or repairing one ship. ... A roadstead is a place outside a harbor where a ship can lie at anchor. ...


A port is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo to and from them. They are usually situated at the edge of an ocean or sea, river, or lake. Ports often have cargo-handling equipment such as cranes (operated by stevedores) and forklifts for use in loading/unloading of ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located very close by. Harbour pilots , barges and tugboats are often used to safely maneuver large ships in tight quarters as they approach and leave the docks. Ports which handle international traffic will have customs facilities. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... This article is about transported goods. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ... Stevedores on a New York dock loading barrels of corn syrup onto a barge on the Hudson River. ... US airman operates forklift at a truck A forklift is a powered industrial truck used to hoist and transport materials by means of steel forks inserted under the load. ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ... Signal flag H(otel) - Pilot on Board A harbour pilot guides ships through the narrow, shallow and dangerous coastal waters between a harbour and the open sea. ... A tugboat shown turning a large RORO cargo ship. ... Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting customs duties and for controlling the flow of animals and goods (including personal effects and hazardous items) in and out of a country. ...


Access to other transport systems, such as rail and truck terminals can contribute to a port's efficiency. Some ports feature canals, allow further movement inland. For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


The presence of deep water in channels or berths, the provision of protection from the wind, waves and storm surges and access to intermodal transportation such as trains or trucks are critical to a good port. A port must also have navigational aids such as lighthouses, buoys and sea marks. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... Look up berth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... A sea lion on navigational buoy #14 in San Diego Harbor Green can #11 near the mouth of the Saugatuck river. ... Red buoy in San Diego Harbor. ...


See also

Nautical Portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... // Governmental Institut des Sciences de la Mer et de lAménagement du Littoral (ISMAL) Governmental Institut Supérieur Maritime (ISM) - WMU Branch Governmental Escuela Nacional de Naútica Manuel Belgrano - WMU Branch Governmental Escuela Nacional de Pesca (National School of Fisheries) Governmental Escuela Nacional Fluvial Governmental University of Tasmania... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... This article is about marine engineering. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... Ship owners can be owners of small personal watercraft such as motor boats or sailboats. ... A shipping line is a business that operates ships that it itself either owns or operates for the benefit of the owner. ... Very Large Flexible Barges (VLFBs), also known as Water Bags or Medusa Bags, are an idea for the transoceanic shipment of high quality drinking water, currently in prototype stage. ... Transshipment is the shipment of goods to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination. ...

References

  1. ^ Initial Study: Intermodal Interface Demonstration Project, Port of Oakland, Oakland, California, Earth Metrics and Korve Engineerning, December 20, 1989
  2. ^ Port of Oakland Official Site: Facts and Figures (2006)
  3. ^ Propulsion Trends in Container Vessels, MAN B&W, 19 January 2005 (accessed 16 November 2005)
  4. ^ Rank Order - Merchant marine. CIA.gov. Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  5. ^ Most English-speaking countries call their fleet the Merchant Navy. Terms similar to Merchant Marine are used in, for example, the French Marine Marchande and the Spanish Marina Mercante.
  6. ^ Ships of 1,000 gross register tons or over. Fleet statistics from the 2006 CIA World Factbook

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the steam locomotives, see SR Merchant Navy Class. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ...

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