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Encyclopedia > Ship pollution

Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. It poses a greater and greater threat to the world’s oceans and waterways as globalization continues. With global trade and populations increasing, marine vessels will produce a greater proportion of pollution. It is expected that, “…shipping traffic to and from the USA is projected to double by 2020.[1] Because of increased traffic in our ports, pollution from these ships also directly affects coastal areas. The pollution produced affects biodiversity, climate, food, and human health. Though, the degree to which humans are polluting and how it affects the world is highly debated and has been a hot international topic for the past 30 years. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A KFC franchise in Kuwait. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... For online phenomenon of shipping, see Shipping (fandom). ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ...

Contents

Sources and Causes

Ships can pollute the waterways and oceans in many ways. There are spills from oil tankers, chemical pollution from chemical tankers, sulphur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide gases from exhaust fumes. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. Ships create noise pollution that disturbs natural wildlife, and water from ballast tanks can spread harmful algae and other invasive species. Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


This section describes how ships pollute the ocean; for the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships of 1973, sometimes abbreviated as Ship Pollution, refer to MARPOL 73/78. Ship Pollution is an abbreviated form of the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973. ...


Ballast Water

When larger vessels such as a container ship or oil tanker unload cargo, sea-water is pumped into compartments in the hull. Similarly, when a larger vessel is being loaded it discharges sea-water from these compartments. The sea water is meant to help stabilize and balance a ship. Ballast discharges from ships are responsible for tar balls in the open oceans and seas, and can cause problems navigating tanker routes. Nevertheless, the discharge of ballast water only accounts for a small percentage of oil pollution in the marine environment.[2] Vessels are a post-rock band from Leeds, UK. Vessels were born from the ashes of A Day Left in September 2005. ... Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ...


Ships are also responsible for transporting harmful organisms in their ballast water. Meinesz[3] believes that one of the worst cases of a single invasive species causing harm to an ecosystem can be attributed to a seemingly harmless jellyfish. Mnemiopsis leidyi, a species of comb jellyfish that inhabits estuaries from the United States to the Valdés peninsula in Argentina along the Atlantic coast, has caused notable damage in the Black Sea. It was first introduced in 1982, and thought to have been transported to the Black Sea in a ship’s ballast water. The population of the jelly fish shot up exponentially and by 1988 was wreaking havoc upon the local fishing industry. “The anchovy catch fell from 204,000 tons in 1984 to 200 tons in 1993; sprat from 24,600 tons in 1984 to 12,000 tons in 1993; horse mackerel from 4,000 tons in 1984 to zero in 1993.”[3] Now that the jellyfish have exhausted the zooplankton, including fish larvae, their numbers have fallen dramatically, yet they continue to maintain a stranglehold on the ecosystem. Recently the jellyfish have been discovered in the Caspian Sea. Invasive species can jeopardize native species ability to obtain food, take over once occupied areas, facilitate the spread of new diseases, introduce new genetic material, and alter landscapes. “On land and in the sea, invasive species are responsible for about 137 billion dollars in lost revenue and management costs in the U.S. each year”.[2] Orders Stauromedusae Coronatae Semaeostomeae Rhizostomae Jellyfish are marine invertebrates belonging to the Scyphozoan class. ... Binomial name Mnemiopsis leidyi A.Agassiz, 1865 Mnemiopsis leidyi is a bioluminescent comb jellyfish of the genus Mnemiopsis. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... {{Taxobox classis = Actinopterygii | ordo = Clupeiformes | familia = Engraulidae | subdivision_ranks = Genera | subdivision = Amazonsprattus Anchoa Anchovia Anchiovella Cetengraulis Coilia Encrasicholina Engraulis Jurengraulis Lycengraulis Lycothrissa Papuengraulis Pterengraulis Setipinna Stolephorus Thryssa }} The anchovies are a family large but uncommon schooling saltwater plankton-feeding fish. ... Sprat is a name given to a number of small, herring-like, marine fish in the family Clupeidae, notably in the genera Clupeonella and Sprattus. ... Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition to introducing non native species into new environments, ballast and bilge discharge from ships can spread human pathogens and other harmful diseases and toxins potentially causing health issues for humans and marine life alike.[4] Discharges into coastal waters along with other sources of marine pollution have the potential to be toxic to marine plants, animals, and microorganisms causing alterations such as changes in growth, disruption of hormone cycles, birth defects, suppression of the immune system, and disorders resulting in cancer, tumors, and genetic abnormalities or even death.[2] They may also have the opposite affect upon some marine life stimulating growth and providing a source of food. Sources of seafood can become contaminated and unhealthy for consumption. Not surprisingly, cholera outbreaks have been attributed to ship operations. “Current research indicates that the bacterium responsible for causing cholera, Vibrio cholerae can spread through attachment to marine organisms in ship ballast water.”[4] Shellfish and drinking water can then be contaminated when the ship discharges its ballast water. The bilge is the compartment at the bottom of the hull of a ship or boat where water collects so that it may be pumped out of the vessel at a later time. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ...


Exhaust Emissions

Exhaust emissions from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution. “Seagoing vessels are responsible for an estimated 14 percent of emissions of nitrogen from fossil fuels and 16 percent of the emissions of sulfur from petroleum uses into the atmosphere.”[2] In Europe ships make up a large percentage of the sulphur introduced to the air, “…as much sulphur as all the cars, lorries and factories in Europe put together.”[5] “By 2010, up to 40% of air pollution over land could come from ships.”[5] Sulphur in the air creates acid rain which damages crops and buildings. When inhaled the sulphur is known to cause respiratory problems and even increase the risk of a heart attack.[5] According to Irene Blooming, a spokeswoman for the European environmental coalition Seas at Risk, the fuel used in oil tankers and container ships is high in sulphur and cheaper to buy compared to the fuel used for domestic land use. “A ship lets out around 50 times more sulphur than a lorry per metric ton of cargo carried.”[5] Cities in the U.S. like Long Beach, Los Angeles, Houston, Galveston, and Pittsburgh see some of the heaviest shipping traffic in the nation and have left local officials desperately trying to clean up the air.[1] Increasing trade between the U.S. and China is helping to increase the number of vessels navigating the Pacific and exacerbating many of the environmental problems. To maintain the level of growth China is currently experiencing, large amounts of grain are being shipped to China by the boat load. The number of voyages are expected to continue increasing.[6] Look up exhaust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... View of Jupiters active atmosphere, including the Great Red Spot. ... A lorry is an expression for a truck an open railroad car with a tipping trough, often found in mines The word originally meant a sort of heavy horsedrawn wagon. ... The term acid rain also known as acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. ... Respiration can refer to: Cellular respiration, which is the use of oxygen in the metabolism of organic molecules. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Houston redirects here. ... Galveston redirects here. ... City nickname: The Steel City Location in the state of Pennsylvania Founded 1758 Mayor Tom Murphy (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 151. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


Oil Spills

Most commonly associated with ship pollution are oil spills. While less frequent than the pollution that occurs from daily operations, oil spills have devastating effects. While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the components in crude oil, are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment.[2] Marine species constantly exposed to PAHs can exhibit developmental problems, susceptibility to disease, and abnormal reproductive cycles. One of the more widely known spills was the Exxon Valdez incident in Alaska. The ship ran aground and dumped a massive amount of oil into the ocean in March of 1989. Despite efforts of scientists, managers, and volunteers over 30,000 seabirds, about 1,000 sea otters, and immense numbers of fish were killed.[2] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article is about the tank vessel Exxon Valdez. ... Official language(s) none Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Seabirds are birds that spend much of their lives, outside the breeding season at least, at sea. ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ...


Cruise Ships

Along with global trade the tourism industry has also seen growth in recent years. The cruise ship industry has seen 8 percent annual growth and continues to increase demand.[2] With some cruise ships holding upwards of 5000 people, passengers and crew combined, these ships are likened to floating cities.[1] “In one week, a typical cruise ship generates 210,000 gallons of black water (sewage), 1,000,000 gallons of gray water (shower, sink, dishwashing water), 37,000 gallons of oily bilge water, more than eight tons of solid waste, millions of gallons of ballast water containing potential invasive species, and toxic wastes from dry cleaning and photo processing laboratories.”[2] This is also compounded with fuel emissions to have detrimental effects on the environment. From 1993 to 1998, cruise ships were involved in 104 confirmed cases of illegal discharge of oil, garbage, and hazardous wastes.[7] One of the worst reported cases was by Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. Over several years, while in U.S. waters, they had been routinely and deliberately dumping waste oil, photo processing, dry cleaning, and print shop chemicals into coastal waters. Their ships were even fitted with concealed piping that would bypass pollution treatment equipment.[7] č “Tourist” redirects here. ... Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... Sewage is the liquid water produced by human society which typically contains washing water, laundry waste, faeces, urine and other liquid or semi-liquid wastes. ... Greywater is wastewater generated by household processes such as washing dishes, laundry and bathing. ... A piece of photographic film that has been exposed to light in a controlled manner must be developed before it can be used. ... U.S. headquarters in Miami, Florida. ... Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water -- generally known as dry cleaning fluid, and typically this is tetrachloroethylene. ... Print Shop is a basic desktop publishing software package developed in the early 1980s by Brøderbund. ...


Regulation

Some of the major international efforts in the form of treaties are the Marine Pollution Treaty, Honolulu, which deals with regulating marine pollution from ships, and the UN Convention on Law of the Sea, which deals with marine species and pollution.[8] While plenty of local and international regulations have been introduced throughout maritime history, much of the current regulations are considered inadequate. “In general, the treaties tend to emphasize the technical features of safety and pollution control measures without going to the root causes of sub-standard shipping, the absence of incentives for compliance and the lack of enforceability of measures.”[9] Cruise ships for example are exempt from regulation under the Clean Water Act of 1972 (CWA) point source permitting system that requires compliance with U.S. federal standards through technological requirements.[2] In the Caribbean, many ports lack proper waste disposal facilities, and many ships dump their waste at sea.[10] A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ... The Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Â§ 1251, et seq. ... Look up point source in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... West Indian redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c Watson, T. (2004, August 30). Ship pollution clouds USA's skies. USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-08-30-ship-pollution_x.htm
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Panetta, L. E. (Chair) (2003). America's living oceans: charting a course for sea change [Electronic Version, CD] Pew Oceans Commission.
  3. ^ a b Meinesz, A. (2003). Deep Sea Invasion. The Impact of Invasive Species. PBS: NOVA. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/algae/impact.html
  4. ^ a b National Research Council, Committee on the Ocean's Role in Human Health, Ocean Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources. (1999). From monsoons to microbes: understanding the ocean's role in human health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press
  5. ^ a b c d Harrabin, R. (2003, June 25). EU faces ship clean-up call. BBC News. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3019686.stm
  6. ^ Schmidt, C., & Olicker, J. (2004, April 20). World in the Balance: China Revs Up [Transcript]. PBS: NOVA. Retrieved November 26, 2006, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/3109_worldbal.html
  7. ^ a b Gerdes, L. I. (Eds.). (2004). Endangered oceans. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press.
  8. ^ Steger, M. B. (2003). Globalization: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press Inc. New York
  9. ^ Khee-Jin Tan, A. (2006). Vessel-source marine pollution: the law and politics of international regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  10. ^ United Nations Environment Programme in collaboration with GEF, the University of Kalmar, and the Municipality of Kalmar, Sweden, & the Governments of Sweden, Finland and Norway. (2006). Challenges to international waters: regional assessments in a global perspective [Electronic Version]. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.giwa.net/publications/finalreport/

See also

External Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Cruise Ship Pollution in the Caribbean/Planeta.com (3650 words)
Cruise ship tourism is proclaimed by the sea trade industry to be a boon, yet for the island nations of the Caribbean Basin, the benefits of the expanding industry may be in opposition with their overall development objectives.
Pollution from heavy coastal development and tourism is also a major contributor to the degradation of water resources and contributes to the destruction of coral reefs--one of the most endangered ecosystems on the earth.
Pollution problems stem from cruise ships and coastal developments are compounded by soil erosion and low water circulation, both of which significantly contribute to coral reef degradation and the loss of marine life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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