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Encyclopedia > Ship money

Ship money was a tax, the levy of which by Charles I of England without the consent of Parliament was one of the causes of the English Civil War. The Plantagenet kings of England had exercised the right of requiring the maritime towns and counties to furnish ships in time of war; and the liability was sometimes commuted for a money payment. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between English Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK...


Notwithstanding that several statutes of Edward I and Edward III had made it illegal for the crown to exact any taxes without the consent of Parliament, the prerogative of levying ship money in time of war had never fallen wholly into abeyance, and in 1619 James I aroused no popular opposition by levying £40,000 of ship money on London and £8550 on other seaport towns. Edward I (June 17, 1239–July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame as the monarch... Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English kings of medieval times. ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... James VI of Scotland and James I of England and Ireland (occasionally known as King James the Vain) (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland. ... The Houses of Parliament and the clock tower containing Big Ben Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The fleet of Charles I during the first three years of his reign was, says Samuel Rawson Gardiner, "largely composed of vessels demanded from the port towns and maritime counties. The idea of universal ship money to be levied in every county in England seemed to him to be merely a further extension of the old principle." Accordingly, in February 1628, Charles issued writs requiring £173,000 to be returned to the exchequer by March 1 for the provision of a fleet to secure the country against French invasion and for the protection of commerce, and every county in England was assessed for payment. Samuel Rawson Gardiner (March 4, 1829 - February 24, 1902) was an English historian. ... Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ...


This was the first occasion when the demand for ship money aroused serious opposition. Lord Northampton, lord-lieutenant of Warwickshire, and the earl of Banbury in Berkshire, refused to assist in collecting the money; and Charles withdrew the writs. It will be seen, then, that the statement of Henry Hallam that in 1634 William Noy, the Attorney-General, unearthed in the Tower of London old records of ship money as a tax disused and forgotten for centuries has no real foundation. It was, it is true, the suggestion of Noy that a further resort should be had to this expedient for raising money when, in 1634, Charles made a secret treaty with Philip IV of Spain to assist him against the Dutch; and Noy set himself to investigate such ancient legal learning as was in existence in support of the demand. Warwickshire (pronounced either /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃə/ or /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃɪə/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... Henry Hallam (July 9, 1777 - January 21, 1859) was an English historian. ... Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... William Noy (1577 - August 9, 1634), was a noted English jurist. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General, is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... For the film with this title, see Tower of London (1939 film) The Tower of London, seen from the river, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... Philip IV of Spain Philip IV (Spanish: Felipe IV) (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was the king of Spain, from 1621 until his death, and king of Portugal as Philip III (Portuguese: Filipe III) until 1640. ...


The king having obtained an opinion in favour of the legality of the writ from Lord Keeper Coventry and the Earl of Manchester, the writ was issued in October 1634 and directed to the justices of London and other sea ports, requiring them to provide a certain number of ships of war of a prescribed tonnage and equipment, or their equivalent in money, and empowering them to assess the inhabitants for payment of the tax according to their substance. The Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, and later of Great Britain was formerly an officer of the English Crown charged with physical custody of the Great Seal of England. ...


The distinctive feature of the writ of 1634 was that it was issued, contrary to all precedent, in time of peace. Charles desired to conceal the true aim of his policy, which he knew would be detested by the country, and he accordingly alleged as a pretext for the impost the danger to commerce from pirates, and the general condition of unrest in Europe.


The citizens of London immediately claimed exemption under their charter, while other towns argued as to the amount of their assessment; but no resistance on constitutional grounds appears to have been offered to the validity of the writ, and a sum of £104,000 was collected.


On August 4, 1635, a second writ of ship money was issued, directed on this occasion, as in the revoked writ of 1628, to the sheriffs and justices of inland as well as of maritime counties and towns, demanding the sum of £208,000, which was to be obtained by assessment on personal as well as real property, payment to be enforced by distress. August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Real property is a legal term encompassing real estate and ownership interests in real estate (immovable property). ...


This demand excited growing popular discontent, which now began to see in it a determination on the part of the king to dispense altogether with parliamentary government. Charles, therefore, obtained a written opinion, signed by ten out of twelve judges consulted, to the effect that in time of national danger, of which the crown was the sole judge, ship money might legally be levied on all parts of the country by writ under the great seal. The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ...


The issue of a third writ of ship money on the 9th of October 1636 made it evident that the ancient restrictions, which limited the levying of the tax to the maritime parts of the kingdom and to times of war or imminent national danger, had been finally swept away, and that the king intended to convert it into a permanent and general form of taxation without parliamentary sanction. The judges again, at Charles's request, gave an opinion favourable to the prerogative, which was read by Coventry in the Star Chamber and by the judges on assize. Events February 24 - King Christian of Denmark gives an order that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island to build ships or as galley rowers March 26 - Utrecht University founded in The Netherlands. ... The Star Chamber was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that began sessions in 1487 and ended them in 1641 when the court itself was abolished. ... The Courts of Assize, or Assizes, is the name of criminal courts in several countries. ...


Payment was, however, refused by Lord Saye and by John Hampden, a wealthy Buckinghamshire landowner. The case against the latter (Rex v. Hampden, 3 State Trials, 825) was heard before all the judges in the Exchequer Chamber, Hampden being defended by Oliver St John. Hampden narrowly lost the case, and ship money continued to be levied, provoking yet more opposition, until, overtaken by events, it was repealed by the Long Parliament. John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book John Hampden (circa 1595—1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before... Map of Bucks (1904) Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a county in South East England. ... The Exchequer was that part of the government responsible for the management and collection of the royal revenues of the King of England. ... John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book John Hampden (circa 1595—1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ...


This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, a publication in the public domain. The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) is the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ship money - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (499 words)
Ship money was a tax, the levy of which by Charles I of England without the consent of Parliament was one of the causes of the English Civil War.
Lord Northampton, lord-lieutenant of Warwickshire, and the earl of Banbury in Berkshire, refused to assist in collecting the money; and Charles withdrew the writs.
Hampden narrowly lost the case, and ship money continued to be levied, provoking yet more opposition, until, overtaken by events, it was repealed by the Long Parliament.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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