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Encyclopedia > Shinto

Shinto (神道 Shintō?) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. It involves the worship of kami (?), spirits. Some kami are local and can be regarded as the spiritual being/spirit or genius of a particular place, but other ones represent major natural objects and processes: for example, Amaterasu, the Sun goddess, or Mount Fuji. Shinto is an animistic belief system. The word Shinto, from the original Chinese Shêntao (神道),[1] combines two kanji: "shin" (?) (loan words usually retain their Chinese pronunciation, hence shin not gami), meaning gods or spirits; and "" (?), meaning a philosophical way or path (originally from the Chinese word dao). As such, Shinto is commonly translated as "The Way of the Gods". Some differences exist between Koshintō (the ancient Shintō) and the many types of Shintō taught and practiced today, showing the influences of Buddhism when it was introduced into Japan in the sixth century.[2] Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... “Megami” redirects here. ... “Megami” redirects here. ... In Roman mythology, every man had a genius and every woman a juno (Juno was also the name for the queen of the gods). ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )  , is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776 m (12,388 ft). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ...

Typical Shinto shrine with paper streamers made out of unprocessed hemp fibre.
Typical Shinto shrine with paper streamers made out of unprocessed hemp fibre.

After World War II, Shinto ceased to be Japan's state religion, although it continued to be considered the native religion of Japan. Some Shinto practices and teachings, once given a great deal of prominence during the war, are no longer taught or practiced today, while others still exist as commonplace activities such as omikuji (a form of fortune-telling) and the Japanese New Year to which few people give religious connotations. Important national ceremonies such as coronations and royal marriages are conducted at the Three Palace Sanctuaries in Tokyo. Download high resolution version (796x675, 564 KB) A Japanese torii at Itsukushima Shrine Taken in August 2004 by Dan Smith. ... Download high resolution version (796x675, 564 KB) A Japanese torii at Itsukushima Shrine Taken in August 2004 by Dan Smith. ... A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form, such as at Kanazawa Station. ... The torii of Itsukushima Shrine, the sites most recognizable landmark, appears to float in the water. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... A Shinto Shrine with shide made out of unprocessed hemp fibre. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tying omikuji at Kasuga Shrine in Nara Omikuji (おみくじ) are random fortunes written on strips of paper at Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples in Japan. ... The kadomatsu is a traditional decoration for the new year holiday. ... The precincts of the Japanese Imperial Palace in Tokyo (Kokyo) include structures known as the Three Palace Sanctuaries or Kyuchusanden (宮中三殿): Kashikodokoro (賢所) enshrining Amaterasu. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Early history

Most scholars agree that there was at least one migration from East Asia and perhaps another from Central Asia to the ancient Japanese Archipelago, though there is no consensus as to where Shinto first developed. Early Shinto can be traced back into the mists of the Jōmon period; the Ainu-jin practice of Ko-shinto is said to directly descend from the original Shinto. Some of the basical elements of modern Shinto have been traced also to the Yayoi period (c.300 BC–c.250 AD) as a cultural product of immigrants from China through the Korean Peninsula, who brought agricultural rites and shamanic ceremonies from the continent, which took on Japanese forms in the new environment. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... Ko-Shinto (or Ko-Shintō )), is the name given to the original Shinto tradition of the Jomon-jin still practiced today in some Ainu families and communities as well as in some Ryukyu-jin areas. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...


In the early centuries BC, diverse kami with no formal hierarchy or dependency between them were worshipped. Early ceremonies are thought to have included rocks forming a sacred space or altar (himorogi). There was no representation of the kami, for they were conceived as formless and pure. Himorogi (神籬) are sacred spaces or altars in Shintō. Himorogi are usually areas demarcated with green bamboo or sakaki at the four corners supporting sacred border ropes (shimenawa). ...


Following the ascendancy of the Yamato Kingdom around the third to fifth centuries, the ancestral deities of the Emperor of Japan and the Imperial family were given prominence over others and a narrative written to explain it. The result was the Record of Ancient Matters (Kojiki, dated 712 AD) in which it was claimed that the imperial line descended directly from the sun-goddess, Amaterasu. Another important kingdom, Izumo, was dealt with in a separate cycle within the mythology and its deities incorporated into the service of Amaterasu's descendants. A more objective and historical version of events appeared in the Chronicles of Japan (Nihon Shoki, dated 720 AD), where alternative versions of the same story are given. For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Kojiki or Furukotofumi (古事記), also known in English as the Records of Ancient Matters, is the oldest surviving historical book recounting events of ancient earth in the Japanese language. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... Izumo can refer to: Izumo, Shimane, a city in Japan. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ...


After the arrival of Buddhism in the first year of the Asuka period (538–710 AD), the idea of building "houses" for the kami arose and shrines were built for the first time. The earliest examples are thought to have been built at Izumo in 659 and at Ise in 690. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... ISE is an abbreviation for: Institute for Shipboard Education, which administers the Semester at Sea program Institute for Social Ecology Integrated Simulation Environment International Standard English International Securities Exchange International Society of Electrochemistry Ion selective electrode Irish Stock Exchange Istanbul Stock Exchange Islamabad Stock Exchange Integrated Services Environment Information Systems...


An important development was the introduction of a legal system based upon Chinese legalism and Confucianism (ritsuryō), in the late seventh and early eighth centuries. This established in law the supremacy of the emperor and great nobles, as well as formalizing their relationship to major shrines and festivals. In Chinese history, Legalism (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fa-chia; literally School of law) was one of the four main philosophic schools in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (Near the end of the Zhou dynasty from about the sixth century BC to about the third... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Ritsuryō (律令) is the historical law system based on the philosophies of Confucianism and Chinese Legalism in Japan. ...


Even before the arrival of Buddhism, the rituals involved in kami worship had borrowed from Chinese Taoism and Confucianism. Though clan rivalry led to friction and fighting during the introduction of Buddhism, the worship of kami and the teachings of the Buddha soon settled into coexistence. In fact, syncretism between Buddhism and Shinto (神仏習合 shinbutsu shūgō?) was supposed to become the dominant feature of Japanese religion as a whole. Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Media:Example. ... Shinbutsu ShÅ«gō ) is the Japanese syncretism of Buddhism and Shinto. ...


Shinto and Buddhism

The introductions of writing in the 5th century and Buddhism in the 6th century from the Korean Peninsula had a profound impact on the development of a unified system of Shinto beliefs. In the early Nara period the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki were written by compiling existing myths and legends into a unified account of Japanese mythology. These accounts were written with two purposes in mind: the introduction of Taoist, Confucian, and Buddhist themes into Japanese religion; and garnering support for the legitimacy of the Imperial house, based on its lineage from the sun goddess, Amaterasu. Much of modern Japan was under only fragmentary control by the Imperial family, and rival ethnic groups (including, perhaps, the ancestors of the Ainu people) continued to war against the encroachment of the Japanese. The mythological anthologies, along with other poetry anthologies like the Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves (Man'yōshū) and others, were intended to impress others with the worthiness of the Imperial family and their divine mandate to rule. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern HonshÅ«, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. ... ManyōshÅ« , Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) is the oldest existing, and most highly revered, collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime in the Nara or early Heian periods. ...


With the introduction of Buddhism and its rapid adoption by the court, it was necessary to explain the apparent differences between native Japanese beliefs and Buddhist teachings. Indeed, Shinto did not have a name until it became necessary to distinguish it from Buddhism. One explanation saw the kami as supernatural beings still caught in the cycle of birth and rebirth (reincarnation). The kami are born, live, die, and are reborn like all other beings in the karmic cycle. However, the kami played a special role in protecting Buddhism and allowing its teachings of compassion to flourish. This explanation was later challenged by Kūkai (空海, 774–835), who saw the kami as different embodiments of the Buddhas themselves. For example, he famously linked Amaterasu (the sun goddess and ancestor of the Imperial family) with Dainichi Nyorai, a central manifestation of the Buddha, whose name is literally "Great Sun Buddha". In his view, the kami were just Buddhas by another name. Painting of KÅ«kai (774-835). ... Categories: Stub | Buddhist philosophical concepts ...


Buddhism and Shinto coexisted and were amalgamated in the shinbutsu shūgō and Kūkai's syncretic view held wide sway up until the end of the Edo period. At that time, there was a renewed interest in "Japanese studies" (kokugaku), perhaps as a result of the closed country policy. In the 18th century, various Japanese scholars, in particular Motoori Norinaga (本居 宣長, 17301801), tried to tease apart the "real" Shinto from various foreign influences. The attempt was largely unsuccessful, since as early as the Nihon Shoki parts of the mythology were explicitly borrowed from Chinese doctrines. For example, the co-creator deities Izanami and Izanagi are linked to yin and yang. However, the attempt did set the stage for the arrival of state Shinto, following the Meiji Restoration (c.1868), when Shinto and Buddhism were separated (shinbutsu bunri). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Kokugaku (国学; lit. ... Motoori Norinaga (Japanese: 本居宣長; 21 June 1730–5 November 1801) was a Japanese philologist and scholar during the Edo period. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... In Japanese mythology, Izanami (Katakana: イザナミ; Kanji: 伊弉冉尊 or 伊邪那美命, meaning She who invites) is a goddess of both creation and death, as well as the former wife of the god Izanagi. ... 天瓊を以て滄海を探るの図. Painting by Eitaku Kobayashi (Meiji period). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy the yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Shinbutsu bunri (神仏分離, lit. ...


State Shinto

Following the Meiji Restoration, Shinto was made the official religion of Japan, and in 1868 its combination with Buddhism was outlawed. During this period, numerous scholars of kokugaku believed that Shinto could be the unifying agent of the country around the Emperor while the process of modernization was undertaken with all possible speed. The psychological shock of the Western "Black Ships" and the subsequent collapse of the shogunate convinced many that the nation needed to unify in order to resist being colonized by outside forces. As a result, Shinto was used as a tool for promoting Emperor (and Empire) worship, and Shinto was exported into the conquered territories of Hokkaidō, Taiwan, and Korea. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Japanese 1854 print describing Commodore Matthew Perrys Black Ships. The Black Ships (in Japanese, 黒船, kurofune) was the name given to Western vessels arriving in Japan between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


In 1871, a Ministry of Divinities was formed and Shinto shrines were divided into twelve levels with the Ise Shrine (dedicated to Amaterasu, and thus symbolic of the legitimacy of the Imperial family) at the peak and small sanctuaries of humble towns at the base. The following year, the ministry was replaced with a new Ministry of Religion, charged with leading instruction in "shushin" (moral courses). This was a major reverse from the Edo period, in which families were registered with Buddhist temples, rather than Shinto shrines. Priests were officially nominated and organized by the state, and they instructed the youth in a form of Shinto theology based on the official history of divinity of Japan's national origins and its Emperor. 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ise Shrine (Ise-jingū 伊勢神宮; alternately Grand Shrines of Ise or Ise Daijingū 伊勢大神宮) is a shrine to Shinto goddess Amaterasu ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture, Japan. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


As time went on, Shinto was increasingly used in the advertising of nationalists' popular sentiments. In 1890, the "Imperial Rescript on Education" was passed, and students were required to ritually recite its oath to "offer yourselves courageously to the State" as well as protect the Imperial family. The practice of Emperor worship was further spread by distributing imperial portraits for esoteric veneration. All of these practices were used to fortify national solidarity through patriotic centralized observance at shrines. This use of Shinto gave to Japanese patriotism a special tint of mysticism and cultural introversion, which became more pronounced as time went on. Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The Imperial Rescript on Education (教育勅語 Kyôiku Chokugo) was signed by Emperor Meiji of Japan on October 30, 1890. ... Patriotism is a feeling of love and devotion to ones own homeland (patria, the land of ones fathers). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Such processes continued to deepen until the Showa period, finally coming to an abrupt halt in August 1945 when Japan lost the war. On 1 January, emperor Showa issued an imperial rescript, sometimes refered as the Ningen-sengen, in which he quoted the Five Charter Oath of his grandfather and announced he was not an akitsumikami. The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ... The Five Charter Oath (五箇条の御誓文, Gokajyo no Goseimon) was an outline of the main aims and the course of action to be followed by the new Meiji era government of Japan after the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1867 during the Meiji Restoration. ...


Types of Shinto

To distinguish between these different focuses of emphasis within Shinto, many feel it is important to separate Shinto into different types of Shinto expression.

  • Shrine Shinto (神社神道 jinja-shintō?) is the oldest and most prevalent of the Shinto types. It has always been a part of Japan's history and constitutes the main current of Shinto tradition.
  • Sect Shinto (宗派神道 shūha-shintō?) is comprised of 13 groups formed during the 19th century. They do not have shrines, but conduct religious activities in meeting halls. Shinto sects include the mountain-worship sects, who focus on worshipping mountains like Mt. Fuji, faith-healing sects, purification sects, Confucian sects, and Revival Shinto sects. Konkōkyō, Tenrikyō, and Kurozumikyō, although operating separately from modern Shinto, are considered to be forms of Sect Shinto.
  • Folk Shinto (民俗神道 minzoku-shintō?) includes the numerous but fragmented folk beliefs in deities and spirits. Practices include divination, spirit possession, and shamanic healing. Some of their practices come from Taoism, Buddhism, or Confucianism, but most come from ancient local traditions.
  • State Shinto (国家神道 kokka-shintō?) was the result of the Meiji Restoration and the downfall of the shogunate. The Meiji restoration attempted to purify Shinto by abolishing many Buddhist and Confucian ideals; also, the Emperor was once again considered divine. After Japan's defeat in World War II, State Shinto was abolished and the Emperor was forced to renounce his divine right.

All these main types of Shinto and some subtypes have given birth to many and diverse schools and sects since medieval times to the present days. A list of the most relevant can be found at the article Shintō Schools and sects. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mount Fuji (富士山 Fuji-san, IPA: [ɸuʝisaɴ]) is the highest mountain on the island of Honshu and indeed in all of Japan. ... Faith healing is the use of supernatural or spiritual intervention to cure disease. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub | Chemistry ... Konkokyo is a relatively new religion of Japanese origin. ... Tenrikyo Headquarters, Tenri Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyō, lit. ... Kurozumikyō (黒住教), literally the Teachings of Kurozumi, is a Japanese New Religion largely derived from Shinto roots and founded in 1846. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Spiritual possession is a concept of many religions and tales, where it is believed that a demon may take temporary control of a human body, resulting in noticeable changes in behaviour. ... Shinto ), the folk religion of Japan developed a diversity of schools and sects, outbranching from the original Ko Shintō (ancient Shintō) since Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth century. ...


Post-war

A modern shrine in Osaka

The era of State Shinto came to an abrupt close with the end of World War II, as a result of the subsequent American occupation and the implementation of secularist ideas in the country's reconstruction. Soon after the war, the Emperor issued a statement renouncing his claims to the status of "living god" (arahitogami). In the aftermath of the war, most Japanese came to believe that the hubris of Empire had led to their downfall. Lust for foreign territory blinded their leaders to the importance of their homeland. In the post-war period, numerous "New Religions" cropped up, many of them ostensibly based on Shinto, but on the whole, Japanese religiosity may have decreased. However, the concept of religion in Japan is a complex one. A survey conducted in the mid 1970s indicated that of those participants who claimed not to believe in religion, one-third had a Buddhist or Shinto altar in their home, and about one quarter carried an omamori (an amulet to gain protection by kami) on their person. Following the war, Shinto has, for the most part, persisted with less importance placed on mythology or the divine mandate of the Imperial family. Instead, shrines tend to focus on helping ordinary people gain better fortunes for themselves through maintaining good relations with their ancestors and other kami. Shinto has largely reverted to its pre-imperial family state. Post-war, the number of Japanese citizens identifying their religious beliefs as Shinto has declined a great deal, yet the general practice of Shinto rituals has not decreased accordingly, and many practices have persisted as general cultural beliefs (such as ancestor worship, which is still very popular), superstitions, and community festivals (matsuri) - focusing more on religious practices and items than principles. The explanation generally given for this anomaly is that, following the demise of State Shinto, Shinto has reverted to its more traditional position as a folk religion which is culturally ingrained, rather than enforced. In any case, Shinto and its values continue to be an important component of the Japanese cultural mindset. Image File history File links Modern_Shinto_Shrine. ... Image File history File links Modern_Shinto_Shrine. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ... Arahitogami (現人神) is a Japanese word, meaning a god who is a human being. ... Hubris or hybris (Greek ), according to its modern usage, is exaggerated self pride or self-confidence (overbearing pride), often resulting in fatal retribution. ... ShinshÅ«kyō ) is a term used in Japan to describe new religious movements. ... Religiosity is a comprehensive sociological term used to refer to the numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... A study-dedicated Omamori. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Stalls selling food or toys are a familiar sight at festivals throughout Japan. ...


Shinto has also spread abroad to a limited extent, and a few non-Japanese Shinto priests have been ordained. The very active Jinja Shinto Shrine exists in the Pacific Northwest, the Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America (the US branch of one of Japan's oldest and most prestigious shrines). Tsubaki America Shrine receives thousands of worshippers each year and has active shrine membership throughout North America and the world. All Seasonal Observances/Festivals are conducted in the traditional way and people can make an appointment to visit for the Go-kitoh (or special prayer ceremonies). A relatively small number of people practice Shinto in America. There are however several Shinto shrines in Hawaii, which has a large number of people of Japanese descent. Outside the US, there are also Shinto shrines in Brazil, Canada, France, and the Netherlands. Shrines were also established in Taiwan and Korea during the Japanese occupation of those areas, but following the war, they were either repurposed or destroyed. Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America (sometimes known as Tsubaki America Jinja) is the first Shinto shrine built in the mainland United States. ... // Daitozan Jinja [1] [2] Daijingu Temple of Hawaii Hawaii Ishizuchi Jinja Hawaii Kotohira Jinsha - Hawaii Dazaifu Tenmangu [3] Hilo Daijingu Izumo Taishakyo Mission of Hawaii Maalea Ebisu Jinja Maui Jinsha Mission Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America [4] Shinto Shinto shrine List of Shinto shrines Categories: | ...


Definition

Shinto can be seen as a form of animism and may be regarded as a variant of shamanist religion. Shinto beliefs and ways of thinking are deep in the subconscious fabric of modern Japanese society. The afterlife is not a primary concern in Shinto; much more emphasis is placed on fitting into this world, instead of preparing for the next. This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ...


Shinto has no binding set of dogma, no holiest place for worshipers, no person or kami deemed holiest, and no defined set of prayers. Instead, Shinto is a collection of rituals and methods meant to mediate the relations of living humans and kami. These practices have originated organically in Japan over many centuries and have been influenced by Japan's contact with the religions of other nations, especially China. Notice, for example, that the word Shinto is itself of Chinese origin and that much of the codification of Shinto mythology was done with the explicit aim of answering Chinese cultural influence. Conversely, Shinto had and continues to have an impact on the practice of other religions within Japan. In particular, one could even make a case for discussing it under the heading of Japanese Buddhism, since these two religions have exercised a profound influence on each other throughout Japanese history. Further, the Japanese "New Religions" that have emerged since the end of the Second World War have also shown a clear Shinto influence. For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Prayer is an effort to communicate with a God, or to some deity or deities, either to offer praise to the deity, to make a request of the deity, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions to the deity. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...


Some feel Shinto was used as an ideology during the militaristic beginning of the Shōwa period, following the Meiji Restoration. Because Shinto has no absolute authority, some feel what was a natural expression of the beliefs of the people was hijacked by radical nationalists, who desired to unify the Japanese people against the "inferior" people in other nations. Others wonder if the emphasis Shinto places on Japanese exceptionalism made such developments inevitable. Even today, some far right factions within Japanese society want to see a greater emphasis placed on Shinto and increased reverence shown to the Emperor as part of a project to restore Japan to its "rightful place" as the leading nation of the world. The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Exceptionalism is the perception that a country, society, institution, movement, or time period is exceptional (ie. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ...


Characteristics

Torii at Itsukushima Shrine
Torii at Itsukushima Shrine

The most immediately striking theme in the Shinto religion is a great love and reverence for Nature in all its forms and for natural artifacts and processes. Thus, a waterfall, the moon, or just an oddly shaped rock might come to be regarded as a kami; so might charismatic persons or more abstract entities like growth and fertility. As time went by, the original nature-worshipping roots of the religion, while never lost entirely, became attenuated and the kami took on more reified and anthropomorphic forms, with a formidable body of myth attached to them. (See also: Japanese mythology.) The kami, however, are not transcendent deities in the usual Western and Indian sense of the word. Although divine, they are close to humanity; they inhabit the same world as we do, make the same mistakes as we do, and feel and think the same way as we do. Those who died will usually become kami, with their power and main characteristics given by their doings in life. Those believing other religions may be also venerated as kami after death, if there are Shinto believers who wish them to be. Torii at Itsukushima Shrine, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Torii at Itsukushima Shrine, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ...


Practices and teachings

Tying her fortune (omikuji) at Kasuga Shrine.
Tying her fortune (omikuji) at Kasuga Shrine.

Kasuga Shrine Shinto Shrine Nara, Nara Nara prefecture Kansai Honshu Japan UNESCO World Heritage Site Fortune-telling Omikuji I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Kasuga Shrine Shinto Shrine Nara, Nara Nara prefecture Kansai Honshu Japan UNESCO World Heritage Site Fortune-telling Omikuji I took this photograph and contribute it to the public domain. ... Kasuga Shrine The Kasuga Shrine (Japanese: 春日大社, Kasuga-taisha) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. ...

Afterlife

Unlike many religions, one does not need to publicly profess belief in Shinto to be a Shintoist. Whenever a child is born in Japan, a local Shinto shrine adds the child's name to a list kept at the shrine and declares him or her a "family child" (氏子 ujiko?). After death an ujiko becomes a "family spirit", or "family kami" (氏神 ujigami?). One may choose to have one's name added to another list when moving and then be listed at both places. Names can be added to the list without consent and regardless of the beliefs of the person added to the list. However, this is not considered an imposition of belief, but a sign of being welcomed by the local kami, with the promise of addition to the pantheon of kami after death. Those children who die before addition to the list are called "water children" (水子 mizuko?), and are believed to cause troubles and plagues. Mizuko are often worshipped in a Shinto shrine dedicated to stilling their anger and sadness. A torii is a gate leading to a jinja. ...


Because Shinto has co-existed with Buddhism for well over a millennium, it is very difficult to untangle Shinto and Buddhist beliefs about the world. Though Buddhism and Shinto have very different perspectives on the world, most Japanese do not see any challenge in reconciling these two very different religions, and practice both. Thus it is common for people to practice Shinto in life yet have a Buddhist funeral. Their different perspectives on the afterlife are seen as complementing each other, and frequently the ritual practice of one will have an origin in the other.


Four affirmations

A man praying at a Shinto shrine.
A man praying at a Shinto shrine.

Though Shinto has no absolute commandments for its adherents outside of living "a simple and harmonious life with nature and people", there are said to be "Four Affirmations" of the Shinto spirit: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (835 × 544 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prayer Shinto Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (835 × 544 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prayer Shinto Metadata This file contains...

  • Tradition and the family: The family is seen as the main mechanism by which traditions are preserved. Their main celebrations relate to birth and marriage.
  • Love of nature: Nature is sacred; to be in contact with nature is to be close to the kami. Natural objects are worshipped as containing sacred spirits.
  • Physical cleanliness: Followers of Shinto take baths, wash their hands, and rinse out their mouths often.
  • "Matsuri": Any festival dedicated to the Kami, of which there are many each year.

For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... Stalls selling food or toys are a familiar sight at festivals throughout Japan. ...

Impurity

Shinto teaches that certain deeds create a kind of ritual impurity that one should want cleansed for one's own peace of mind and good fortune, not because impurity is wrong in and of itself. Wrong deeds are called "dirtiness" (穢れ kegare?), opposed to "purity" (清め kiyome?). Normal days are called "day" (ke), and festive days are called "sunny", or simply, "good" (hare).[3] Killing living beings should be done with reverence for taking a life to continue one's own, and should be kept to a minimum. Modern Japanese continue to place great emphasis on the importance of ritual phrases and greetings (挨拶 aisatsu?). Before eating, many (though not all) Japanese say, "I will humbly receive [this food]" (戴きます itadakimasu?), in order to show proper thankfulness to the preparer of the meal in particular and more generally to all those living things that lost their lives to make the meal. Failure to show proper respect can be seen as a lack of concern for others, looked down on because it is believed to create problems for all. Those who fail to take into account the feelings of other people and kami will only bring ruin on themselves. The worst expression of such an attitude is the taking of another's life for personal advancement or enjoyment. Those killed without being shown gratitude for their sacrifice will hold a grudge (怨み urami?) and become a powerful and evil kami that seeks revenge (aragami). This same emphasis on the need for cooperation and collaboration can be seen throughout Japanese culture today. Additionally, if anyone is injured on the grounds of a shrine, the area affected must be ritually purified. Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. ...


Purification

A bride at a Shinto wedding in Kamakura, Japan.
A bride at a Shinto wedding in Kamakura, Japan.

Purification rites are a vital part of Shinto. These may serve to placate any restive kami, for instance when their shrine had to be relocated. Such ceremonies have also been adapted to modern life. For example, a ceremony was held in 1969 to hallow the Apollo 11 mission to the moon,[4] new buildings made in Japan are frequently blessed by a Shinto priest during the groundbreaking ceremony, and many cars made in Japan have been blessed as part of the assembly process. A more personal purification rite is the purification by water. This may involve standing beneath a waterfall or performing ritual ablutions in a river-mouth or in the sea (misogi). These two forms of purification are often referred to as harae (). A third form of purification is avoidance, that is, the taboo placed on certain persons or acts. For example, women were not allowed to climb Mount Fuji until 1868, in the era of the Meiji Restoration. Although this aspect has decreased in recent years, religious Japanese will not use an inauspicious word like "cut" at a wedding, nor will they attend a wedding if they have recently been bereaved. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Ritual purification is a feature of many religions. ... This article covers the Apollo 11 mission itself. ... Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ritual purification. ... Misogi is a Shinto practice involving purification in a waterfall or other natural running water. ... Harae (祓) is the general term for rituals of purification in Shinto. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Mount Fuji Mount Fuji , IPA: )  , is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776 m (12,388 ft). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...

Gateway to Shinto shrine with torii gate
Gateway to Shinto shrine with torii gate
Shinto shrine in Fujiyoshida
Shinto shrine in Fujiyoshida

Shinto shrine, showing torii gate. ... Shinto shrine, showing torii gate. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Shrines

The principal worship of kami is done at public shrines, although home worship at small private shrines (kamidana) (sometimes only a high shelf with a few ritual objects) is also common. It is also possible to worship objects or people while they are still living. While a few of the public shrines are elaborate structures, most are small buildings in the characteristic Japanese architectural style. Shrines are commonly fronted by a distinctive Japanese gate (torii) made of two uprights and two crossbars. These gates are there as a part of the barrier to separate our living world and the world the kami live in. There are often two guardian animals placed at each side of the gate and they serve to protect the entrance. There are well over 100,000 of these shrines in operation today, each with its retinue of Shinto priests. Shinto priests often wear a ceremonial robe called a jo-e. Kami are invoked at such important ceremonies as weddings and entry into university. The kami are commonly petitioned for earthly benefits: a child, a promotion, a happier life. While one may wish for ill fortune on others, this is believed to be possible only if the target has committed wrongs first, or if one is willing to offer one's life. Though Shinto is popular for these occasions, when it comes to funerals most Japanese turn to Buddhist ceremonies, since the emphasis in Shinto is on this life and not the next. Almost all festivals (matsuri) in Japan are hosted by local Shinto shrines and these festivals are open to all those that wish to attend. While these could be said to be religious events, Japanese do not regard these events as religious since everyone can attend, regardless of personal beliefs. A torii is a gate leading to a jinja. ... Kamidana (神棚 in Japanese), literally meaning kami shelf, is a type of miniature shrine placed or hung high on a wall in Japanese homes. ... A famous floating torii at Itsukushima Shrine Multiple torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto Torii are widespread in Japan, to the extent that modern architecture sometimes emulates their form, such as at Kanazawa Station. ... In Japanese culture, the Jo-e (sometimes written Jôe, and translated from Japanese as pure cloth) is a garment worn by Shinto priests in religious ceremonies. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... Stalls selling food or toys are a familiar sight at festivals throughout Japan. ...


Kami

Shinto teaches that everything contains a kami ("spiritual essence" which is sometimes translated into "god", though perhaps soul or spirit would be more accurate). Every rock, every squirrel, every living and nonliving thing contains a kami. There is also a main kami for groups of things: for example, there is a kami within a rhino, and there is also a main kami residing over all the rhinos of the world.


Shinto's kami are collectively called yaoyorozu no kami (八百万の神), an expression literally meaning "eight million kami," but interpreted as meaning "myriad".


The most widely worshiped of all kami is the sun-goddess Amaterasu. However, Japanese do not specifically worship her or invoke her name to ask for help. Her main shrine is the Grand Shrine of Ise, but many lesser shrines are dedicated to her. Within the shrine, she is often symbolised by a mirror. Alternatively, the inner sanctum may be empty. This emptiness does not mean non-existence; rather, it symbolizes that everything that one sees through the mirror is the embodiment of Amaterasu and every other kami. The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... Ise Shrine (Ise-jingū 伊勢神宮; alternately Grand Shrines of Ise or Ise Daijingū 伊勢大神宮) is a shrine to Shinto goddess Amaterasu ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture, Japan. ...


Until the end of World War II, the Tenno (Emperor) was believed to have been descended from Amaterasu and father of all Japanese, and was therefore a kami on earth (an ikigami or "living kami"); this divine status was popularized during the Meiji Restoration. This did not prevent military governors (Shogun) from usurping power, but the emperor was always seen as the true ruler of Japan, even when his rule was only nominal. Although Emperor Hirohito renounced his divine status in 1946 under American pressure (Ningen-sengen), the imperial family remains deeply involved in the Shinto ritual that unifies the Japanese nation symbolically. Because Shinto does not require a declaration or an enforcement to be worshiped (considered "unharmonious,") this declaration, while serving political reasons, is religiously meaningless and merely means that the state enforcement has ended. His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Shin-Nippon kensetsu ni kan suru shōsho (新日本建設に関する詔書, lit. ...


Ema

Main article: Ema (Shinto)
Ema at Meiji Jingu, a Shinto shrine in Tokyo
Ema at Meiji Jingu, a Shinto shrine in Tokyo

In medieval times, wealthy people would donate horses to shrines, especially when making a request of the god of the shrine (for example, when praying for victory in battle). For smaller favors, giving a picture of a horse became a custom, and these are popular today. The visitor to a shrine purchases a wooden tablet with a likeness of a horse, or nowadays, something else (a snake, an arrow, even a portrait of Thomas Edison), writes a wish or prayer on the tablet, and hangs it at the shrine. In some cases, if the wish comes true, the person hangs another ema at the shrine in gratitude. Ema at Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine in Kamakura. ... Download high resolution version (667x1000, 288 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (667x1000, 288 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... “Edison” redirects here. ...


Kagura

Kagura is the ancient Shinto ritual dance of Shamanic origin. The word "Kagura" is thought to be a contracted form of kami no kura or seat of the kami or the site where the kami is received.(Kobayashi, Kazushige p.3) There is a mythological tale of how Kagura dance came into existence. The sun goddess Amaterasu became very upset at her brother so she hid in a cave. All of the other gods and goddesses were concerned and wanted her to come outside. Ame-no-uzeme began to dance and create a noisy commotion in order to entice Amaterasu to come out. The kami (gods) tricked Amaterasu by telling her there was a better sun goddess in the heavens. Amaterasu came out and light returned to the universe.


Music plays a very important role in the kagura performance. Everything from the setup of the instruments to the most subtle sounds and the arrangement of the music is crucial to encouraging the kami to come down and dance. The songs are used as magical devices to summon the gods and as prayers for blessings. Rhythm patterns of five and seven are common, possibly relating to the Shinto belief of the twelve generations of heavenly and earthly deities. There is also vocal accompaniment called kami uta in which the drummer sings sacred songs to the gods. Often the vocal accompaniment is overshadowed by the drumming and instruments, reinforcing that the vocal aspect of the music is more for incantation rather than aesthetics.(Averbuch, Irit pp.83-87)


In both ancient Japanese collections, the Nihongi and Kojiki, Ame-no-uzeme’s dance is described as asobi, which in old Japanese language means a ceremony that is designed to appease the spirits of the departed, and which was conducted at funeral ceremonies. Therefore, kagura is a rite of tama shizume, of pacifying the spirits of the departed. In the Heian period (8th-12th centuries) this was one of the important rites at the Imperial Court and had found its fixed place in the tama shizume festival on the eleventh month. At this festival people sing as accompaniment to the dance: “Depart! Depart! Be cleansed and go! Be purified and leave!” (Kobayashi, Kazushige pp.4-5)


This rite of purification is also known as chinkon. It was used for securing and strengthening the soul of a dying person. It was closely related to the ritual of tama furi (shaking the spirit), to call back the departed soul of the dead or to energize a weakened spirit. Spirit pacification and rejuvenation were usually achieved by songs and dances, also called asobi. The ritual of chinkon continued to be performed on the emperors of Japan, thought to be descendents of Amaterasu. It is possible that this ritual is connected with the ritual to revive the sun goddess during the low point of the winter solstice. (Averbuch, Irit p.12)


There is a division between the kagura that is performed at the Imperial palace and the shrines related to it, and the kagura that is performed in the countryside. Folk kagura, or kagura from the countryside is divided according to region. The following descriptions relate to sato kagura, kagura that is from the countryside. The main types are: miko kagura, Ise kagura, Izumo kagura, and shishi kagura.


Miko kagura is the oldest type of kagura and is danced by women in Shinto shrines and during folk festivals. The ancient miko were Shamanesses, but are now considered priestesses in the service of the Shinto Shrines. Miko kagura originally was a shamanic trance dance, but later, it became an art and was interpreted as a prayer dance. It is performed in many of the larger Shinto shrines and is characterized by slow, elegant, circular movements, by emphasis on the four directions and by the central use of torimono (objects dancers carry in their hands), especially the fan and bells.(Averbuch, Irit p.15)


Ise kagura is a collective name for rituals that are based upon the yudate (boiling water rites of Shugendo origin) ritual. It includes miko dances as well as dancing of the torimono type. The kami are believed to be present in the pot of boiling water, so the dancers dip their torimono in the water and sprinkle it in the four directions and on the observers for purification and blessing. (Averbuch, Irit, p. 16)


Izumo kagura is centered in the Sada shrine of Izumo, Shimane prefecture. It has two types: torimono ma, unmasked dances that include held objects, and shinno (sacred No), dramatic masked dances based on myths. Izumo kagura appears to be the most popular type of kagura. (Averbuch, Irit, p.16)


Shishi kagura also known as the Shugen-No tradition, uses the dance of a shishi (lion or mountain animal) mask as the image and presence of the deity. It includes the Ise daikagura group and the yamabushi kagura and bangaku groups of the Tohoku area (Northeastern Japan). Ise daikagura employs a large red Chinese type of lion head which can move its ears. The lion head of the yamabushi kagura schools is black and can click its teeth. Unlike other kagura types in which the kami appear only temporarily, during the shishi kagura the kami is constantly present in the shishi head mask. During the Edo period, the lion dances became showy and acrobatic losing its touch with spirituality. However, the yamabushi kagura tradtion has retained its ritualistic and religious nature. (Averbuch, p.16)


Originally, the practice of kagura involved authentic possession by the kami invoked. In modern day Japan it appears to be difficult to find authentic ritual possession, called kamigakari, in kagura dance. However, it is common to see choreographed possession in the dances. Actual possession is not taking place but elements of possession such as losing control and high jumps are applied in the dance.


Cultural effects

Shinto has been called "the religion of Japan", and the customs and values of Shinto are inseparable from those of Japanese culture. Many famously Japanese practices have origins either directly or indirectly rooted in Shinto. For example, it is clear that the Shinto ideal of harmony with nature underlies such typically Japanese arts as flower-arranging (生け花ikebana), traditional Japanese architecture, and garden design. A more explicit link to Shinto is seen in sumo wrestling, where, even in the modern version of the sport, many Shinto-inspired ceremonies must be performed before a bout, such as purifying the wrestling arena by sprinkling it with salt. The Japanese emphasis on proper greetings and respectful phrasings can be seen as a continuation of the ancient Shinto belief in kotodama (words with a magical effect on the world). Many Japanese cultural customs, like using wooden chopsticks and removing shoes before entering a building, have their origin in Shinto beliefs and practices. Also, a number of other Japanese religions, including Tenrikyo, have originated from or been influenced by Shinto. Tenrikyo is a religion of Shinto origin with some Buddhist influence. Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ... Japanese architecture ) has as long a history as any other aspect of Japanese culture. ... This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden Stone lantern amid plants. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Kotodama or kototama are words which east Asian cultures believe to have a magical effect on the world. ... For other uses, see Chopsticks (disambiguation). ... Tenrikyo Headquarters, Tenri Tenrikyo (天理教; Tenrikyō, lit. ...


Shinto Texts

The Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters)
The Rokkokushi (Six National Histories)
The Shoku Nihongi and its Nihon Shoki (Continuing Chronicles of Japan)
The Jinno Shotoki (a study of Shinto and Japanese politics and history) written in the 14th century


Well known shrines

Of the many and diverse Shinto shrines in existence, some are well known: This is a comprehensive list of major Shinto shrines by country. ...

Atsuta Shrine Atsuta Shrine ) is a Japanese Shinto shrine in Atsuta-ku, Nagoya. ... Nagoya Castle Nagoya (名古屋市; -shi) is the fourth largest (third largest metropolitan region) and the third most prosperous city in Japan. ... For other uses, see Kusanagi (disambiguation). ... Categories: Shrines | Stub ... Emperor Kanmu Emperor Kanmu ) (737–806) was the 50th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Emperor Kōmei of Japan Emperor Kōmei ) (July 22, 1831 - January 30, 1867) was the 121st imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Hikawa shrine Hikawa shrine (Japanese: ) in the Omiya district of Saitama is a major Shinto jinja. ... ÅŒmiya ) is a ward of Saitama city. ... Ise Shrine (Ise-jingÅ« 伊勢神宮; alternately Grand Shrines of Ise or Ise DaijingÅ« 伊勢大神宮) is a shrine to Shinto goddess Amaterasu ōmikami, located in the city of Ise in Mie prefecture, Japan. ... The Sun goddess emerging out of a cave, bringing sunlight back to the universe. ... The torii of Itsukushima Shrine, the sites most recognizable landmark, appears to float in the water. ... The headquarters of the government of the prefecture are in this building in the city of Hiroshima. ... The Iwashimizu Hachimangu The Iwashimizu Shrine (or Iwashimizu Hachimangu 石清水八幡宮) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Yawata in Kyoto prefecture, Japan. ... Yawata (八幡市; -shi) is a city located in Kyoto, Japan. ... Izumo Taisha (出雲大社; also Izumo no ÅŒyashiro) is one of the most ancient and important of the Shinto shrines in Japan. ... Kasuga Shrine The Kasuga Shrine (Japanese: 春日大社, Kasuga-taisha) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Nara, in Nara Prefecture, Japan. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... Haiden (prayer hall) ÅŒharae Honden (main hall), important cultural asset Rōmon, important cultural asset The Katori Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Katori, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. ... Chiba Prefecture ) is located in the Greater Tokyo Area of Honshu Island, Japan. ... Wakayama Prefecture ) is part of the Kii Peninsula in the Kinki region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ... The central sanctuary where the Meiji emperor is enshrined. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Nikkō Tōshō-gÅ« (日光東照宮) is a Shinto shrine dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the founder of the Tokugawa line of shoguns in Japan. ... Great Gate, Nikko, circa 1860-1900. ... Tochigi Prefecture (栃木県 Tochigi-ken) is a located in the Kanto region on the island of Honshu, Japan. ... Miyagi Prefecture (宮城県; Miyagi-ken) is located in the Tōhoku Region on Honshu island, Japan. ... This April 2007 does not cite its references or sources. ... Miyagi Prefecture (宮城県; Miyagi-ken) is located in the Tōhoku Region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Miyagi Prefecture (宮城県; Miyagi-ken) is located in the Tōhoku Region on Honshu island, Japan. ... The precincts of the Japanese Imperial Palace in Tokyo (Kokyo) include structures known as the Three Palace Sanctuaries or Kyuchusanden (宮中三殿): Kashikodokoro (賢所) enshrining Amaterasu. ... Panorama of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo Map of the Imperial Palace and surrounding Gardens Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The Tsubaki Grand Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine in Suzuka, Mie Prefecture, Japan. ... Suzuka (鈴鹿市; -shi) is a city located in Mie, Japan, about 50 miles south west of Nagoya. ... Mie Prefecture (三重県; Mie-ken) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... View down the stairs at Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine Tsurugaoka is a shrine in the city of Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Kamakuras location in Japan Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... ÅŒita Prefecture ) is located on KyÅ«shÅ« Island, Japan. ... Torii Gate at Yasukuni Shrine The main building of Yasukuni Shrine Yasukuni Shrine 75th anniversary Stamp (1944) Yasukuni Shrine ) is a Shinto shrine located in Tokyo, Japan, dedicated to the spirits of soldiers and others who died fighting on behalf of the Emperor of Japan. ...

See also

Shinto Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the years, from the countrys original Jomon culture to its contemporary hybrid culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... Japanese Buddhist priest c. ... Japanese mythology is a very complex system of beliefs that embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... A torii is a gate leading to a jinja. ... Libation scene, Greek red figure cup, c. ... Oomoto (大本, literally foundation), also known as Omoto-kyo (大本教) or similar Omoto, is a Japanese religion, often categorized as a new Japanese religion and offshoot of Shinto. ... The primary religions of Japan are Buddhism and Shintoism (the latter is a pagan, animist religion). ... Shinto music is ceremonial music for Shinto (神道) which is the native religion of Japan. ... Touch Pieces are coins and medalets that have attracted superstitious beliefs, such as those with holes in them or those with particular designs. ... Shinto ), the folk religion of Japan developed a diversity of schools and sects, outbranching from the original Ko Shintō (ancient Shintō) since Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth century. ...

References

  • Littleton, C. Scott (2002). Shinto: Origins, Rituals, Festivals, Spirits, Sacred Places. Oxford University Press, Inc. ISBN 0-19-521886-8.
  • Ueda Kenji|Ueda, Kenji (1999). "The Concept of Kami". In John Ross Carter (Ed.), The Religious Heritage of Japan: Foundations for Cross-Cultural Understanding in a Religiously Plural World, pp. 65-72. Book East. ISBN ???.
  • Tsumura, Yukihiko. "Shinto, the U.S.A. and the International Association for Religious Freedom (IARF)", Kami No Michi, 1988, retrieved November 12, 2006.
  • Averbuch, Irit. The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual Dance of Yamabushi Kagura, East Asia Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1995. ISBN 1-885445-67-9
  • Averbuch, Irit, “Shamanic Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance”, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol.57, No.2, 1998, pp.293-329
  • Kobayashi, Kazushige; Knecht, Peter, “On the Meaning of Masked Dances in Kagura”, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol.40, No.1, 1981, pp.1-22
  • Blacker, Dr. Carmen, “Shinto and the Sacred Dimension of Nature”, University of Cambridge, http://www.shinto.org/isri/eng/dr.carmen-e.html
  • Endress, Gerhild, “On the Dramatic Tradition in Kagura: A Study of the Medieval Kehi Songs as Recorded in the Jotokubon”, Asian Folklore Studies, Vol.38, No. 1, 1979, pp.1-23
  • John Bowker (Editor) The Cambridge Illustrated History of Religions Cambridge University Press (10 January 2002). ISBN 978-0521810371
  1. ^ Sokyo, Ono (1962). Shinto the Kami Way. Singapore: Charles E Tuttle Co Inc, 2. ISBN 0-8048-1960-2. 
  2. ^ MacKenzie, Donald A (2005). Myth of China and Japan. London, UK: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1417964291. 
  3. ^ Sugimoto, Yoshio (1997). An Introduction to Japanese Society (Contemporary Japanese Society). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 230-231. ISBN 978-0521427043. 
  4. ^ Kami no Michi, chapter 6.

is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... Major religious groups as a percentage of the world population in 2005 (Encyclopaedia Britannica). ... Abrahamic religions symbols designating the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Abrahamic religion is a term commonly used to designate the three prevalent monotheistic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam[1][2] – which claim Abraham (Hebrew: Avraham אַבְרָהָם ; Arabic: Ibrahim ابراهيم ) as a part of their sacred history. ... 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Jacques Derrida Deconstruction-and-religion -- also known as weak theology and religion without religion -- is a nontheistic mode of thought that proceeds from a theological and deconstructive framework. ... The field of secular theology, a subfield of liberal theology advocated by Anglican bishop John A. T. Robinson somewhat paradoxically combines secularism and theology. ... For a more comprehensive list, see List of religious topics Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that (generally) involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. ... Many Wikipedia articles on religious topics are not yet listed on this page. ... This list of deities aims to give information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... The list of people considered to be deities consists of those notable human beings who were considered deities by themselves or others. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions. ... This List of new religious movements (NRMs), lists groups founded after 1800 that either identify themselves as religious, ethical or spiritual organizations or are generally seen as such by religious scholars, which are independent of older denominations, churches, or religious bodies. ... This list indexes a diverse set of groups and organizations indicated in the popular press and elsewhere as a cult or a sect. Inclusion is based on a single reference: as a cult directly in North American English, a sect in British English or any equivalent foreign-language word; as... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Shinto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4565 words)
In 1871, a Ministry of Divinities was formed and Shinto shrines were divided into twelve levels with the Ise Shrine (dedicated to Amaterasu, and thus symbolic of the legitimacy of the Imperial family) at the peak and small sanctuaries of humble towns at the base.
Shinto teaches that certain deeds create a kind of ritual impurity that one should want cleansed for one's own peace of mind and good fortune, not because impurity is wrong in and of itself.
Shinto has been called "the religion of Japan", and the customs and values of Shinto are inseparable from those of Japanese culture prior to the influx of Chinese religious ideas that occurred in the mid 6th century.
Shinto - MSN Encarta (828 words)
Shinto was rapidly overshadowed by Buddhism, and the native gods were generally regarded as manifestations of Buddha in a previous state of existence.
State Shinto, as the official government cult, theoretically embodied the religious beliefs of the entire Japanese people, and the number of its adherents was counted as the total population of the empire.
Government financial support of State Shinto was eliminated, the former practice of teaching cult doctrines in the schools was abolished, and the use of Shinto symbols for nationalistic purposes was forbidden.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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