FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Shinjitai
Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese
Variant characters
Simplified Chinese
Second-round Simplified Chinese
Kanji
- Kyujitai
- Shinjitai
Hanja
- Gugyeol
- Hyangchal
Chu Nom
- Han Tu
East Asian calligraphy
- Oracle bone script
- Bronzeware script
- Seal script
- Clerical script
- Regular script
- Semi-cursive script
- Cursive script
Input Methods

Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: 新字体; in Kyūjitai: 新字體; meaning "new character form"), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. Some of the new forms found in Shinjitai are also found in Simplified Chinese, but Shinjitai is generally not as extensive in the scope of its modification as Simplified Chinese. 漢字 / 汉字 Chinese character in Hànzì, Kanji, Hanja, Hán Tá»±. Red in Simplified Chinese. ... Traditional Chinese characters are one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Variant Chinese characters are Chinese characters that can be used interchangeably. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refer to one of two standard Chinese character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language, officially simplified by the government of the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... The second round of Chinese character simplification was officially promulgated on December 20, 1977 by the Peoples Republic of China, and replaced the existing (first round) simplified Chinese characters that were already in use. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Kanji (Japanese:  ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (Shinjitai: 旧字体 KyÅ«jitai: 舊字體, meaning old character form) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ... Gugyeol is a system for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean. ... Hyangchal (hangul: 향찰; hanja: 鄕札; revised: hyangchal; McCune-Reischauer: hyangchal) is an archaic writing system used in Korea. ... Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... The art of calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian civilizations that use Chinese characters. ... Oracle bone script (Chinese: 甲骨文; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally shell bone writing) refers to incised (or, rarely, brush-written) ancient Chinese characters found on oracle bones, which are animal bones or turtle shells used in divination in ancient China. ... Bronzeware script (金文 pinyin jin wen or 鐘鼎文 pinyin zhong1 ding3 wen2) is a family of scripts found on Chinese bronzes such as zhong (bells) and ding (tripods), since bronze artifacts with Chinese characters span many centuries and they have been found in many areas of China. ... 《尋隱者不遇》—賈島 松下問童子 言師採藥去 隻在此山中 雲深不知處 Seeking the Master but not Meeting by Jia Dao Beneath a pine I asked a little child. ... The clerical script (traditional Chinese 隷書, simplified Chinese 隶书) is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which, due to its high legibility to modern readers, is still being used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards and advertisements. ... Sheng Jiao Xu by Chu Suiliang: calligraphy of the Kaishu style The Regular Script, or in Chinese Kaishu (楷書 Pinyin: kÇŽishÅ«) and Japanese Kaisho, also commonly known as Standard Regular (正楷), is the newest of the Chinese calligraphy styles (peaked at the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and... Semi-cursive script (Chinese: 行書, Pinyin: XíngshÅ«, Japanese: gyōsho, Korean: haengseo) is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. ... Chinese characters of Cursive Script in regular script (left) and cursive script (right). ... Since the Chinese language uses a logographic script — that is, a script where one or two characters corresponds roughly to one word or meaning — there are vastly more characters, or glyphs, than there are keys on a standard computer keyboard. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Kanji (Japanese:  ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... This article needs cleanup. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ...


Shinjitai were created by simplifying the complicated Kyūjitai (旧字体/舊字體, "old character form", unsimplified Kanji equivalent to the Traditional Chinese characters, also called 正字 seiji, meaning proper/correct characters) through a process (very similar to that of Simplified Chinese) of either replacing the tsukuri () (right-hand part of a Kanji) indicating the On reading with another character of the same On reading with fewer strokes, or replacing a complicated section of a character with a more simplified symbol. Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... The characters for Kanji, lit. ...


There have been a few stages of simplifications made since the 1950s, but there have been no changes made since the promulgation of the Jōyō Kanji List in 1981. // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The jōyō kanji (常用漢字) are the 1,945 kanji issued by the Japanese Ministry of Education on October 10, 1981. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Background

The following forms were established as a result of the postwar character reforms - however, they were not completely created anew, but (like Simplified Chinese) many were based on widely used handwritten abbreviations (Ryakuji, 略字) from the prewar era. This page [1] shows examples of these handwritten abbreviations, identical to their modern Shinjitai forms, from the postwar era. Due to the complexity of Kanji, many abbreviations were used in handwriting, whose status rose to become official characters in the postwar reforms. Attention was paid to the aesthetic balance of the characters in their new form. Ryakuji (Japanese: 略字, or 筆写略字; hissha ryakuji meaning abbreviated characters, latter meaning handwritten abbreviated characters) are colloquial simplifications of Kanji. ...


Kyūjitai: 鐵→Shinjitai: 鉄 (TETSU; iron)


與→与 (On: YO, Kun: ataeru; bestow, impart) The characters for Kanji, lit. ...


學→学 (GAKU, manabu; learn)


體→体 (TAI, karada; body)


臺→台 (TAI; [n.] stand)


國→国 (KOKU, kuni; country)


關→関 (KAN, seki; involve, concerning)


寫→写 (SHA, utsusu; to write or compose)


廣→広 (, hiroi; expansive, wide)


圓→円 (EN; marui; round, circular)


There are other widely used Ryakuji of this sort, such as the abbreviations for 門 (In Simplified Chinese, this abbreviation, 门, has become official) and 第 (which exists in Unicode as [2]), but these have not been included in the Shinjitai reforms. Unlike Simplified Chinese, these simplifications were originally only applied to characters in the Tōyō and Jōyō Kanji Lists, with the Kyūjitai forms remaining the official forms of Hyōgaiji (表外字, characters not included in the Tōyō and Jōyō Kanji Lists). For example, the character 擧 (KYO, agaru, ageru; raise [an example]) was simplified as 挙, but the character 欅 (keyaki; zelkova tree) which also contained 擧, remained unsimplified due to its status as a Hyōgaiji. However, the JIS standards contain numerous simplified forms of Kanji following the model of the Shinjitai simplifications, such as 﨔 (the simplified form of 欅). The Asahi Shimbun newspaper is thorough in its simplification of Hyōgaiji, for example 痙攣 (KEIREN; cramp, spasm, convulsion) is simplified following the model of 經→経 and 戀→恋. This is also said to have been done due to the fact that in the age of typewriter-based printing, more complicated Kanji could not be clearly printed. See the article on Asahi characters for more information. Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Species See text Zelkova is a genus of six species of deciduous trees in the elm family Ulmaceae, native to southern Europe, and southwest and eastern Asia. ... JIS is a three letter acronym that can stand for: Jakarta International School Japanese Industrial Standard Just in Sequence This page concerning a three letter acronym is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Asahi-OSAKA office Asahi is a common name in Japan, for other uses see Asahi. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ... Asahi characters (Japanese: 朝日文字, Asahi moji) are forms of Kanji particular to the Asahi Shimbun newspaper. ...


Methods of simplifying Kanji

Adoption of grass script forms

Cursive script forms of Kanji were adopted as Shinjitai. Examples include: Chinese characters of Cursive Script in regular script (left) and cursive script (right). ...

  • 圖→図
  • 觀→観
  • 示 (religion/ceremony radical) →礻
  • 晝→昼

The aforementioned 门 handwritten simplification also originated from a cursive script form, but is not generally accepted in official Japanese writing.


Standardization and unification of character forms

Characters in which there were two or more variants were standardized under one form. The character 島 (, shima; island) also had the variant forms 嶋 (still seen in proper names) and 嶌, but the 島 form became standard. The 辶 radical was once printed with two dots (as in the Hyōgaiji 逞) but was written with one (as in 道), so the written form with one dot became standard. The character 青 (SEI, SHŌ, aoi; blue) was once printed as 靑 but written as 青, so the written form became standard. The upper ソ portion of the characters 半, 尊, and 平 was once printed as 八 and written ソ (as in these three examples), but the old printed form is still seen in the Hyōgaiji characters 絆 and 鮃.


Change of character indicating On reading

Kanji of the Keisei moji (形声文字) family contain a radical (bushu, 部首) and a character indicating its On reading (onpu, 音符). 清, 晴, 静, 精, 蜻 are all read with the On reading SEI, as indicated by the onpu 青. In this method of simplification, an onpu that is complicated is replaced by a simpler Kanji with the same reading, for example, the character 圍 (I, kakomu; enclose), in which the onpu is 韋 (read as I), is replaced by 井 (also read as i, although this is actually the Kun reading) to become 囲. Other simplifications of this method include 竊→窃, 廰→庁, 擔→担. There are also colloquial handwritten simplifications based on this model, in which various non-kanji symbols are used as onpu, for example 魔 (MA; demon) [simplification: 广+マ {Katakana ma}], 慶 (KEI; jubilation) [广+K] , 藤 (, fuji; wisteria) [艹+ト {Katakana to}], and 機 (KI; machine, opportunity) [木+キ {Katakana ki}]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Removal of complicated portions

Some kanji were simplified by removing entire components. For example,

  • The 倠 portion of 應 was removed to become 応
  • 藝→芸
  • 縣→県
  • 絲→糸
  • 蟲→虫.

Like one of the controversial aspects of Simplified Chinese, some Shinjitai were originally separate characters with different meanings, for example the Shinjitai 芸 (GEI; performance, accomplishment) which was originally a separate character read with the On reading UN. Many of the original characters which have become merged are no longer used in modern Japanese; however, 芸 poses a problem, in that Japan's first public library, Untei (芸亭) (built during the Nara Period) uses this character. This character also has significance in classical Japanese literature and Japanese history books have had to distinguish between the two by writing UN using the old form of the 艹 radical, (十十). However, since the shinjitai simplification is more conservative, and generally based on already-in-use simplifications, these collisions are rare, and shinjitai simplification has generally met with less resistance than Simplified Chinese. The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... Japanese literature spans a period of almost two millennia. ...


See also

Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ...

External links

Look up Shinjitai in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Kanji - Japanese Simplifications
  • The 20th Century Japanese Writing System: Reform and Change by Christopher Seeley

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kanji - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3586 words)
Also, like the simplification process in China, some of the shinjitai were once abbreviated forms (略字 ryakuji) used in handwriting, but in contrast with the "proper" unsimplified characters (正字 seiji) were only acceptable in colloquial contexts.
This page [1] shows examples of these handwritten abbreviations, identical to their modern shinjitai forms, from the postwar era.
Some characters were given simplified glyphs, called 新字体 (shinjitai).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m