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Encyclopedia > Shimano
Shimano, Inc.
Type Public
Founded February, 1921
Headquarters Japan
Key people Yozo Shimano (President)
Yoshizo Shimano (Chairman)
Industry cycling components, fishing tackle, snowboarding equipment
Products Bicycle and Related Components
Revenue undisclosed
Employees 975 (unconsolidated)
7003 (consolidated)
Slogan unknown
Website www.shimano.com

Shimano, Inc. (OTCBB: SHMDF, FWB: SHM) is a Japanese multinational manufacturer of cycling components, fishing tackle, and snowboarding equipment. Image File history File links ShimanoLogo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Snowboarder in a half-pipe Snowboarder riding off cornice Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard that is attached to ones feet using a boot/binding interface. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about work. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (outside) The DAX chart (inside) The Frankfurt Stock Exchange (German: FWB® Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse) is a stock exchange located in Frankfurt, Germany. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Snowboarder in a half-pipe Snowboarder riding off cornice Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard that is attached to ones feet using a boot/binding interface. ...


In 2005, the company had net sales of US$1.4 billion. Bicycle components provided 75 % of its sales income. Fishing tackle produced 23 % of the company's sales income, while other products—including snowboarding equipment and other forged parts—produced about 2 % of its sales income. Shimano produced golf supplies until 2005, when they abandoned the enterprise as unprofitable. This article is about the sport. ...


Headquartered in Sakai, Japan, the company has 32 consolidated subsidiaries and 11 unconsolidated subsidiaries. Its primary manufacturing plants are in Kunshan, Malaysia, and Singapore, while its sales are in Europe (41 % of total sales) and North America (17 %). Sakai (堺市; -shi) is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. ... Kunshan ( 昆山; pinyin: KÅ«nshān; Wade-Giles: Kun-shan) is a county-level city in Jiangsu, China. ...


Shimano is publicly traded and has 102.8 million shares of common stock outstanding.[1]

Contents

Cycling

Shimano products include drivetrain, brake, wheel and pedal components for children, hybrid, road and mountain bikes. These components are generally organised as groupsets intended to be used as a near complete collection of a bicycle's mechanical parts. Road Bikes are light weight and aerodynamic bicycles, for the purpose of maximizing the obtainable speed of the rider. ... A cross country mountain bike race A hardtail mountain bike A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (All Terrain Bicycle)) is a bicycle designed for mountain biking, either on dirt trails or other unpaved environments. ... A groupset is a bicycle component manufacturers organized collection of mechanical parts. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


The components include: crankset comprising cranks and chainrings; bottom bracket; chain; rear gear cogs or cassette; front and rear wheel hubs; gear shift levers; brakes; brake levers; cables; front and rear gear mechanisms or dérailleurs. Shimano Total Integration (STI) is Shimano's integrated shifter and brake lever combination for racing bicycles. A Shimano Deore crankset, drive-side showing crank arm, spider, three chainrings and chainring guard // The crankset, or chainset, is the component of a bicycle drivetrain that converts the reciprocating motion of the riders legs into rotational motion used to drive the chain, which in turn drives the rear... Roller chain and sprocket A bicycle chain is a chain that transfers power from the pedals to the drive-wheel of a bicycle thus propelling it. ... Cog is a term with several meanings: A part of a gear system cog (ship), a small sailing vessel A tenon that extends all the way through another piece of wood, in joinery Cynically Ochlocratic Governments The evil robots in Toontown Online The evil robot drones of the Machine Empire... Linear-pull brake on rear wheel of a mountain bike Bicycle brake systems are used to slow down, or brake a bicycle. ... Derailleur gears are a variable ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles, consisting of a chain, multiple sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one sprocket to another. ... Shimano Total Integration (STI) is a gearshift system designed by Shimano for racing bicycles. ...


The Italian firm Campagnolo is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of road groupsets. SRAM is a competitor as the other major manufacturer of mountain bike groupsets, and in 2006 they introduced two road groupsets which have had increasing success. SRAM and Shimano also compete strongly in the leisure and commuter market, primarily in Europe. Campagnolo Ergopower lever Campagnolo is an Italian manufacturer of bicycle components with headquarters in Vicenza, Italy, historically regarded as one of most prestigious brand names in cycling. ... SRAM Corporation is a privately held bicycle component manufacturer based in Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1987 [1]. The correct pronunciation of SRAM is sram, as indicated on their website FAQ. SRAM is an acronym comprising the names of its founders, Scott, Ray, and Sam, where Ray is the middle name...


When the 1970s United States bike boom exceeded the capacity of the European bicycle component manufacturers, Japanese manufacturers SunTour and Shimano rapidly stepped in to fill the void. While both companies provided products for all price-ranges of the market, SunTour also focused on refinement of existing systems and designs for higher end products, while Shimano initially paid more attention to rethinking the basic systems and bringing out innovations such as Positron shifting (a precursor to index shifting) and front freewheel systems at the low end of the market. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Suntour or SR Suntour is a european manufacturer of bicycle components. ... A twist-style seven-speed indexed shifter made by SRAM A bicycle shifter or gear control is a component used to control the gearing mechanisms and select the desired gear ratio. ... The Shimano front freewheel design was an innovative bicycle drivetrain design of the 1970s. ...


In the 1980s, with Shimano pushing technological innovation and lower prices, the more traditional European component manufacturers lost significant market presence. During this period, in contrast to the near-universal marketing technique of introducing innovations on the expensive side of the marketplace and relying on consumer demand to emulate early adopters along with economy of scale to bring them into the mass market, Shimano and SunTour (to a lesser extent) introduced new technologies at the lowest end of the bicycle market, using lower cost and often heavier and less durable materials and techniques, only moving them further upmarket if they established themselves in the lower market segments. For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Diffusion is the process by which a new idea or new product is accepted by the market. ... ...


In the 1980-1983 period, Shimano introduced two groupsets with "AX" technology. Features of these components include aerodynamic styling, centre-pull brakes, brake levers with concealed cables, and ergonomic pedals.


By 1985 Shimano introduced innovation only at the highest quality level (DuraAce for road bikes and Deore XT for mountain bikes), then trickled the technology down to lower product levels as it became proven and accepted. Innovations include index shifting (known as SIS, Shimano Index Shifting), freehubs, dual-pivot brakes, 8 and then 9 speed dérailleurs, and combined gear and brake levers. Also, these components could only work properly when used with other Shimano components, e.g. its gear rear dérailleurs has to be used with the correct Shimano gear levers, cables, freehub and cassette. A twist-style seven-speed indexed shifter made by SRAM A bicycle shifter or gear control is a component used to control the gearing mechanisms and select the desired gear ratio. ...


Another less successful innovation was the non-circular biopace chainring. SunTour tried to catch up to this technological leap, but by the end of the 1980s SunTour had lost the technological and commercial battle and Shimano had achieved the status as the largest manufacturer of bicycle components in the world. Biopace is a tradename of a type of ovoid bicycle chain ring that was intended to help overcome the dead zone where the crank arms are vertical and riders have little mechanical advantage. ...


Shimano's marketplace domination that developed in the 1990s quickly led to the perception by some critics that Shimano had become a marketplace bully with monopolistic intentions. This viewpoint was based on the fact that Shimano became oriented towards integrating all of their components with each other, with the result being that if any Shimano components were to be used, then the entire bike would need to be built from matching Shimano components. The alternative perspective is that by controlling the mix of components on the bicycle, a manufacturer such as Shimano can control how well their own product functions. Shimano's primary competitors (Campagnolo and SRAM) also make proprietary designs that limit the opportunity to mix and match componentry. In a technology-driven industry such as the bicycle industry, which has not demonstrated a proactive attitude toward standardization throughout its 100+ year history, the market leader will always be criticized as monopolistic when introducing proprietary innovations. Shimano seems to cycle between this "integrated system" approach and more open approaches as it tries to find a balance between the market's desire for innovation and its desire for openness and flexibility.[original research?] For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


For the most recent example, in 2003 Shimano introduced "Dual Control" to mountain bikes, where the gear shift mechanism is integrated into the brake levers. This development was controversial as the use of Dual Control integrated shifting for hydraulic disc brakes required using Shimano hydraulic disc brakes, locking competitors out of the premium end of the market. However with their 2007 product line, Shimano moved back to making separate braking and shifting components fully available in addition to the integrated "Dual Control" components, a move to satisfy riders that wished to use Shimano shifting with other brands of disc brakes.


Shimano introduced the SPD range of clipless pedals and matching shoes, specifically designed so that the shoes could be used for walking. The shoes have a recess in the bottom of the sole for fitting the smaller cleats and therefore it does not protrude, while conventional clipless road pedals are designed for road cycling shoes which have smooth soles with large protruding cleats, which cannot be used for walking. The SPD range, in addition to other off-road refinements, were designed to be used with treaded soles that more closely resemble rugged hiking boots. SPD pedals and shoes soon established themselves as the market standard in this sector, although many other manufacturers have developed alternatives which are arguably less prone to being clogged by mud and/or easier to adjust. However, the SPD dominance in this sector has meant that alternative pedal manufacturers nearly always design their pedals to be usable with Shimano shoes, and likewise mountain bike shoe manufacturers make their shoes "Shimano SPD" compatible. SPD has spawned 2 types of road cleats which are incompatible with standard SPD pedals and some shoes - SPD-R and SPD-SL. SPD-R is a now defunct pedal standard. SPD-SL is basically a copy of the standard Look clipless pedal system. It has a wide, one-sided platform and a triangular cleat that is Look 3-bolt compatible. 1984 The first clipless pedal is invented. ...


Shimano innovations

Shimano have developed many new items, some successful and others not.


Nexus - Computerized automatic transmission, currently featured in Shimano's Coasting group. Nexus is Shimanos name for their internally geared hubs and is also used for the supporting products such as cranksets, shifters, brake levers, hub brakes, hub dynamos and a CPU for automatically changing gears. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Dyna Drive - a pedal system with no pedal axle and with the bearings located in the part of the pedal which screws into the crank. This required an oversized hole in the crank 25mm (1" diameter) to accept the Dyna Drive pedals. The theory behind this was to allow the foot to be lower than the pedal axle for better biomechanics. This system did not catch on, one reason being that the pedal bearings wore out quickly.


Biopace - Biopace chainrings were not circular but slightly elliptical and were developed in the late 1980s, but like Dyna Drive did not catch on. Biopace is a tradename of a type of ovoid bicycle chain ring that was intended to help overcome the dead zone where the crank arms are vertical and riders have little mechanical advantage. ...


Freehub - Shimano introduced a combined rear hub and freewheel in the late 1970s which they named "freehub". But it didn't catch on, as it was incompatible with the then standard separate hub and screw-on freewheel. When a larger number of rear sprockets came to be used, the freehub concept was re-introduced, and is now the dominant rear hub type.


Metric chain - Shimano designed chains with a 10mm pitch instead of the conventional half inch pitch as well as sprockets and chainrings for use with this metric chain. This did not catch on. For a time 10mm pitch chains, sprockets, and chainrings, were used for motor-paced racing, to reduce the size and weight of the transmission system.


Hyperglide - Specially formed rear cogs that allow upshifting under load. Shimano 7-speed cassette showing the Hyperglide teeth profiles In bicycle derailleur systems, a series of ramps, varying gear tooth profiles, and/or pins along the faces of freewheel or cassette sprockets, or between the chainrings in a crankset, to ease shifting between them. ...


STI (the marketing name for the integration of shifting into the brake levers) for road bikes, enabling the rider to shift without taking the hands off the brake levers. This made it possible to shift during uphill passages that require getting out of the saddle, and added general convenience for the rider. Shimano Total Integration (STI) is a gearshift system designed by Shimano for racing bicycles. ...


SLR ("Shimano Linear Response") - Integration of a return spring into the brake lever, pushing the brake cable back when the lever is released. The idea behind this was that the return spring in the actual brake could be designed to be weaker, thus giving an overall feeling of easier operation.


Results in professional cycling

In the 1988 Giro d'Italia, Andy Hampsten rode Shimano to its first Grand Tour victory. Lance Armstrong's 1999 victory in the Tour de France on a Shimano Dura-Ace equipped Trek was the first time Shimano components had been used to win the Maillot Jaune. In 2002, Dura-Ace equipped bikes were ridden to victory in the Tour de France (Lance Armstrong), Giro d'Italia (Paolo Savoldelli), and Vuelta a España (Aitor González), marking the first time Shimano componentry had been used to win all three grand tours. World championships in both the road and time trial disciplines were won on Shimano equipment. The Giro dItalia, also simply known as the Giro, is a long distance road bicycle racing stage race for professional cyclists held over three weeks in May or early June in and around Italy. ... Andrew Hampsten (born April 7, 1962 in Columbus, Ohio) is an American cyclist, best remembered for winning the 1988 Giro dItalia and the prestigious Alpe dHuez stage of the 1992 Tour de France. ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... The Trek Bicycle Corporation is a major American bicycle and component manufacturer. ... Commercial version of maillot jaune, 2004 Maillot jaune (French for yellow jersey, pronounced my-oh zhohn) is the jersey worn by the current overall leader of many bicycle races, originally and most notably the Tour de France. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ... Paolo Savoldelli (born in Clusone, Province of Bergamo, May 7, 1973) is the Italian road racing cyclist for UCI Pro Tour team Discovery Channel and winner of the 2002 and 2005 Giro dItalia. ... The Vuelta a España bicycle race is one of the three Grand Tours of Europe. ... This article describes the Spanish cyclist Aitor Gonzales Aitor González (born February 27, 1975 in Zumárraga, Spain), is an active professional Spanish cyclist. ... In many racing sports an athlete (or occasionally a team of athletes) will compete in a time trial against the clock to secure the fastest time. ...


VIA

Many people believe that "VIA", which is stamped on all Shimano parts, is a form of corporate logo, since it does not appear on Campagnolo parts, for instance. In fact, VIA is an official approval stamp used to certify parts of Japanese vehicles - including bicycles. This mark signifies compliance with certain quality standards, and is similar to the "UL" (Underwriter Laboratories) mark.


Road bicycle groupsets

For 2006, road bicycle groupsets include: A road bicycle is a bicycle designed for use on roads, as opposed to rough terrain. ...

  • Dura-Ace (10 speed)
  • Ultegra SL (new for 2008)
  • Ultegra (10 speed)
  • 105 (10 speed)
  • Tiagra (9 speed with redesigned "10 speed" hood shape for 2007)
  • Sora (8 speed)
  • 2200 (8 speed)

Mountain bike groupsets

Current mountain bike groupsets include: A cross country mountain bike race A hardtail mountain bike A mountain bike or mountain bicycle (abbreviated MTB or ATB (All Terrain Bicycle)) is a bicycle designed for mountain biking, either on dirt trails or other unpaved environments. ...

  • XTR (9 speed) - Top of the range for cross-country mountain bikes
  • Deore XT (9 speed)(new for 2008; shadow)
  • Deore LX (9 speed)
  • Deore (9 speed)
  • Saint (9 speed) - Top of the range for downhill and freeride bikes, and many components are based on the XT groupset
  • Hone (9 speed) - Cheaper downhill/freeride specific groupset, similar to the LX groupset
  • Alivio (8 speed)
  • Acera (8 speed)
  • Altus (8 speed)
  • Tourney (7 speed) - Includes several different levels of quality, and can be found on department-store bicycles

Note: Saint and Hone are Shimano's only downhill specific groups. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Duguid Jumping at a professional Freeride contest in Seattle, Washington. ...


Other groupsets

Other current groupsets include:

  • Caprio - This is a groupset designed for small wheeled bikes such as folders and features a cassette with a 9-tooth sprocket
  • Nexave - This consists of several sub-groupsets designed for comfort and commuting bikes some of which feature internal hub gears and roller brakes.

External links

References

  1. ^ Shimano Annual Report, 2005 (English)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sheldon Brown's Shimano Bicycle Parts Page (1756 words)
Shimano was not the first with a cassette hub, but they did pioneer the placement of the right-side axle bearing outboard of the freewheel mechanism, which virtually eliminated the problem of bent axles, and made possible reliable hubs with 8- and 9-sprocket clusters.
Shimano went back to the drawing board, and the next time they tried indexed shifting, in 1984, they started at the top of the line, with Dura-Ace S.I.S. Cyclists were initially dubious about this feature, but it worked so well that most resistance was overcome.
This is Shimano's trademark for "low-normal" rear derailers.
Shimano Dura-Ace Compatibility (2617 words)
All Shimano rear derailers (except for pre-1997 Dura-Ace) index the same, and are equally compatible with different shifters that match the cassette to be used.
Shimano was concerned about the potential for the chain to "skate" over the teeth of the small chainring.
Unfortunately, the way Shimano chose to do this is rather wrong-headed and retrograde, resulting in a crankset that is even less versatile than their 130/74 "road" triples in the Ultegra, 105, Tiagra and Sora lines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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