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Encyclopedia > Shield volcano
Shield volcano
Shield volcano

A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallow-sloping sides. The name derives from a translation of "Skjaldbreiður", an Icelandic shield volcano whose name means "broad shield," from its resemblance to a warrior's shield. Shield volcanoes are formed by lava flows of low viscosity — lava that flows easily. Consequently, a volcanic mountain having a broad profile is built up over time by a flow after flow of relatively fluid basaltic lava issuing from vents or fissures on the surface of the volcano. Many of the largest volcanoes on Earth are shield volcanoes. The largest in terms of area covered is Mauna Loa of Hawaii; the tallest measured from its base under the ocean, however, is Mauna Kea of Hawaii. All the volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands are shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes can be so large that they are sometimes considered to be a mountain range, such as the Ilgachuz Range and the Rainbow Range, both of which are located in Canada. These shield volcanoes formed when the North American Plate moved over a hotspot similar to the one feeding the Hawaiian Islands, called the Anahim hotspot. Shield volcanoes can be found in many places around the world, including Australia, Ethiopia, and the Galapagos Islands. The Piton de la Fournaise, on Reunion Island, is one of the most active shield volcanoes on earth, with one eruption per year on average. Structure of a shield volcano. ... Structure of a shield volcano. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Skjaldbreiður, meaning the broad shield in Icelandic, is an Icelandic mountain from whose name the term shield volcano derives. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Mauna Loa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 1,500 mi (2,400 km) in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... The Ilgachuz Range is one of the three eroded, major shield volcanoes in the Anahim Volcanic Belt in British Columbia, Canada, located 20 miles (30 km) north of Anahim Lake. ... The Rainbow Range is on the western edge of the Chilcotin Plateau, adjoining the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the south, and the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the north. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 1,500 mi (2,400 km) in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... The Anahim hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in central British Columbia, Canada. ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ... Piton de la Fournaise (French: Peak of the Furnace) is a shield volcano on the eastern side of Réunion island (a French territory) in the Indian Ocean. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Saint-Denis Regional President Paul Vergès (PCR) (since 1998) Departments Réunion Arrondissements 4 Cantons 49 Communes 24 Statistics Land area1 2,512 km² Population (Ranked 21st)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


The viscosity of magma as it approaches the surface is dependent on its temperature and composition. Shield volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands erupt magma as hot as 1,200 °C (2,200 °F), compared with 850 °C (1,560 °F) for most continental volcanoes, which are usually composed of acidic lava. Because of the fluidity of the lava, major explosive eruptions do not occur. The most severe explosions occur if water enters a vent, although expanding gases in the magma can produce spectacular fountaining of the low viscosity lava. Magma is molten rock located beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other terrestrial planet), and which often collects in a magma chamber. ... Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire) are rocks formed by solidification of cooled magma (molten rock), with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ...

Mauna Kea, a shield volcano, on the Island of Hawaii with a light dusting of snow.
Mauna Kea, a shield volcano, on the Island of Hawaii with a light dusting of snow.

Shield volcanoes are known to form on other planets. The largest known mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons on Mars, is a shield volcano thought to be dormant. Shield volcanoes on Mars are higher and much more massive than those on Earth, likely due to lack of tectonic plates on Mars. Image File history File linksMetadata Mauna_Kea10. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mauna_Kea10. ... This article is about the volcano on Mars and Solar Systems tallest mountain in Latin, For other uses, see Olympus (disambiguation). ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... This article is about the planet. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...


On Earth, because of plate tectonics, hotspot volcanoes eventually move away from the source of their magma and the volcanoes are individually less massive than might otherwise be the case. Shield volcanoes usually occur along constructive boundaries or above hotspots. However, the numerous large shield volcanoes of the Cascades of northern California and Oregon are over a more complex environment. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. ... Mount Adams in Washington state The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanos called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

For more information on volcanoes go to Strato volcano or cinder cone volcano View of Mount Rainier, a stratovolcano. ...


Examples

Skjaldbreiður, eponymous for a shield volcano
Skjaldbreiður, eponymous for a shield volcano
Dark profile of Hualālai, showing typical shape of a shield volcano
Mount Edziza, a massive shield volcano in northwestern British Columbia, Canada
Mount Edziza, a massive shield volcano in northwestern British Columbia, Canada

Image File history File links Skjaldbreidur_Herbst_2004. ... Image File history File links Skjaldbreidur_Herbst_2004. ... Skjaldbreiður, meaning the broad shield in Icelandic, is an Icelandic mountain from whose name the term shield volcano derives. ... An eponym is a person (real or fictitious) whose name has become identified with a particular object or activity. ... Hualālai volcano, Island of Hawai‘i, at sunrise; photograph by Eric Guinther. ... Hualālai volcano, Island of Hawai‘i, at sunrise; photograph by Eric Guinther. ... {{Mtnbox start|Name=Hualālai|Photo=Hualalai from north. ... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Mount Edziza is a volcanic complex located in British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanoes which together form the island of Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Mauna Loa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Ilgachuz Range is one of the three eroded, major shield volcanoes in the Anahim Volcanic Belt in British Columbia, Canada, located 20 miles (30 km) north of Anahim Lake. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The Rainbow Range is on the western edge of the Chilcotin Plateau, adjoining the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the south, and the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains to the north. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The Itcha Range is one of the several eroded, major shield volcanoes that form the Anahim Volcanic Belt in the Chilcotin District of the West-Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... KÄ«lauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Menengai is a massive shield volcano located in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya. ... Penis Pump juice. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Lunar domes on Mons Rümker. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Topographic map of Mounts Moulton and Berlin (1:250,000 scale) Sources Amar Andalkar (2005-). Amar Andalkars Ski Mountaineering and Climbing Site. ... Map of Antarctica Marie Byrd Land is the portion of Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. ... Topographic map of the Ames Range (1:250,000 scale) from USGS Mount Kosciusko Sources Siebert L, Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. ... Map of Antarctica Marie Byrd Land is the portion of Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. ... Indian Heaven is a volcanic field in Washington. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Mount Warning is a mountain in New South Wales, Australia, near the border with Queensland and New South Wales, near Murwillumbah. ... Tweed Volcano was a prehistoric shield volcano in northeastern New South Wales, Australia, that erupted over a hot spot that existed over this part of the continent between 23 million and 20 million years ago. ... NSW redirects here. ... Verkhovoy is a volcano located in the northern part of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. ... Kamchatka Oblast, an oblast in Russia. ... This article is about the volcano on Mars and Solar Systems tallest mountain in Latin, For other uses, see Olympus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For the island off Solomon Islands, see Ontong Java Atoll Lord Howe Island is a small island in the Pacific Ocean 600 km (373 mi) east of the Australian mainland. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Mount Elgon is an extinct volcano on the border of Uganda and Kenya. ... , Three Fingered Jack, named for its distinctive shape, is a Pleistocene volcano in the Cascade Range of Oregon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Kohala is the name of a district on the northwest portion of the island of Hawaii in the state of Hawaii. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Topographic map of Mounts Moulton and Berlin (1:250,000 scale) Sources Siebert L, Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. ... Queen Marys Peak Queen Marys Peak is the highest mountain in the South Atlantic Ocean, situated on the Island of Tristan da Cunha, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ...

References

  • List of shield volcanoes
  • Photo glossary of volcano terms - USGS
  • Shield volcanoes - USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory
  • Shield Volcanoes - Volcano World

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia: Shield volcano (265 words)
A shield volcano is a volcano that, because of its domical shape, resembles a warrior's shield.
Shield volcanoes are formed by lava of low viscosity that flows easily; consequently, the volcanic dome is built up over time by flow after flow of fluid basaltic lava that issues from vents or fissures on the surface of the volcano.
On Earth, as most volcanoes are moving away from the source of their magma, the volcanoes grow less massive than would otherwise be the case.
USGS Photo Glossary: Shield volcano (324 words)
View of the NNW flank of Mauna Loa Volcano from the south side of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai`i; both are shield volcanoes.
Volcanoes with broad, gentle slopes and built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava are called shield volcanoes.
Of the 1,511 volcanoes known to have erupted in the past 10,000 years, 164 are shield volcanoes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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