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Encyclopedia > Shield

A shield is a protective device, meant to intercept attacks. The term often refers to a device that is held in the hand, as opposed to armour or a bullet proof vest. Look up shield in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... A bulletproof vest – also called body armour (U.S. body armor) – is an article of protective clothing that works as a form of armour to minimize injury from being hit by a fired bullet. ...

Contents

Prehistoric and Antiquity

Statue showing a Gallic shield with a butterfly boss.
Statue showing a Gallic shield with a butterfly boss.

The oldest form of shield was a protection used to block attacks by hand weapons, such as swords, axes and maces or missiles like spears and arrows. Shields have varied greatly in construction over time and place. Sometimes shields were made of metal, but wood or animal hide construction was much more common; wicker and even turtle shells have been used. Many surviving examples of metal shields are generally felt to be ceremonial rather than practical, for example the Yetholm-type shields of the Bronze Age or the Iron Age Battersea shield. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (500x700, 170 KB) Sujet : Statue de guerrier gaulois portant le sagum et un bouclier gaulois ; Époque : Ier siècle avant J.-C. ; Trouvé : à Mondragon, Vaucluse, France ; Emplacement : Musée Calvet, Avignon, France ; Image originale : Image:Guerrier_de_Mondragon_(Ier_siecle_av_J.-C.).png (sous GFDL... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (500x700, 170 KB) Sujet : Statue de guerrier gaulois portant le sagum et un bouclier gaulois ; Époque : Ier siècle avant J.-C. ; Trouvé : à Mondragon, Vaucluse, France ; Emplacement : Musée Calvet, Avignon, France ; Image originale : Image:Guerrier_de_Mondragon_(Ier_siecle_av_J.-C.).png (sous GFDL... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A personal weapon is a weapon that can be carried and employed by a single person, although their use may be restricted to specialist members of attack or defense teams. ... A period illustration of the Battle of Crécy. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Rawhide is a hide or animal skin that has not been exposed to tanning and thus is much lighter in color than treated animal hides. ... A wickerwork scratching post A wicker balloon basket capable of holding 16 passengers. ... Yelthom-type shield from South Cadbury. ... The Battersea Shield is a sheet bronze shield dating to circa 300 BC. It was dredged from the River Thames in the UK, and probably was deposited as a ritual gift to the spirits of the River, as were many other pieces of bronze, iron work and human skulls that...


Size and weight varied greatly, lightly armored warriors relying on speed and surprise would generally carry light shields that were either small or thin. Heavy troops might be equipped with large heavy shields that could protect most of the body. Many had a strap called a guige that allowed it to be slung over the user's back when not in use or on horseback. During the 14th-13th century BCE, the Sards or Shardana, working as mercenaries for the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II, utilized either large or small round shields against the Hittites. The Ancient Greek hoplites used a round, bowl-shaped wooden shield called an aspis. Free standing shields called pavises were used by medieval crossbowmen who needed protection while reloading. Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured ground troops, as opposed to medium or light infantry, in which the warriors are relatively lightly-armoured. ... Shield with guige highlighted A guige is a long strap, typically made of leather, used to carry a shield across the back. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Warfare in Hellenic Greece centered mainly around heavy infantrymen called hoplites. ... An aspis (Ancient Greek Ασπις, IPA [aspis]) is the generic term for the word shield. ... Pavise shield (with Bartolomeo Vivarinis St. ... This article is about the weapon. ...


The heavily armored Roman legionaries carried large shields (scuta) that could provide far more protection, but made swift movement a little more difficult. The scutum originally had an oval shape, but gradually the curved tops and sides were cut to produce the familiar rectangular shape most commonly seen in the early Imperial legions. Famously, the Romans used their shields to create a tortoise-like formation called a testudo in which entire groups of soldiers would be enclosed in an armoured box to provide protection against missiles. A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Praetorian Guardsmen with curved oval scuta. ... A century of Roman legionaires in testudo formation, as portrayed in the Rome: Total War computer game, copyright 2004 Creative Assembly and Activision In Ancient Roman warfare, the testudo or tortoise formation was a formation utilized commonly by the Roman Legions during battles, particularly sieges. ...


Many ancient shield designs featured incuts of one sort of another. This was done to accommodate the shaft of a spear, thus facilitating tactics requiring the soldiers to stand close together forming a wall of shields. The formation of Shield walls is a military tactic common to many cultures. ...


Middle Ages

In the early European Middle Ages kite shields were commonly used; these were rounded at the top and tapered at the bottom. They were easily used on horseback and allowed easier leg movement when dismounted. Tower shields were common among front-line troops, often spearmen with shorter spears. The largest were almost as tall as a man, and usually wider. They offered excellent protection against missiles. However, most were smaller, able to protect about 2/3 of the body at a time. As personal body armour improved, knight's shields became smaller, leading to the familiar heater shield style. Giving them the ability to use these shields as a extra armor piece when battling in a crowded area. Also Scottish have also done this Both kite and heater style shields were made of several layers of laminated wood, with a gentle curve in cross section. The heater style inspired the shape of the symbolic heraldic shield that is still used today. Eventually, specialised shapes were developed such as the bouche — which had a lance rest cut into the upper corner of the lance side, to help guide it in combat or tournament. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A kite shield was a distinct type of shield from the 10th-12th centuries. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Heraldry displaying heater-shield escutcheons The heater shield is a form of shield characterized by its distinctive shape. ... Scottish can refer to: Look up Scottish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary (as an adjective) things to do with Scotland (see also Scots and Scotch) (as a noun) the Scottish people. ... In heraldry, the shield is the principal portion of a heraldic achievement or coat of arms. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ...


In time, some armoured foot knights gave up shields entirely in favour of mobility and two-handed weapons. Other knights and common soldiers adopted the buckler (origin of the term "swashbuckler"[1]). The buckler is a small round shield, typically between 8 and 16 inches in diameter. The buckler was one of very few types of shield that was usually made of metal. Small and light, the buckler was easily carried by being hung from a belt; it gave little protection from missiles and was reserved for hand-to-hand combat. However the main use of the buckler, other than deflecting hand-to-hand weapons, was punching. Bucklers are also called punching shields, since they were strapped to the knuckles rather than the back of the hand or arm; soldiers would commonly bash a foe whose helmet left the face unprotected in the nose, to stun and disorient him before a sword strike. The buckler continued in use well into the 16th century. In Italy, the targa, parma and rotella were utilized by common people, fencers and even knights. The height of the shield's evolution was the 15th century, during the Renaissance, and we can find above all Italian and German design. In length it measured from shoulder to knee, it was broad in the middle and tapering towards top and bottom. Thus it was lighter than the tower shield and hence easier for the bearer to wield a weapon without sacrificing protection. A buckler (French bouclier shield, from old French bocle, boucle boss) is a small shield gripped in the fist -- it was generally used in hand-to-hand combat during the Middle Ages, as its size made it poor protection against missile weapons (e. ... For other uses, see Swashbuckler (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Targe (from Old Franconian *targa shield, Proto-Germanic *targo border) was a general word for shield in late Old English. ... A parma was a type of round shield used by Roman infantry. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Shields continued in use even after gunpowder powered weapons made them nearly obsolete in the battlefield. In the 18th century, the Scottish clans used a small, heavy, round shield called a targe that was partially effective against the firearms of the time although it was arguably more often used against British infantry bayonets and cavalry swords in close-in fighting. Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans give a sense of Scottish Highland identity and shared descent both to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which controls the... Targe (from Old Franconian *targa shield, Proto-Germanic *targo border) was a general word for shield in late Old English. ...

Nias Ceremonial Shield
Nias Ceremonial Shield

In the 19th century, non-industrial cultures with little access to guns were still using shields. Zulu warriors carried large lightweight shields made from a single ox hide supported by a wooden spine, these were called Ishlangu. [2] This was used in combination with a short spear (assegai) and/or club. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... An Askari guards an Allied air training school at Waterkloof, Pretoria, South Africa. ... “Truncheon” redirects here. ...


Modern Shields

Shields for protection from armed attack are still used by many police forces around the world. These modern shields are usually intended for two broadly distinct purposes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (888x662, 485 KB) Photo by Air Force 1st Lt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (888x662, 485 KB) Photo by Air Force 1st Lt. ... A SWAT officer holding a body bunker-style ballistic shield A ballistic shield is a hand-held shield that is capable of defeating handguns, shotguns and submachine guns. ...


The first type are used for riot control and can be made from metal or synthetics, such as Lexan or Mylar. These typically offer protection from relatively large and low velocity projectiles, such as rocks and bottles as well as blows from fists or clubs. Synthetic riot shields are normally transparent, allowing full use of the shield without obstructing vision. Similarly, metal riot shields often have a small window at eye level for this purpose. These riot shields are most commonly used to block and push back crowds when the users stand in a wall, and to protect against shrapnel, projectiles, molotov cocktails and during hand-to-hand combat. French mobile gendarmes doing riot control. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mylar is a trade name of DuPont Teijin Films of Hopewell, VA, United States, for biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (BOPET) polyester film used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, and electrical insulation. ... Police with riot shields in Seoul, Korea. ... It has been suggested that Fragmentation (weaponry) be merged into this article or section. ... A projectile is any object sent through the air by the application of some force. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... Episode no. ...


The second type of modern police shield is typically manufactured from advanced synthetics such as kevlar and are designed to be bulletproof, or at least bullet resistant. These are typically employed by specialist police, such as SWAT teams, in high risk entry and siege scenarios, but are also used on a daily basis in many areas of the US. Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... It has been suggested that bulletproof (reliability) be merged into this article or section. ... Look up bulletproof in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Special Weapons and Tactics. ...


Many non-martial devices also employ shielding of a kind--not usually a single device worn on an arm but various protective plates or other insulation positioned where needed. Space craft have heat shields to ensure a safe re-entry. Electronics uses shielding to reduce electrical noise and crosstalk between signals. People and systems that must work in the presence of ionizing radiation are protected with shielding. “Reentry” redirects here. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... In telecommunication, the term crosstalk (XT) has the following meanings: 1. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ...


Science fiction writers have imagined many futuristic protections they often call "shields," usually using force fields. These include personal shields, as in the Dune series, or larger ones for spacecraft as in Star Trek. See Energy shield for more. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... In science fiction and fantasy literature, a force field is a physical barrier made up of energy to protect a person or object from attacks or intrusions. ... Dune is a science fiction novel written by Frank Herbert and published in 1965. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... An energy shield is a form of technology commonly found in science fiction, but also in development for real-life space travel[1]. // A number of efforts to design defensive energy fields are occuring in real life, most notably the efforts to design a deflector shield to protect spacecraft that...


References

  • Notes on Ancient Shields and Highland Targets, JAMES DRUMMOND, Archaeologica Scotica Vol 5 (1890).

Literature

  • Schulze, André(Hrsg.): Mittelalterliche Kampfesweisen. Band 2: Kriegshammer, Schild und Kolben. - Mainz am Rhein. : Zabern, 2007. - ISBN 3-8053-3736-1

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Shields

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Belknap in central Oregon is the youngest such shield volcano in the Cascades and has lava flows as young as 1400 years.
Several large basaltic shield volcanoes along the range have steep-sided summit cones, such as Three-Fingered Jack, Mount Washington and North Sister, Mount Bachelor, Diamond Peak, Mount Bailey, and Mount Thielsen, and Mount McLoughlin.
Hawaiian and other shield volcanoes characteristically have a broad summit, indented with a caldera, a term commonly used for a large depression of volcanic origin.
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