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Encyclopedia > Shibboleth

Shibboleth (IPA: [ˈʃɪbəlɛθ][1]) is any language usage indicative of one's social or regional origin, or more broadly, any practice that identifies members of a group. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Contents

Origin

The term originates from the Hebrew word שבולת, which literally means "stream, torrent".[2] It derives from an account in the Hebrew Bible, in which pronunciation of this word was used to distinguish members of a group (the Ephraimites) whose dialect lacked a /ʃ/ sound (as in shoe) from members of a group (the Gileadites) whose dialect did include such a sound. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... Tribe of Ephraim (Hebrew: אֶפְרַיִם / אֶפְרָיִם , Standard Efráyim Tiberian / ; double fruitfulness) took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacobs blessing (Gen. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... From the Scriptures, Gilead means hill of testimony or mound of witness, (Gen. ...


In the Book of Judges, chapter 12, after the inhabitants of Gilead inflicted a military defeat upon the tribe of Ephraim (around 13701070 BC), the surviving Ephraimites tried to cross the Jordan River back into their home territory and the Gileadites secured the river's fords to stop them. In order to identify and kill these disguised refugees, the Gileadites put each refugee to a simple test: Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... From the Scriptures, Gilead means hill of testimony or mound of witness, (Gen. ... Tribe of Ephraim (Hebrew: אֶפְרַיִם / אֶפְרָיִם , Standard Efráyim Tiberian / ; double fruitfulness) took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacobs blessing (Gen. ... (Redirected from 1370 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1420s BC 1410s BC 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC - 1370s BC - 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC Events and Trends Significant People The end of the rule of Amenophis III... (Redirected from 1070 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC 1090s BC 1080s BC - 1070s BC - 1060s BC 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC Events and Trends 1079 BC - Death of Zhou cheng wang, King of the...

And the Gileadites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites: and it was so, that when those Ephraimites which were escaped said, Let me go over; that the men of Gilead said unto him, Art thou an Ephraimite? If he said, Nay;

Then said they unto him, Say now Shibboleth: and he said Sibboleth: for he could not frame to pronounce it right. Then they took him, and slew him at the passages of Jordan: and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand.

Judges 12:5-6, KJV Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

Modern usage

In numerous cases of conflict between groups speaking different languages or dialects, one side used Shibboleths in a way similar to the above-mentioned Biblical use, i.e. to discover hiding members of the opposing group (see #Shibboleths used in war and persecution). Christians might have been familiar with the Biblical story and directly inspired by it, or might have independently invented the same method under similar circumstances. Modern researchers use the term "Shibboleth" for all such usages, whether or not the people involved were using it themselves. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Today, in the English language, a shibboleth has also a wider meaning, referring to any "in-crowd" word or phrase that can be used to distinguish members of a group from outsiders - even when not used by a hostile other group. The word is also sometimes used in a broader sense to mean specialized jargon, the proper use of which identifies speakers as members of a particular group or subculture. For example, people who regularly use words like "grok" and "filk" in conversation are likely members of science fiction fandom. Shibboleths can also be customs or practices, such as male circumcision. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Grok (IPA (GA) or (RP), both rhyming with rock) is a verb that connotes knowledge greater than that which can be sensed by an outside observer. ... Filk is a form of music created from within fandom, and performed generally late at night at science fiction conventions. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... This article is being rewritten at Circumcision/temp Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the prepuce or foreskin though often the frenulum is also excised. ...


In Christian dogma the shibboleth story is viewed as a prophetic type with the ultimate fulfillment being the name of Jesus Christ. In the prophetic type one could not gain entrance to the promised land without uttering the shibboleth. In its fulfillment, one cannot enter into heaven without confessing Christ as savior.


Cultural touchstones and shared experience can also be shibboleths of a sort. For example, people about the same age tend to have the same memories of popular songs, television shows, and events from their formative years. Much the same is true of alumni of a particular school, veterans of military service, and other groups. Discussing such memories is a common way of bonding. In-jokes can be a similar type of shared-experience shibboleth. An in joke is a joke whose humour is clear only to those people who are in a group that has some prior knowledge (not known by the whole population) that makes the joke humorous. ...


A shibboleth can also be the manner in which a word is spelled. In computer programming, for example, the Perl language is sometimes written PERL (in all capital letters, representing the acronym Practical Extraction and Report Language), which is a sign to Perl community members that the document lacks respect for the published materials, and is therefore from an outsider. This is frequently used to distinguish "good" job offers or books (ones that understand Perl culture and conventions) from "bad" ones. Likewise, writing Ada as ADA shows that the writer is unfamiliar with the Ada programming language, which was named in honor of Ada Lovelace. Similarly, Macintosh users can tell that anyone who comes into a Mac forum talking about a "MAC" or "MacIntosh" (with miscapitalized I) is an outsider or a newcomer. Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbages early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...


For a quite extreme example of spelling as community shibboleth, see Leet. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Notable shibboleths

Below are listed various examples of shibboleths. Note that many apocryphal shibboleths exist, and that since, by definition, shibboleths rely on stereotypical pronunciation traits, they may not accurately describe the speech of all members of the group in question. In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ...


Shibboleths used in war and persecution

  • Ciciri (Chickpeas): This was used by native Sicilians to ferret out Norman French soldiers in the late 1200s during an uprising (Sicilian Vespers) against Angevin rule. The Italian soft c /tʃ/ was (and is still) difficult for the French to pronounce.
  • Schild en vriend: On May 18, 1302, the people of Bruges killed the French occupants during a nocturnal surprise attack. According to a famous legend, they asked every suspicious person to say "schild en vriend" (shield and friend). The Flemings pronounced it with a separate "s" /s/ and "ch" /x/" (see also "Scheveningen", later in this section); the French "sk". That way they could easily ferret out the French. This day is known as the Bruges Matins or Brugse Metten. The problem with this legend is that even today some inhabitants of Flanders (particularly around Kortrijk, where the famous Battle of the Golden Spurs took place subsequently), also pronounce "sk" and many of the French supporters in Bruges spoke Dutch as their mother tongue. That's why it's sometimes said that the words must have been "'s Gilden Vriend" meaning "Friend of the Guild". The combination of the 's and the g in Gilden would create /sx/ in both Brugge and Kortrijk. Like the name of the massacre, the story may have been influenced by the Sicilian uprising mentioned below.
  • Soczewica, koło, miele, młyn ("Lentil, wheel, grinds [verb], mill)": In 1312, Wladislaus the Short quelled a rebellion in Kraków, populated mostly by Silesian, German and Czech citizens. Anyone over the age of 7 who couldn't pronounce these four Polish words was put to death, ejected from the city or had his property confiscated. 'Ł' (velarized alveolar approximant) and initial voiceless /s/ are both difficult to pronounce for Germans.
  • The Catalan sentence Setze jutges d'un jutjat mengen fetge d'un penjat [ˈsɛd͡zə ˈʒud͡ʒəz ðuɲ ʒu'd͡ʒat 'meɲʒəɱ 'fed͡ʒə ðum pəɲ'ʒat] ("Sixteen judges of a court eat the liver of a hanged man") was used by the defenders of Barcelona to distinguish the besieging ethnic Spanish[1](native Castilian speakers) during the War of Spanish Succession(17011714). The same device is also mentioned as having been used much earlier, by the 14th century Almogàver mercenaries of the Catalan Company, active in Greece, to distinguish Turks [2] from Catalans. These other groups found it difficult to pronounce the /z/, /ʒ/ and /d͡ʒ/ sounds. Oral tradition has added several different endings to the sentence.
  • Bûter, brea, en griene tsiis; wa't dat net sizze kin, is gjin oprjochte Fries (example ) means "Butter, bread and green cheese, who cannot say that is no real Frisian" was used by the Frisian Grutte Pier during a Frisian-Holland war (1515-1519. Ships whose crew could not pronounce this properly were usually plundered.
  • In the Paraguay War (1864–1870), Brazilian soldiers would identify Paraguayan citizens by having them say the word pão, meaning "bread". Non-native Portuguese speakers have great difficulty making the ão sound — instead, they would say pan or pao (without the nasalization indicated by the tilde).
  • During the Cuban War of Independence, prisoners caught by the insurgents were asked to pronounce the word "garbanzo" ([gaɾˈbanθo] in Castilian Spanish). Cubans pronounced the /ɾ/ as /l/, and /θ/ as /s/, resulting [galˈbanso]. Therefore they were considered as traitors.
  • Yksi: Finnish for "one", used by the White Guard to separate Russians from Finns in the Finnish Civil War during the invasion of Tampere. Many of the Russians caught had changed to civilian clothing, so suspected people were rounded up, even from hospitals, and asked to say "yksi". If the prisoner pronounced "juksi", mistaking the front vowel 'y' for an iotated 'u', he was considered a Russian foreign fighter and was shot on the spot. The problem was that any Slav or Balt, Communist or not, was killed, including some volunteers of the White Guard. (Source: Heikki Ylikangas, Tie Tampereelle, ref. at [3])
  • Paljanytsja: Ukrainian word "паляниця" ([pɐlʲɐˈnɪʦʲɐ]) was used by soldiers of Makhno troops to identify Russians of Bolshevik food-troops, who were sent into Ukraine to expropriate food. Russians pronounce the word approximately as [pəlʲɪnʲiʦə]. The word "paljanytsja" was also used during World War II by Ukrainian nationalists to identify Russians. See [4].
  • 15円 50銭 (jū-go-en, go-jū-sen) and がぎぐげご (gagigugego) were used in Japan after the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake to search for Koreans, who were killed. They were accused of poisoning wells.
  • Ba, bi, bu, be, bo Japanese used this syllabary group to detect Korean spies. Koreans would pronounce the syllables unvoiced, pa, pi, pu, pe, po.
  • The Spanish word perejil (parsley) was used as a shibboleth by Dominican Republic strongman Trujillo against Haitian immigrants at Río Massacre. See [5].
  • Scheveningen (example ): Dutch people pronounce this word with separate "s" /s/ and "ch" /x/, while German people pronounce sch as [ʃ] (IPA). The Dutch Resistance used this to ferret out Nazi spies during World War II.
  • Höyryjyrä: (IPA [høyryjyræ], Engl. "Steam Roller") Finnish soldiers in World War II used this as a password, as only a native Finnish speaker could properly say this word, which contains the Finnish front vowels Ö, Y, and Ä in combination with the rolled R used in Finnish. The leading H /h/ is particularly hard for Russian speakers, since the same sound does not exist in Russian; analogous Russian sounds /g/, /ɦ/ and /x/ are distinguishable.
  • During the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War, the American forces used the challenge-response codes "Flash" - "Thunder" - "Welcome". The last response was used to identify the challenger as a native English speaker (and therefore not an enemy), whereas the German enemy would pronounce it as "Velcome". This caused problems for German Jews serving in the U.S. Army.
  • Similarly during Operation Chariot the British raiders used the challenge "War Weapons Week" and the countersign "Welmouth", likewise unpronounceable by most Germans.
  • Woolloomooloo was used by Australian soldiers in the Pacific Theatre during the Second World War to identify themselves when approaching a camp.
  • During World War II the Nazis made a test to root out unidentified Jews who were amongst them by serving tea to a group of people, and placing sugar cubes on the table. The Jews would supposedly place the sugar cube in their mouths, while the ethnic Germans would place the cube into the tea. This is an example of a shibboleth through action.[citation needed]
  • During the Israeli War of Independence, Israeli army passwords were often chosen to contain 'p' sounds, which native speakers of Arabic can rarely pronounce properly.
  • During the Sumgait Pogrom a common method of seeking out who was Armenian in the vehicles was by asking them to pronounce the Azeri word for hazelnut, fundukh. Armenians however pronounced the first letter with a "p", instantly giving away their identity.

Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s - 1200s - 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s Years: 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 Events and Trends 1200 University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France 1202-1204 Fourth Crusade - diverted to... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ... Geography Country Belgium Region Flemish Region Community Flemish Community Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates Area 138. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... The Bruges Matins or Brugse Metten was the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges by the members of the local Flemish militia on 18 May 1302. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Kortrijk (French: Courtrai; Latin: Cortoriacum) is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province West Flanders. ... Combatants Flanders France Commanders Willem van Gullik Pieter de Coninc Guy of Namur Robert II of Artois Strength 9,000 8,000 Casualties 100 est. ... Wladislaus I on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus I the Short or Elbow-high (Polish: WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I Łokietek) (1261–1333), was a King of Poland. ... Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ... Girl in Upper Silesian dress 2006, Morgi (MysÅ‚owice) 2006 Woman in Silesian dress from Cieszyn 1914 Silesians ( pol ÅšlÄ…zacy, ger Schlesier, Å›l. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (Catalan) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Battle of Gangut, by Maurice Baquoi, 1724-27. ... ... The Catalan Company,[1] short name for the Catalan Company of the East (Companyia Catalana dOrient in Catalan), was a free company of mercenaries founded by Roger de Flor in early 14th-century Europe. ... Image File history File links Schibbolet-fries. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... // Pre-Columbian Cuba The archeological record and evidence from mitochondrial DNA studies indicate that Cuba and the Antilles have been inhabited by peoples ancestral to the indigenous inhabitants for at least several thousand years. ... The term may have the following meanings White Guard, Finnish Civil War White Army, Russian Civil War The White Guard - a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov about the Russian White movement. ... Combatants Whites: White Guards, German Empire, Swedish volunteers Reds: Red Guards, Russian SFSR Commanders C.G.E. Mannerheim Ali Aaltonen, Eero Haapalainen, Eino Rahja, Kullervo Manner Strength 80,000–90,000 Finns, 550 Swedish volunteers, 13,000 Germans[1] 80,000–90,000 Finns, 4,000–10,000 Russians[1... Tampere ( , Tammerfors in Swedish) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... Nestor Makhno in 1909 Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (October 27, 1889–July 25, 1934) was an anarchist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The 1923 Great Kanto earthquake ) struck the Kanto plain on the Japanese main island of Honshu at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Scheveningen pier Scheveningen is part of Den Haag, the Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Nl-Scheveningen. ... The Dutch (Ethnonym: Nederlanders meaning Lowlanders) are the dominant ethnic group[1] of the Netherlands[2]. They are usually seen as a Germanic people. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages (such as Russian, Spanish, Armenian, and Polish). ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants United Kingdom Nazi Germany Casualties 169 dead 400 dead [1] The St Nazaire Raid (also called Operation Chariot) was a successful British seaborne attack on the heavily defended docks of St. ... Woolloomooloo is a low-lying docklands suburb between the heights of central Sydney, Australia to the west and Potts Point to the east and has historically been a poor, working-class district of Sydney. ... The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, called the War of Independence by Israelis and al Nakba the catastrophe by Arabs, was the first in a series of wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Sumgait (Sumqayit) is located about 30 kilometers (approximiately 20 miles) northwest of Azerbaijans capital Baku, near the Caspian Sea. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ...

Humorous shibboleths

  • Olin seitsemän vuotta sedälläni kodossa renkinä (Finnish for "I spent seven years at my uncle's home as a servant"). This is to tease Eastern Tavastians, who pronounce 'd' as 'l'. It becomes Olin seitsemän vuotta selälläni kolossa renkinä, which means "I spent seven years a servant in a hole, lying on my back" — certain connotations of being a sex slave.
  • Kurri etsi jarrua murkkukasasta ("Kurri looked for a brake in the ant pile."). The Finnish phoneme rolled R [r] in general is considered a "shibboleth" between standard Finnish and various types of speech defects. Small children usually learn the phoneme /r/ last, using /l/ instead. Older children can trick them to say "kulli etsi Jallua mulkkukasasta", "The cock looked for a Jallu (porn magazine) in a pile of dicks."
  • Germany: Oachkatzlschwoaf is used to tell true Bavarians and Austrians from non-natives, mostly northern Germans. Eekkattensteert is jokingly used by northern Germans to expose Bavarians. Both words mean "squirrel tail".
  • The German word "Streichholzschächtelchen" (small matchbox) is also used to jokingly identify non-native German speakers.

Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... Jari Pekka Kurri (born May 18, 1960, in Helsinki, Finland) is a retired Finnish professional ice hockey right winger. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...

Grammatical shibboleths

In the Victorian era, especially in Britain, the educated middle classes invented several shibboleths to distinguish themselves from the lower classes[citation needed] (see acrolect, basilect). Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... An acrolect is a register of a spoken language that is considered formal and high-style. ... In linguistics, a basilect is a dialect of speech that has diverged so far from the standard language that in essence it has become a different language. ...


One of these was pronouncing the gerund suffix -ing as it is spelled, rhyming with sing, whereas both the lower and upper classes pronounced it as -in, rhyming with sin. However, many of the shibboleths were grammatical. These were primarily taken from the rules of Latin grammar, and had not occurred in English prior to this time. In linguistics, a gerund is a kind of verbal noun that exists in some languages. ... Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, which allows for very flexible word order. ...


For instance, in Latin it is impossible to split an infinitive, because a Latin infinitive (such as ferre "to bring") is a single word; therefore, prescriptivist grammarians decided that people should not split English infinitives either. (That is, to boldly go "should" be boldly to go or to go boldly, as if to go were a single word as it is in Latin.) Despite centuries of contrary use, this became a mark of a good education, and is still taught in schools. A split infinitive is a grammatical construction in the English language where a word or phrase, usually an adverb or adverbial phrase, occurs between the marker to and the bare infinitive (uninflected) form of a verb. ... Where no man has gone before is a saying used in the introductory sequence of all but one of the episodes of the original Star Trek science fiction television series. ...


In order to be dismissively called a shibboleth in this sense, a grammatical "rule" should go counter to a common usage, and even perhaps be accompanied by slips in those most dogmatic about a usage.[citation needed] Some grammatical rules that have been used as shibboleths of a "good education" include:[citation needed]

  • no prepositions at the end of sentences (which often provokes the reply, apocryphally attributed to Churchill, that "this is the sort of pedantry up with which I will not put".)
  • no verbless sentences (these are common in literature: Not so. Really?)
  • use different from rather than different than (different than has been well established in literature for centuries; cf. different to)
  • no initial ands or buts (in literature, and and but can even begin a paragraph: But suppose all this is rubbish? or, And so it turns out ...)
  • use a possessive noun with a gerund: women's having the vote would be ... (actually, women having the vote is traditional usage)
  • no use of themself or theirselves as pronouns to refer to singular nouns or persons: The teacher will introduce themself at the beginning of the lecture. (This usage is contentious, with supporters on both sides of the argument. This has developed as a gender-neutral alternative.)
  • use of the subjunctive mood. The "correct" form is "If it were so..." rather than, "If it was..." and "Whether it were..." rather than "Whether it was..." While the subjunctive is frequently dropped, especially in colloquial English, it is still a widely used part of the language and an educated speaker will find fault in such examples as "would that it was so", rather than "would that it were so."
  • between you and I (more properly between you and me; "me" is objective case, suited for use in a prepositional phrase. However, because "me" is often used for "I" in informal speech, and sometimes judged incorrect according to grammatical standards, speakers often resort to hypercorrection, producing this phrase, which is used as a negative shibboleth indicating a social climber. An interesting case because it is a shibboleth produced by trying to avoid another shibboleth.)[citation needed]

In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ... Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... The accusative case of a noun is, generally, the case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Shibboleths in fiction

  • Unionized: In his 1965 essay To Tell a Chemist Isaac Asimov claimed that one could distinguish a chemist from a non-chemist by asking a person to read the word "unionized" aloud. With no context given, he said that a chemist will pronounce it "un-ionized", but a non-chemist will pronounce it "union-ized". "Un-ionized" is in fact rarely used among chemists, who prefer "non-ionized" or "deionized", and they tend to read the word in the sense relating to trade unions.
  • In his essay "The Shibboleth of Fëanor", J. R. R. Tolkien describes how the Noldorin Elves intentionally change the sound /θ/ to /s/ in the Quenya language. The king's son Fëanor considered this change to be an insult to his dead mother Þerindë whose name he likewise would have had to pronounce Serindë.
  • In the TV series West Wing in an episode titled "Shibboleth", President Josiah Bartlet (Martin Sheen) utilizes knowledge of the Biblical term to determine whether a group of supposedly Christian Chinese refugees are legitimate in their desire for seeking religious freedom. His expectation is that, while anyone can learn the text or concepts of the Bible, a true Christian would speak of his faith differently. When the designated leader of the refugees states that faith cannot be demonstrated through knowledge of the Bible alone, but that faith is the true "Shibboleth", Bartlet knows they're on the level and finds a way for them to remain in the U.S.
  • The TV series Law & Order: Criminal Intent also features an episode titled "Shibboleth". In the episode, a serial rapist/murderer is identified largely because of his uncharacteristic enunciation of the /t/ sound in certain words; specifically, he does not wear it down to /d/ in the middle of words, (e.g. pronouncing the word "pretty," /'prɪ.di/ in normal conversation as /'prɪ.ti/).
  • In the TV series The Wire, in the fourth season episode "Corner Boys", Felicia "Snoop" Pearson is seen discussing "Baltimore questions" with fellow gangster Chris Partlow in order to find rival drug dealers, freshly arrived from New York City, to kill. The idea is that anybody who grew up in Baltimore would know certain things about local popular culture that a recent arrival would most likely not know.
  • A TV commercial run by Tim Hortons features a family passing through Canadian customs coming from the United States. Without a passport, the Canadian driver says "rrrroll up the rrrrrrim to win", properly rolling the "r". Another family, presumably not Canadian, fails to reproduce the phrase.

Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920? – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... It has been suggested that the central science be merged into this article or section. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow robert ford An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... A trade union or labor union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... In the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Noldor (meaning those with knowledge) are of the second clan of the Elves who came to Aman, the Tatyar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, Fëanor is a fictional character who is central to Tolkiens mythology as told in The Silmarillion. ... “The West Wing” redirects here. ... Shibboleth is the 30th episode of The West Wing. ... Dr. Josiah Edward Jed Bartlet is a fictional character played by Martin Sheen on the television serial drama The West Wing. ... Martin Sheen (born Ramón Gerardo Antonio Estévez on August 3, 1940) is an Emmy Award-winning American actor, perhaps best known for his role as Captain Willard in the film Apocalypse Now and, most recently, as President Josiah Bartlet on the acclaimed television drama The West Wing. ... Law & Order: Criminal Intent is a United States crime drama television series that began in 2001. ... This article is about the television series. ... This article is about the restaurant. ...

Other shibboleths

English shibboleths for native speakers or local natives

See also: Regional accents of English speakers, Regional Vocabularies of American English
  • nuclear/nucular: The word "nuclear" ([ˈn(j)uː.kli.ə(ɹ)]) is sometimes pronounced "nucular" ([ˈn(j)uːkjə.lə(ɹ)]) in parts of the United States. This is considered incorrect or a metathesis by many authorities, although the alternative pronunciation is common, having been used by U.S. President Jimmy Carter and U.S. President George W. Bush and other politicians. This is common in some midwestern states, particularly those in the southern part of the region.
  • Fish and chips: The accents of Australians and New Zealanders seem very similar, and the term fish and chips is sometimes evoked to illustrate a major difference between the two. The New Zealand pronunciation features a shorter, clipped vowel sound which Australians often caricature as "fush and chups" but is more accurately f'sh and ch'ps with the vowel almost dropped. The Australian pronunciation has a longer vowel sound which sounds like "feesh and cheeps" to New Zealand ears. Similarly, Australians have the perception that NZers pronounce "six" as Australians pronounce "sex".
  • Lego: South Australians pronounce this as "Lago", which is infinitely humorous to Australians from other states. This and an unusual lengthening of "a" as in "castle" and "dance" (matching the correct southern English pronunciation) is due to the large number of English immigrants that settled there in the 1950s and 60's. Conversely, South Australians will point to the Melburnian practice of further shortening short vowels, so that the word "graph" becomes similar to the German "graf" (as in the name Graf Spee).
  • Sixth: English people, especially middle class, will often pronounce this as "sickth".
  • loch: Scottish people have been known to ask suspected English impersonators to say this (the Scots Gaelic word for a lake or fjord, which occurs in many placenames) since this includes the hard "ch" sound (voiceless velar fricative) not found in standard English. English people usually pronounce it "lock", and this pronunciation has also spread into southern Scotland recently.[citation needed]
  • Pronunciation of letters of the alphabet:
  • New England, United States: certain words/phrases are well known in other regions of the United States and often serve as stereotypes or shibboleths for New England natives (especially from the Boston area), considered by many as an informal "standard" or central area of the dialect region. Typical as "How are you?" pronounced in a clipped manner, "H'w ar'ya?", and the well-known "Harvard Yard" (with non-rhotic pronunciation), often in the context of the stereotypical sentence, "Park the car at Harvard Yard", which gives many instances of this derhotacization.
  • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Natives of this city usually pronounce the word 'water' [wʊɾɚ] instead of [wɑːtɚ].
  • Regional vowels
    • About: U.S. commentators (and popular culture) have drawn attention to the stereotypical Canadian pronunciation of about. While the American imitation of the stereotype pronounces the word like "a boot", Canadians actually pronounce the word [əˈbəʊt] which sounds more like "a boat", as compared to General American [əˈbaʊt]. This phenomenon is known in linguistics as Canadian raising, and is not restricted to just Canada, as many Northern U.S. dialects have clear Canadian Raising as well.
    • No: Residents of North Lincolnshire and to a lesser extent parts of East Yorkshire will be able to recognise a speaker from Hull as they will pronounce 'no' as 'nurr' (nurrr), whereas the surrounding accent tends towards 'naw' (gnaw).
    • Tomato: UK pronunciation is usually [təˈmɑtəʊ], while US pronunciation is usually [təˈmeɪtoʊ]. Ira Gershwin famously used this difference in the verse "You like to-may-to, I like to-mah-to".
  • Possibly apocryphal origin of the term "left-footer": Protestant workers conventionally struck the spade with their right foot when digging. A Catholic worker could be identified by his striking the spade with the left foot.[citation needed]

Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article deals with lexical differences within American English; see American English regional differences for differences in phonology and grammar. ... Nucular is a metathesis of the word nuclear which represents the commonplace NEW-cue-lerr ( IPA ) mispronunciation of that word instead of NEW-clear ( IPA or ); in other words, the pronunciation which rhymes not with likelier, but with ocular. This pronunciation is disapproved of by some who consider it a... Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The example shows modern packaging. ... Lego Group logo. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... The SMS Graf Spee (not to be confused with the much more famous warship Admiral Graf Spee) was a German Mackensen class battle cruiser that was never finished. ... In music, see the intervals: Major sixth Minor sixth The submediant, and the chord built on the submediant, is often simply called the sixth as it is the sixth scale degree. ... View across Loch Lomond, towards Ben Lomond. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2006 estimate... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size contained on a body of land. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Fjords are very long inlets from the sea with high steeply sloped walled sides. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... Sesame Street is an American educational childrens television series for preschoolers and is a pioneer of the contemporary educational television standard, combining both education and entertainment. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r) is pronounced. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Canadian raising is a phonetic phenomenon that occurs in varieties of the English language, especially Canadian English, in which diphthongs are raised before voiceless consonants (e. ... St Clements Church, Worlaby North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in England, established in April 1996, one of the first unitary councils. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Ira Gershwin (6 December 1896 – 17 August 1983) was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composer George Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century. ...

Place name pronunciations
Main article: List of names in English with non-intuitive pronunciations
  • Many US cities and towns are named after larger cities elsewhere, yet have a locally different pronunciation of their name. Outsiders generally pronounce them as their more famous counterparts. For example, Havana, Florida, (locally [heɪˈvænə]; Versailles, Kentucky, Versailles, Ohio, North Versailles, Pennsylvania and Versailles, New York (all [vɚˈseɪlz] locally); assorted American locations named Cairo (locally [ˈkeɪɹoʊ]); Lima, Ohio, (locally [ˈlaɪmə]); and Berlin, New Hampshire (locally [ˈbɛɹlən]).
  • Albany, New York, USA: The first syllable is frequently pronounced by non-locals as Al (as in Alfred), while locals pronounce the first syllable as "All"
  • Alachua County, Florida, USA: Frequently pronounced by non-locals with the stress on the third syllable. This Native American word is pronounced by locals with the stress on the second syllable. Oddly, the town of the same name is frequently pronounced by locals as [əˈlætʃəweɪ], perhaps to distinguish between reference to the town versus the county.
  • Boise, Idaho, USA (the state capital) is generally pronounced by locals as [bɔɪˈsiː]. Most Americans, especially those far removed from Idaho, pronounce it [ˈbɔɪziː]. Conversely, Boise City, Oklahoma is pronounced like "Boyce."
  • Canberra, the national capital city of Australia, is locally and correctly pronounced "Can-bruh", yet is widely and incorrectly pronounced, often by people wanting to be derogatory of the national parliament or bureaucracy, as "KAN-ber-arr", "Kan-bear-rar", "Kan-Ber-rar", or "Kam-bra".
  • DuBois, Pennsylvania, USA . Locals pronounce it [dʊˈbɔɪz]. Non-locals usually pronounce it [dʊˈbwɑː] as in French.
  • Houston Street, New York City, USA and Houston, Georgia: Locals pronounce the first syllable identically with "house" ([haustən]), while most visitors will employ the same pronunciation as in Houston, Texas ([hjustən]). Houston Street is actually a corruption of the original name of Houstoun Street, named after Continental Congress Delegate William Houstoun, who pronounced his name in this way.
  • Two USA towns with the name "Hurricane"—Hurricane, Utah and Hurricane, West Virginia—are both pronounced by locals as [ˈhɚrəkɪn]. Others pronounce it like the destructive weather phenomenon.
  • A similar pronunciation applies to Mantua, Utah. Outsiders will pronounce it as the Italian city, where locals will say [mænəweɪ]
  • Pierre, South Dakota, USA (also the state capital) is locally pronounced as "Pier" (as in "dock": [piːɹ]). Non-locals will pronounce it like the French name of the same spelling, (piˈeɹ]).
  • Pawtucket, Rhode Island, USA: native Rhode Islanders pronounce the name of the city as [pəˈtʌkət] whereas non-natives will pronounce as [pɔˈtʌkət]."
  • Worcester, Massachusetts, USA: Whereas non-natives will often pronounce as [wɑɹsɛstɚ] or [wɑɹʧɛstɚ] the local pronunciation of this city name is [wʊstɚ], like the English city.
  • Appalachia: pronounced [æpəˈlæʧə] within the central portion of the region, particularly between North Carolina and West Virginia; usually pronounced [æpəˈleɪʃə] elsewhere.
  • Arkansas River: While in most places the name of this river is pronounced the same way as the name of the state of Arkansas ([ˈɑɹkənˌsɑː]), Kansans typically pronounce it as if the "Ar-" were a prefix added to the name of the state of Kansas.
  • Gorinchem, in The Netherlands, is pronounced as the alternate spelling of its name: Gorkum.
  • Milngavie, Glasgow, Scotland: locally pronounced [mʊlgaɪ] but often pronounced [mɪləngæviː] by non-Glaswegians. (This is elaborated upon in the article on the town.)
  • Manuka: A locality (not an actual suburb) of Canberra, national capital of Australia. Local pronunciation is with equal emphasis on each syllable; new arrivals can be identified by the pronunciation with emphasis on the middle syllable.
  • Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Locals (and most Canadians) pronounce the name of the city as [mʌntɹiˈɑːl] whereas most Americans pronounce it as [mɔntɹiˈɑːl] . The same applies to the name Quebec, which is pronounced [kwɪˈbɛk] by most Americans, whereas local English speakers pronounce it [kəˈbɛk].
  • Oamaru, New Zealand: Pronounced locally, and by other natives of the Otago region, as [ɔməruː], a pronunciation borrowed from the local dialect of Māori. Most Māori speakers from farther north in New Zealand pronounce both initial vowels separately, as [oamaru], while non-Māori-speakers will pronounce it [əʊməruː] .
  • Ouachita: This is a region in southwest Arkansas that lends its name to a mountain range as well as a local university. It's pronounced [ˈwɑːʃɪtɑː] by Arkansans, whereas non-locals would say [uːˈʧɪtɑː] or [ˈoʊʧɪtɑː].
  • Tulalip, Washington: Locally pronounced [tʊˈleɪlɪp]; out-of-towners may pronounce it as [ˈtuːləlɪp].
  • Puyallup, Washington: Pronounced phonetically as Pu-YAL-Up by non-local speakers, but is pronounced by all Washingtonians as Pyu-AL-Up
  • Norfolk, Virginia, USA: Long time residents tend to pronounce the city's name as [nɑːfʌk], while other locals will say [noʊɹfɪk]. Non-locals may pronounce it [nɔɹfɔɫk]. See Norfolk, England.
  • Forest City, North Carolina, USA: Locals tend to pronounce the city's name as "Far City", while visitors or new residents will pronouce the city's name the way it is spelled.
  • Yocona, Mississippi, USA: Most locals refer to the river and community as [jæknə] or [jɔkniː]. Non-locals may refer to it as [jəkoʊnə].
  • Ponce de Leon Avenue, Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Non-locals (especially those familiar with Spanish) will at first tend to pronounce this as the name of the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, while locals pronounce "León" much as the common Anglo given name ([liːɑːn]).
  • Louisville, Kentucky, USA: Most people not from the Louisville area pronounce its name "Looey-ville." Louisville area natives, by contrast, tend to use one of several local pronunciations. "Loo-uh-vull", "Loo-vull", "Luh-vull", "Luh-uh-vul" or Loo-ville.".
  • New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: Locals pronounce the city's name as [ˈnoʊlɪns] or sometimes [ˈnjɔːlɪnz], while outsiders tend to pronounce it as [nuː ɔɹˈliːnz].
  • Many English placenames act as shibboleths. Warwick, Norwich and Alnwick may be pronounced [wɔɹˈwɪk], [nɔɹˈwɪtʃ] and [ælnˈwɪk] respectively by Americans, when the local pronunciations are [ˈwɒɹɪk], [nɒɹɪtʃ], and [ˈænɪk].
  • Chalybeate, Tennessee is pronounced by locals as [kliːbɪt] whereas outsiders may refer to it as [ʧælɪbiːti] or [ʧælɪbaɪt].
  • Greenwich, London is pronounced by locals as [ˈgrɪnɪʧ] whereas most Britons (including most non-native Londoners) pronounce it [ˈgrɛnɪʧ].
  • Newcastle upon Tyne in the North-East of England is pronounced [njʊˈkasɘl] by locals and many other natives of the North-East, but [ˈnjuːkɑːsɘl] in Standard English (equivalent to [ˈnjuːkasɘl] in the local pronunciation)
  • Beaulieu, both place and hunt named after it, are pronounced Bewley.

This is a list of personal and place names that are pronounced in a way not easily deducible from the spelling or in a way at variance with a better known name of the same spelling. ... Havana is a town located in Gadsden County, Florida. ... Versailles is a city located in Woodford County, Kentucky. ... Versailles is a village located in Darke County, Ohio. ... North Versailles (pronounced north ver-SAILS) is a township located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. ... Cairo is the capital city of Egypt. ... Lima Trust Building. ... Berlin is a city located on the Androscoggin River in north-eastern Coos County, New Hampshire, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 10,331. ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ... Alachua County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ... Nickname: City of Trees Motto: Energy Peril Success Location of Boise in the State of Idaho Coordinates: Country United States State Idaho County Ada Founded 1863 Incorporated 1864 Government  - Mayor David H. Bieter Area  - City  64 sq mi (165. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... List of capitals of subnational entities covers currently the following national entities: #A-C: Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Peoples Republic of China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, #D-F: Denmark, Finland, France, #G-L: Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Ireland, Japan... Boise City is a city located in Cimarron County, Oklahoma. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... For other meanings see Canberra (disambiguation). ... The main entrance to Parliament House in Canberra, with the flag mast visible. ... DuBois (pronounced doo-BOYS , not doo-boa ) is a city in Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, 128 miles (206 km) northeast of Pittsburgh. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Houston Street looking east, from The Bowery Houston Street looking west, from The Bowery Houston Street (pronounced ) is a major east-west thoroughfare in downtown New York City. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... Houston is a city in Heard County, Georgia, USA. It is prounounced House-ton, rather than Hews-ton Categories: ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... POOP HS;JHGF;JADHGJHASGHASJHGJSAHGJWJITHADHSGJHDASJLGFNKRA The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... William Houstoun (1755– March 17, 1813) was an American planter, lawyer, and statesman from Savannah, Georgia. ... Hurricane is a city in Washington County, Utah, United States. ... Hurricane (pronounced her-i-kin) is a city located in Putnam County, West Virginia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 5,222. ... Mantua is a town located in Box Elder County, Utah. ... Location in South Dakota Coordinates: County Hughes County Founded 1880 Government  - Mayor Dennis Eisnach Area  - City 33. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th  - Total 77,163 sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Pawtucket is a city located in Providence County, Rhode Island. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Worcester County Settled 1673 Incorporated 1684 Government  - Type Council-manager also known as Plan E  - City Manager Michael V. OBrien  - Mayor Konstantina B. Lukes  - City Council Dennis L. Irish Michael C. Perotto Joseph M. Petty Gary Rosen Kathleen... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Worcester (pronounced ) is a city in the Midlands of England, and the county town of Worcestershire. ... It has been suggested that Poverty in Appalachia be merged into this article or section. ... The Arkansas River flows through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Milngavie, (pronounced Mill–Guy or Mull–Guy), is a town on the northwestern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland. ... Glaswegian redirects here. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II... Milngavie, (pronounced Mill–Guy or Mull–Guy), is a town on the northwestern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland. ... Street in Manuka shops Manuka, in the suburb of Griffith, is a business and shopping centre in the Inner South district of Canberra, Australia. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (in unity, prosperity) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water...   Oamaru is the largest town in North Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand, and is the main town in the Waitaki District. ... Otago (help· info) is one of the regions of New Zealand and lies in the south-east of the South Island. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Ouachita refers to more than one feature of the United States: Ouachita Mountains Ouachita River Ouachita Parish, Louisiana Ouachita County, Arkansas Ouachita Baptist University Ouachita Railroad Ouachita National Forest This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and east central Oklahoma. ... Ouachita Baptist University is private, liberal arts, undergraduate institution. ... Tulalip Bay is a census-designated place (CDP) in Snohomish County, Washington, United States. ... Puyallup (pronounced ) is a city in Pierce County, Washington about five miles east of Tacoma. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... For alternative meanings see: Norfolk (disambiguation) Norfolk (pronounced NOR-fk) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Forest City is a town located in Rutherford County, North Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hotlanta redirects here. ... Juan Ponce de León Juan Ponce de León (c. ... “Louisville” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Warwick (pronounced or War-ick (silent w in middle)) is the historic county town of Warwickshire in England and has a population of 25,434 (2001 census). ... Norwich (IPA: //) is a city in East Anglia, in Eastern England. ... For the parish in New Brunswick, see Alnwick, New Brunswick Alnwick (pronounced ) is a small market town in north Northumberland, in the north-east of England. ... The Calybeate Spring Tunbridge Wells Chalybeate water was early in the 17th century said to have health-giving properties and many people have promoted their qualities. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Greenwich is a town, now part of the south eastern urban sprawl of London, England, on the south bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Greenwich. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... 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Place name terms
  • San Francisco is referred to as "SF" or "The City" by its natives. Tourists and people relocated to it refer to it as San Fran or Frisco.
  • Avenue of the Americas, Manhattan, New York City, USA: native New Yorkers typically give the name as "Sixth Avenue", despite the officially re-named version of the street, the only one known to (most) non-natives[citation needed].
  • Manhattan is known as "The City" to most New Yorkers and people from the Tri-State area, however many non-locals often ask; Which City?
  • The Minneapolis-Saint Paul area of Minnesota, USA is usually referred to as "The Twin Cities" by longtime residents or natives and Minneapolis usually refers to the city itself. Many outsiders refer to the entire area including the nearby and longer established city of Saint Paul as "Minneapolis".

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... Frisco can refer to: Frisco, North Carolina, USA Frisco, Colorado, USA Frisco, Texas, USA Frisco City, Alabama, USA St. ... Sixth Avenue looking south from 18th Street Sixth Avenue is a major avenue in New York Citys borough of Manhattan. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Nickname: Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1625 Government  - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area  - City  468. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... Minneapolis-Saint Paul is the most populous urbanized area in the state of Minnesota, United States, and is composed of 188 cities and townships. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Nickname: Location in Ramsey County and the state of Minnesota. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ...

Computers

Within the field of computer security, the word shibboleth is sometimes used with a different meaning than the usual meaning of verbal, linguistic differentiation. The general concept of shibboleth is to test something, and based on that response to take a particular course of action. This principle is frequently used in computer security. The most commonly seen usage is logging on to a computer with a password. If the correct password is entered, the user is logged on; if an incorrect password is entered, the user can go no further. Creating this facility on a web site means that it has been 'shibbolized'. Within the field of computer security, the word shibboleth is sometimes used with a different meaning than the usual meaning of verbal, linguistic differentiation. ... This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. ...


Shibboleths in computing culture include:

  • People with first hand experience in software development mostly use code and software as non-count nouns. Others (including newbies and managers) tend to pluralize as codes,[3] or sometimes "softwares".
  • Computer software hobbyists and hackers usually refer to their work as programming, while others in salaried positions may refer to their job as software development or software engineering. Both major alternatives carry negative connotations to some members of opposing groups and their associates. (The debate centers on the level of complexity that should be implied to people who do not have the skills or time to evaluate for themselves.)

In English, a mass noun is a type of noun that has a singular, but no plural form. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

Non-English

  • Krai kai kai gai (ใครขายไข่ไก่) or Kai kai kai: This phrase is used to teach Thai children the subtleties of their tonal language. When each word is pronounced with the proper tone, the phrase means, "Who sells chicken eggs?"
  • Rødgrød med fløde [ˈʁøðgʁøːˀð mɛð ˈfløːðɛ]: The definitive test of one's mastery of the Danish language. No non-native is likely to pronounce the sentence (which means 'mashed strawberries with cream' in English) correctly due to the overwhelming amount of Danish phonemes.
  • Rugbrød : Danish for Rye bread, almost impossible for non-scandinavians to pronounce due to the "soft" g and d and the Scandinavian letter ø.
  • A æ u å æ ø i æ å : a well-known Danish vowels-only way of judging someone's ability to speak Jysk, the general dialect of Jutland. Often/usually practiced on visitors from Copenhagen. In standard Danish, the sentence would be Jeg er ude på øen i åen ("I'm on the island in the stream").
  • I öa ä e å, o i åa ä e ö, a Swedish phrase from Värmland, containing only vowels. "On the island is a river, and in the river an island". In standard Swedish it would be "På ön finns det en å, och i ån finns det en ö".
  • Chuchichäschtli [ˈχʊχiːˌχæʃtli] in Swiss German, meaning "little kitchen cupboard" is nearly unpronounciable for outsiders because of the frequent /χ/. Most Swiss would pronounce it /ˈxʊxɪxɛʃtli/ with velar fricatives.
  • The sentence a o'agnehm grean agstrichns Gartatihrle (a garden door painted in an awful shade of green) serves as a Swabian shibboleth. The consecutive nasal sounds are almost unspeakable for other German speakers.
  • A Czech or Slovak shibboleth is Strč prst skrz krk, meaning "stick the finger through the throat". This is usually used to verify whether someone is drunk or not. It is also a sentence made only of consonants.
  • Estamos de huelga is a Spanish phrase meaning "We are on strike". The majority of Spaniards pronounce "huelga" (strike) as [ˈwelga]. Andalusians and Extremadurans, though, often pronounce the elsewhere silent /h/ and intermix /l/ and /ɾ/, pronouncing "huelga" like the Spanish word "juerga", as [ˈxweɾga]. This will change the meaning of the sentence to "We are having fun". The same happens in the Southwestern region of the Dominican Republic, where for example "mal" (bad) [mal] is pronounced "mar" (sea) [maɾ]. Similarly, Puerto Ricans change the sound of a mid-word /ɾ/ to an /l/, thus a Puerto Rican will say "I come from Puelto Rico".
  • In Spanish, most Argentinians and Uruguayans pronounce /ʝ/ as /ʒ/ or /ʃ/. This for example turns arroyo ([a'roʝo], stream) into [aˈroʒo] or [aˈroʃo].
  • Many businesses in the United States tout the bi-linguality of their workers with the advertisement "Hablamos español," literally meaning "we speak Spanish." However, the proper and grammatical phrasing "Se habla español," is often used by customers to distinguish between establishments that employ native and non-native speakers.
  • Northern-Italian dialects have ü and ö sounds as French or German, which are not present in standard Italian language or southern dialects. Words like föra [ˈføra] (out) may be used to discern whether one is from the north. Comedians Aldo, Giovanni and Giacomo presented a whole scene about a similar shibboleth in their first movie, the Lombard word cadrega: a guest, suspected to be a southerner, would be shown a table with many sorts of fruit, and offered to take a cadrega ([kaˈdrega]), unaware he was actually being offered just a chair (in Italian, sedia [ˈsɛdja]).
  • Italians travelling abroad and wishing to dine at an Italian restaurant often check the menu's grammar to verify whether the restaurant can be trusted to be authentic. Common errors are missing prepositions as in "spaghetti bolognese" instead of "spaghetti alla bolognese", missing accents, such as "tiramisu" instead of "tiramisù" and uncommon misspellings such as "mozarella" (mozzarella).
  • In Chile, the pronunciation of /tʃ/ as /ʃ/ is often associated with the lower classes. Hence, humorous phrases like "el shansho con shaleco" (corruption of "el chancho con chaleco", the pig with a sweater) denotes a person with a genuine lower class pronunciation, or just somebody impersonating it, in jest. It is a major problem for English teachers to make their Chilean students to pronounce both sounds correctly.
  • The German words Streichholzschächtelchen (small box of matches), Eichhörnchen (squirrel), Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences) and Strickstrumpf (knitted sock) serve as shibboleths for distinguishing native speakers from foreigners, due to their many ch sounds and the large number of consonants.
  • In Mandarin Chinese, the sentence sì shì sì, shí shì shí, shísì shì shísì, sìshí shì sìshí (四是四,十是十,十四是十四,四十是四十; four is four, ten is ten, fourteen is fourteen, forty is forty) is used to distinguish between native speakers of northern varieties of Mandarin from northern China, and native speakers of other Chinese varieties from central and southern China, including Jianghuai Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, Min Nan, and so forth, most of which lacks the retroflex consonant sh /ʂ/.
  • A Polish shibboleth is W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie (in Szczebrzeszyn the beetle skirls in the reed).
  • In Finnish, shibboleths include höyryjyrä /ˈhøyryˌjyræ/ (steam roller) and the loanword öljylamppu /ˈøljyˌlampːu/ (oil lamp).
  • In Quebec French, the phrase Je m'en câlisse is sometimes used as a shibboleth, distinguishing natives of France from Québecois.
  • The Northern Norwegian dialogue fragment "Æ e i a." "Æ e i a, æ å." ("I'm in A." "I'm in A, too." - proper Norwegian: "Jeg er i A." "Jeg er også i A." "A" refers to the Norwegian naming of different classes of the same grade) is near-impossible to reproduce for a non-Scandinavian, due to the use of the vowels Æ and Å. It is also very hard for a native speaker of another dialect to reproduce with the correct enunciations and pitch, often sounding grotesquely exaggerated.
  • Northern Norwegians also sometimes use "Fersk fisk, rakfisk" /fæ'ʂkfesk-ra'kfesk/ to distinguish between natives and "pretenders".
  • Korean (language) "ㄱ", and words involving them. are almost impossible to pronounce with non-natives. Thus, words involving the alphabet will translate into either g or k in English, first being weak accented, while latter is too much.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Tone (linguistics). ... Rødgrød med fløde   listen? (Danish: red porridge with cream) is a traditional Danish dessert pudding. ... Danish (dansk) is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages), a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Jutlandic or Jutish (jy(d)sk in Danish), is a term for the dialects of Danish spoken on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the only non-insular part of Denmark and also the northernmost part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Swabian (Schwäbisch) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German, spoken in the region of Swabia. ... Strč prst skrz krk ( ) is a Czech and Slovak tongue-twister meaning stick finger through throat. The sentence is well known in both languages for having a total absence of vowels. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[1] primarily in Italy and Switzerland. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related dialects spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions), in Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Toms Restaurant, a restaurant in New York made familiar by Suzanne Vega and the television sitcom Seinfeld A restaurant is an establishment that serves prepared food and beverages to order, to be consumed on the premises. ... In a restaurant, a menu is the list of options for a diner to select. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Wu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Lublin Voivodship Old Zamość Voivodship Szczebrzeszyn ( pronunciation, Yiddish: Shebershin) is a Polish city in southeastern Poland, situated near Zamość in the Lublin Voivodship (since 1999), previously in Zamość Voivodship (1975–1998). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ...

References

  1. ^ "shibboleth". Oxford English Dictionary (second). (1989). 
  2. ^ shibboleth. American Heritage Dictionary, also sometimes rye, Fourth Edition. shibboleth. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Cf. Isaiah 27:12.
  3. ^ code. Jargon File. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... A tongue-twister is a phrase in any language that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly. ... U and non-U English usage, with U standing for upper class, and non-U representing the rest, were part of the terminology of popular discourse of social dialects (sociolects) in 1950s Britain and the northeast United States. ...

External links

Look up Shibboleth in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Shibboleth Introduction (438 words)
Shibboleth is an initiative to develop an open, standards-based solution to the needs for organizations to exchange information about their users in a secure, and privacy-preserving manner.
Shibboleth will use OpenSAML for the message and assertion formats, and protocol bindings which is based on Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) developed by the OASIS Security Services Technical Committee.
Shibboleth has defined a standard set of attributes; the first set is based on the eduPerson object class that includes widely-used person attributes in higher education.
Shibboleth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4423 words)
The Finnish phoneme rolled R [r] in general is considered a "shibboleth" between normality and various types of speech defects.
In the TV series "West Wing" in an episode appropriately titled "Shibboleth", President Josiah Bartlet (Martin Sheen) utilizes knowledge of the Biblical term to determine whether a group of supposedly Christian Chinese refugees are legitimate in their desire for seeking religious freedom.
A Polish shibboleth is W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie (in Szczebrzeszyn the beetle skirls in the reed).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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