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Encyclopedia > Shia Islam
Imam Ali's Shrine in Najaf, Iraq.
Imam Ali's Shrine in Najaf, Iraq.

Part of a series on
Shī‘a Islam
Image File history File links Meshed_ali_usnavy_(PD). ... Image File history File links Meshed_ali_usnavy_(PD). ... Najaf (Arabic: ‎; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...



Image File history File links Basmala. ...

Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ...

People of the House

Muhammad
Ali ibn Abu Talib
Fatima Zahra
HasanHusayn
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and the fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
Straying of the Sahaba
View of the Qur'an
Ghadir KhummKarbala
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ...

See Also

History of Shia Islam
...

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Shī‘a terms

Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism (Arabic: شيعة; šīʿa), is the largest minority denomination (10-20%) based on the Islamic faith after Sunni Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Islamic prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as Shi'a Imams, whom they consider to be infallible. Shia's assert the right of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Muhammad's cousin and husband of Fatimah) as successor to Muhammad, rejecting the legitimacy of the first three caliphs of Islamic history. The singular/adjective form is šīʿī (شيعي.) and refers to a follower of the faction of Ali according to the Shia ideology. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... A moderate Shia is a Sunni term for the Shia Salaf who loved Ali. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... Infallibility is the ability to be free from error (obtain certainty). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Shia Islam has at times been divided into many branches, however only three of these currently have a significant number of followers. Likewise, Sunni Islam has divisions but these are more philosophical rather than religious difference that you find within the Shia. The best known and the one with most adherents is the Twelvers (اثنا عشرية iṯnāʿašariyya) which have a large percentage in Azerbaijan and Iran 90% and Iraq 65%; the others are the Ismaili or Sevener, and Zaidiyyah. Alawites and Druzes consider themselves Shias, although this is sometimes disputed by mainstream Shias[1]. The Sufi orders among the Shias are the Alevi, Bektashi, Kubrawiya, Noorbakhshi, Oveyssi, Qizilbashi, Hamadani and Fatimid orders and denominations. Ten percent[citation needed] of Turkey's population is Alevi while Lebanon and Syria have 20% to 30% of Shias. Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ... For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shia Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria The terms AlawÄ« and Alevi, although they share... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic, Hebrew The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; ‎, Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion is said to have begun as an offshoot of the Ismaili sect of... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Kurdish: Alevi, Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are a religious community in Turkey, and they make up some 20% of the population of the country. ... The Bektashism (Turkish: BektaÅŸilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... The Kubrawiya order is a Sufi order (tariqa) named after its 13th century founder Najmeddin Kubra. ... The Holy Quran, 2:148 Whoever knows the true self, knows God. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: ‎ ​ Qezelbāš, Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ) - Ottoman Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Kurdish: Alevi, Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are a religious community in Turkey, and they make up some 20% of the population of the country. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Shia etymology

"Shia" is the short form of the historic phrase šīʿat ʿAlī (شيعة علي), meaning "the followers of Ali" or "the faction of Ali". Both Shia and Sunni sources trace the term to the years preceding the death of Muhammad; see Shia etymology. Shia Etymology regarding the term Shia (Arabic شیعه) according to Sunnite and Shiite sources stems from during the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad whereupon the present day Shias argue the usage of this term is permissable by Islamic History. ... Shia Etymology regarding the term Shia (Arabic شیعه) according to Sunnite and Shiite sources stems from during the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad whereupon the present day Shias argue the usage of this term is permissable by Islamic History. ...


Overview

Shia Muslims believe that the descendants from Muhammad through his daughter Fatima Zahra and his son-in-law Ali (the Imams) were the best source of knowledge about the Qur'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad's Sunnah (traditions), and the most worthy of emulation. This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...


In particular, Shia Muslims recognize the succession of Ali (Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law, the first man to accept Islam — second only to Muhammad's wife Khadija — the male head of the Ahl al-Bayt or "people of the [Prophet's] house") and the father of Muhammad's only bloodline as opposed to that of the caliphate recognized by Sunni Muslims. Shia Muslims believe that Ali was appointed successor by Muhammad's direct order on many occasions, and that he is therefore the rightful leader of the Muslim faith. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (555 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's family and descendants) or the Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shia and non-Shia views on some of the Qur'an, the Hadith (narrations from Muhammad) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of Hadith venerated by Shia Muslims is centered on narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt and their supporters, while some Hadith by narrators not belonging to or supporting the Ahl al-Bayt are not included (those of Abu Huraira, for example). Ali was the third successor to Abu Bakr and, for the Shia, the first divinely sanctioned "imam," or male descendant of Muhammad. The seminal event in Shia history is the martyrdom in 680 CE of Ali's son Hussein, who led an uprising against the "illegitimate" caliph (72 of Hussein's followers were killed as well). For the Shia, Hussein came to symbolize resistance to tyranny. Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... `Abdul-Rahman bin Sakhr Al-Azdi [AKA Abu Hurairah, Abu Hurayrah or even Abu Horaira. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the...


Regardless of the dispute about the Caliphate, the Shia recognize the religious authority of the Shia Imams, also called Khalifa Ilahi. The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ...


There are two interpretations about the emergence of Shia. One of them emphasizes on the political struggle about succession of Muhammad which happened after death of Muhammad and especially during the First Fitna.[2] The other one emphasizes on different interpretation of Islam which led to different understanding about the role of caliphs and ulamas. Hossein Nasr has quoted: The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ...

Shi'ism was not brought into existence only by the question of the political succession to Muhammad as so many Western works claim (although this question was of course of great importance). The problem of political succession may be said to be the element that crystallized the Shi'ites into a distinct group, and political suppression in later periods, especially the martyrdom of Imam Husayn-upon whom be peace-only accentuated this tendency of the Shi'ites to see themselves as a separate community within the Islamic world. The principal cause of the coming into being of Shi'ism, however, lies in the fact that this possibility existed within the Islamic revelation itself and so had to be realized. Inasmuch as there were exoteric[Zaheri] and esoteric[Bateni] interpretations from the very beginning, from which developed the schools (madhhab) of the Sharia and Sufism in the Sunni world, there also had to be an interpretation of Islam which would combine these elements in a single whole. This possibility was realized in Shi'ism, for which the Imam is the person in whom these two aspects of traditional authority are united and in whom the religious life is marked by a sense of tragedy and martyrdom... Hence the question which arose was not so much who should be the successor of the Muhammad as what the function and qualifications of such a person would be.[3] The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

Demographics

Map showing some Core areas of maliki, Shafi, Hanbalis and Hanafi Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe.
Map showing some Core areas of maliki, Shafi, Hanbalis and Hanafi Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe.

By some estimates, approximately 10-15% of the world's Muslims are Shia. There are an estimated 130 to 190 million Shia Muslims[4] (including Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidis) throughout the world, with the largest representation in Iran (which has the highest Shia population), Pakistan, India, Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Afghanistan.[5][6] WORLD SHIA POPULATION Includes all sects - Jafari, Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidi, Alevis, Alawite, Bohri, Imami, Bektashi, etc. ... The following table analyzes the Demographics of Islam as of mid-year 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 420 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 1302 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Approximate map of the distribution of the four Sunni madhhab schools of legal interpretation. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 420 pixelsFull resolution (2480 × 1302 pixel, file size: 483 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Approximate map of the distribution of the four Sunni madhhab schools of legal interpretation. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ...


A large portion of the world's Shia live in the Middle East. The Shia Population of the Middle East[7] constitutes a majority in Yemen, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Bahrain and especially Iran, where 90% of the population is Shia, giving it the highest percentage of Shia Muslims of any country in the world[2]. In Lebanon Shia form a plurality, and they remain as significant minorities in Afghanistan, Syria, India, Pakistan, Turkey and Yemen. Among the smaller Persian Gulf states, Qatar, Kuwait (~30%) and the United Arab Emirates (~16%) also have significant Shia minorities, as does the (Eastern Province ~33%) of Saudi Arabia. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Eastern Province (Arabic: ) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the Persian Gulf coast, and has land borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ...


About 20% of India's Muslim population is Shia, and significant Shia communities exist on the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik). Shia presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis. Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ...


According to the Shia, one of the lingering problems in estimating the Shia population is that unless the Shia form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shia [8]. The Shia-majority areas of Al-Ahsa, Qatif and Hofuf on the Persian Gulf, and western Arabia provinces of Jazan, Asir and Hijaz, that had large Shia minorities, have officially been completely stripped of their religious identities. Some Shia claim that they endure much bigotry and other indignities from Wahabi authorities daily and that Shia pilgrims from other countries are often singled out for harassment (see Status of religious freedom in Saudi Arabia); in Saudi Arabia they are called akkaf (عكف) which means rejecters (رافضه). The House of Saud ( transliteration: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hasa, (Arabic: ‎ , locally ) is a governorate of Saudi Arabias Eastern Province about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf. ... Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; Arabic: ) is a historic, coastal oasis region located on the western shore of the Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Hofuf (Arabic: الهفوف) is a common name for the major city also called Al-Hasa or Hassa in the Al-Hasa oasis in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Jizan (or Jazan) (Arabic: جيزان) is the capital of the Jizan Province in the far south-west of Saudi Arabia. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Saudi Arabia ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Islamic theocratic monarchy in which Islam is the official religion; the law requires that all Saudi citizens be Muslims. ...


Doctrines

Part of a series on the Islamic creed:
Aqidah
For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ...


Five Pillars of Islam

Shahādah - Profession of faith
Salah - Prayer
Zakâh - Paying of alms (giving to the poor)
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Image File history File links Mosque02. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

Sunni Six articles of belief

Tawhīd - Oneness
Nabi and Rusul - Prophets and Messengers
Kutub - Divinely Revealed Books.
Malā'ikah - Angels
Qiyâmah - Judgment Day
Qadr (Predestination) Shia belive in divine justice beside it
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Six articles of belief is a set of beliefs enumerated by the Sunnis: The six Sunni articles of belief are: Belief in God (Allah), the one and only one worthy of all worship (tawhid). ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Nabi can refer to the Arabic and Hebrew word for Prophet the Korean word for butterfly one of the Nabis, a group of artists in Paris in the 1890s the 2005 Typhoon Nabi North American Bus Industries, a major transit bus manufacturing company Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, a Biopharmaceutical company based in... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... The Islamic holy books are the records believed from Muslims that were dictated by God to prophets. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... Qadr as an Islamic term is parallel to the western doctrines of Predestination. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ...

Shi'a Twelvers
Principles of the Religion (Usul al-Din)

Tawhīd - Oneness
Adalah - Justice
Nubuwwah - Prophethood
Imamah - Leadership
Qiyâmah - Judgment Day
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...

Shi'a Twelvers
Practices of the Religion (Furu al-Din)

Salah - Prayer
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Zakâh - Poor-rate
Khums - One-fifth tax
Jihad - Struggle
Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf - Commanding good
Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbidding evil
Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Tabarra - Disassociating Ahl al-Bayt's enemies
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... Salat redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...

Shi'a Ismaili 7 pillars

Walayah - Guardianship
Taharah - Purity & cleanliness
Salah - Prayers
Zakâh - Purifying religious dues
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad - Struggle
Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Shia Ismaili Seven Pillars of Islam have three doctrines that are not included in the Sunni Five Pillars of Islam: Walayah, Taharah and Jihad. ... Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...

Others

Kharijite Sixth pillar of Islam. Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Sunni Islam faith, Shia Islam uses other concepts. ...

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Main doctrines

The Shia believe in the five pillars of Islam, as do Sunnis, but categorize them differently. Shia beliefs include the following: The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ...


Theology of Shia (Usūl al-Dīn) In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ...

  • Tawhīd (Oneness): The Oneness of God
  • Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God
  • Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (that is, a perfect system of how to live in "peace" ("submission to God")) Prophets are Messengers which are appointed by Allah to bring the message of God to people and spread that message while Imam(leader) is appointed by Allah to protect that message since ordinary people will fail to do so. Also because Prophet Mohammed PBUH was the last Messenger of God which means the message he brought was the last and final message to the people from Allah; none is supposed to bring a message from Allah after Mohammed PBUH, therefore, if people were left with the message alone, the true message could not survive long and would have undergone changes. Imams were therefore appointed to take care of the message and prevent people from going astray after the last prophet.
  • Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise. Shia believe in Twelve Imams, eleven of them were martyred, but they believe their twelfth Imam is still alive, their history says that he disappeared after performing rituals of the eleventh Imam's (his father) martyrdom. He is still under 'ghaybat' or 'occultation' and will appear on the face of the earth to raise the truth and bring an end to tyranny and oppression (and other evils currently prevailing in the world)
  • Qiyamah (The Day of Judgment): After the annihilation of this world, God will raise mankind for Judgement.

Aspects of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ...

  • Salat — called "Namaaz" in Persian — (Prayer) – Performing the five daily prayers (Prayers can be made up for at night)
  • Sawm — called "Roozeh" in Persian — (Fast) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan (Able to eat after the sun goes down)
  • Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (once in a lifetime)
  • Zakat (Poor-rate) – paying the poor-tax (2.5% of your wealth every year should go to the poor)
  • Khums (One-fifth of savings) – paying tax to the Imam (سهم امام)
  • Jihad (Struggle) – struggling to please the Almighty. The greater, or internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihad bil qalam) and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of Jihad.
  • Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf – commanding what is good
  • Nahi-Anil-Munkar – forbidding what is evil
  • Tawalla – loving the Ahlul Bayt and their followers
  • Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان ) is the ninth month of the Islamic year. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (خمس) is the Arabic word for One Fifth (1/5). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Denominations

Imam Ali Reza's Shrine (Ali ar Ridha), IRAN
  • Most Shia are Twelvers (Ithna-'Ashariyya) and they recognize twelve Imams.
  1. Ali ibn Abu Talib (600661), also known as Ali, Amir al-Mo'mineen (commander of the faithful), also known as Shah-e Mardan Ali (King of men)
  2. Hasan ibn Ali (625669), also known as Hasan al Mujtaba
  3. Husayn ibn Ali (626680), also known as Husayn al Shaheed, also known as Sah Hüseyin
  4. Ali ibn Husayn (658713), also known as Ali Zainul Abideen
  5. Muhammad ibn Ali (676743), also known as Muhammad al Baqir
  6. Jafar ibn Muhammad (703765), also known as Jafar as Sadiq
  7. Musa ibn Jafar (745799), also known as Musa al Kazim
  8. Ali ibn Musa (765818), also known as Ali ar Ridha
  9. Muhammad ibn Ali (810835), also known as Muhammad al Jawad (Muhammad at Taqi), also known as Taki
  10. Ali ibn Muhamad (827868), also known as Ali al-Hadi, also known as Naki
  11. Hasan ibn Ali (846874), also known as Hasan al Askari
  12. Muhammad ibn Hasan (868–?), also known as Hojjat ibn al Hasan, also known as Mahdi

Image File history File links Imam_Ali_Reza. ... Image File history File links Imam_Ali_Reza. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shi’a Imam and the fourth Sunni Caliph) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... Events Theodore appointed Archibishop of Canterbury Births Justinian II, Byzantine emperor Deaths Hasan ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad and second Shia Imam Categories: 669 ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Ali ibn Husayn, Zayn al-Abideen, (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) ‎ (658 - 713) was the fourth Shia Imam (see Shia Imams). ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ... Events November 2 - Donus becomes Pope. ... Events Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) succeeded by al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744). ... Imam Muhammad al Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Events Births Deaths Empress Jito of Japan In Other Fields 703 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Northern Virginia region of the United States. ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... Events 29 November - Pope Leo III, aided by Charles the Great, returns to Rome. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... Events Bishop Theodulf of Orléans is deposed and imprisoned after getting involved in a conspiracy of Bernard, king of Italy, against Louis the Pious Births Deaths May 26 - Ali ar-Rida, Shia Imam Categories: 818 ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Events Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date) The celebration of All Saints is made an obligation throughout the Frankish Empire and fixed on November 1. ... Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (April 12, 811 - November 27, 835) was the ninth Shia Imam. ... Events Succession of Pope Valentine, then Pope Gregory IV. Arabs invade Sicily. ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... Imam Ali al-Hadi (September 8, 828 _ July 1, 868) was the tenth Shia Imam. ... Events The Moors temporarily recapture León. ... Events March 13 - The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople. ... Imam Hasan al-Askari (December 6, 846 - January 4, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Nizari Ismailis are the sect of Islam that followed what happened at Ghadir-I-Khum(yes that is how you say it). ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a MustaˤlÄ« subsect of IsmāīlÄ« Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... Alavi Bohra (Arabic: علوی بوہرہ) are a subsect of Ismaili Mustaali. ... Seveners (Arabic سبعية) are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Ismail may refer to: Ishmael, son of Abraham, mentioned in both the Torah and the Quran Izmail, a town in Ukraine This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ...

Status of a Shia Imam

Main article: Status of a Shia Imam

The Ahlul Bayt are the perfect example for mankind, and like the prophets, they should be emulated in acts and deeds. The Shia believe that the Imams of Ahlul Bayt carry the divinely appointed responsibility of protecting Islam and enacting the example of the pure Sunnah of Muhammad. The Imams of Ahlul Bayt have guided Muslims throughout history, in many cases under the most horrible circumstances and under the most severe forms of discrimination due to the cruel policies of the reigning governments of the time. They are seen as incorruptible and infallible role models for Muslims that have shown the way of goodness and prosperity in this world and the next in the best way until their martyrdom or occultation. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Jurisprudence

Main article: Ja'fari jurisprudence

Ja'fari jurisprudence or Ja'fari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ...


The Ja'ffari Shia consider Sunnah to be the oral traditions of Muhammad and their implementation and interpretation by the Imams who were all scholars and descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband, the first Imam, Ali. Fatima may refer to: Fatima (name) a female personal name (see that article for a list of other people with the name) Fatima Zahra, daughter of prophet Muhammad, and wife of Ali, the 1st Imam of Shia Islam. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


Role of religious scholars

Main article: The Shia clergy

Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of God's laws. Sunni Muslims also believe that they can interpret the Qur'an and hadith with the same authority as their predecessors - that the door to ijtihad was never closed. However, the opinion of the 1st and 2nd Century (7th and 8th century Gregorian calendar) scholars Hanbali, Hanafi, Maliki, and Shafii are given greater weight. Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ...


Differences of Shia and Sunni traditions

Because Islamic law is based partly on the hadith, Shia rejection of some Sunni hadith and Sunni rejection of some Shia hadith means that the versions of the law differ somewhat. For example, while both Shia and Sunni pray five times each day, some of the prayer times differ. Shia pray the As'r and Ish'a because its likely to be done like that and it can be prayed as the Sunni do, and therefore, they are prayed together with the Zuhur and Maghrib prayers, respectively. Shia do not perform non-obligatory prayers in congregation, like Tar'raweeh, which Sunnis pray during Ramadaan. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Also, another issue of difference between the sects is that Nikah Mut‘ah or "temporary marriage" which is not forbidden for the Shia because it is found in a number of Shia traditions that the practice is permitted. There are Sahih Shia traditions which maintain that mut'ah is forbidden but these are dismissed as they contradict other narrations on mut'ah which were deemed more acceptable.[9] Many Shia discourage the practice of Mut'ah, but maintain that it is permissible. NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ...



Religious calendar

Shi'a Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during the Remembrance of Muharram.
Shi'a Muslims in Bahrain strike their chests during the Remembrance of Muharram.

All Muslims, Sunni or Shia, celebrate the following annual holidays: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x773, 160 KB) Summary Young men striking their chests with their hands in union at a procession during the Festival of Muharram. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x773, 160 KB) Summary Young men striking their chests with their hands in union at a procession during the Festival of Muharram. ...

  • Eid ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر), which marks the end of fasting during the month of Ramadan and falls on the first day of Shawwal.
  • Eid ul-Adha, which marks the end of the Hajj or pilgrimage to Makkah, starts on the 10th day of Dhul Hijja.

The following holidays are observed by Shia only, unless otherwise noted: Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated as simply Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. ... This article is about Islamic religious observances in the month of Ramadan. ... Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ... This article is about the Islamic tradition. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... Dhul Hijjah (ḏū-l-ḥiǧǧatu ذو الحجة) is the 12th month on the Islamic calendar. ...

  • The Remembrance of Muharram and Ashurah (عاشوراء) for Shia commemorates Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom. Imam Husayn was grandson of Muhammad, who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah, the Sunnis' 6th Khalif. Ashurah is a day of deep mourning which occurs on the 10th of Muharram. Sunnis also celebrate Ashurah, but give it a different meaning (see Ashurah).
  • Arba'een commemorates the suffering of the women and children of Imam Husayn's household. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arba'een occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah.
  • Milad al-Nabi, Muhammad's birth date, is celebrated by the Shia on the 17th of Rabbi al-Awwal, which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
  • Middle of Shaban is the birth date of the 12th and final imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Twelvers on the 15th of Shaban. Many Shia fast on this day to show gratitude.
  • Eid al-Ghadeer celebrates Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali's imamate before a multitude of Muslims. Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhil-Hijjah.
  • Al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the household of Muhammad and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhil-Hijjah.

The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... Arbaeen (Arabic: ‎, means forty), or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu-speaking Muslims, is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashurah, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad which falls on... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Safar (صفر) is the second month in the Islamic calendar. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... It has been suggested that Mahdi be merged into this article or section. ... Shaaban (Arabic: شعبان ) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Eid al-Ghadeer is the anniversary of the Event of Ghadeer, an Islamic event on the 18th of the Islamic month of Dhul-Hijjah in which the Prophet Muhammad delivered his last sermon. ... Ghadir(-e) Khum (Persian/Arabic: غدیر خم) or Qadir(-e) Khum is a location in Saudi Arabia between Mecca and Medina and an event wich for Shia Muslims from authentic Hadiths confirm one of the refrences to the direct successorship of Imam Ali after the Prophet Muhammad as Leader and Caliph of... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... This is an Arabic phrase literally translated as People of the House, or family. ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ...

History of Shia-Sunni relations

Main article: Historical Shia-Sunni relations

The Shia believe that the split between the Shia and Sunni began with Muhammad's death, when Abu Bakr was accepted as the successor to Muhammed by the majority of Muslims, then Umar and Uthman. "They believe that the successorship was given to Ali at Ghadir Khum (a hadith accepted by Shi’a scholars)[citation needed], and that the testimony that can be traced back to reliable sources is to be trusted, while traditions that cannot be fully verified are suspect. Shia and Sunni are the two major branches of Islam (see Historic background of the Sunni-Shia split for their origins). ...


Shia and Sunni historians record that many Shia have been persecuted, intimidated, and killed, through what Shia consider a coup d'état against Ali's caliphate.[citation needed] Many prominent Salafi Sunni scholars are known to have openly considered the Shia as "kufar" (disbelievers). Imam Ash-Shafi'i, one of the most prominent early scholars of his time said in regards to the Shia "I have not seen among the heretics a people more famous for falsehood than the Raafidite Shi’ites."[10] Such statements stem mainly from differences in beliefs regarding Ali, Umar, and other companions, and in the Shia's use of various concepts, such as Muta. Coup redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about an Islamic term. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... It has been suggested that Mutta marriage be merged into this article or section. ...


The renowned al-Azhar university of theology in Egypt, originally founded by the Shia during the reign of the Fatimid caliphate in 988[11], considers Shia philosophy to be an indivisible part of the body of Islamic jurisprudence. Today, both Sunni and Shia students graduate from the Al-Azhar university which also teaches regarding both doctrines and uses certain Shia material in its courses. (See List of Shia books). On July 6, 1959, Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot -the head of the al-Azhar Theological school- announced the al-Azhar Shia Fatwa Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... // These books include discussions about Theology (Tawhīd, Nubuwwah, Imamah, etc ) of Shia. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... The renowned al-Azhar Theological school in Egypt, one of the main centers of Sunni scholarship in the world hade a ten year long exchange with a Shia scholar. ...

1) Islam does not require a Muslim to follow a particular Madh'hab (school of thought). Rather, we say: every Muslim has the right to follow one of the schools of thought which has been correctly narrated and its verdicts have been compiled in its books. And, everyone who is following such Madhahib [schools of thought] can transfer to another school, and there shall be no crime on him for doing so. 2) The Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shia al-Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought.

Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi has made differing statements on the matter, and seems to have changed his stance on Shi'aism as he acquired more knowledge on the topic: For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ...

"Let it be known to all that the Shi`ah are Muslims who believe in the Oneness of Allah and the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Yes, there is no doubt that the Shi`ah have their beliefs and dogmas which we condemn as heresy but this doesn’t make them non-Muslims." (August 17, 2006)[12]

"He pointed out that he travelled to Iran around 8 years ago and met with former Iranian President Mohammad Khatami and was received enthusiastically. And he told the Shia scholars there that if there is to be a true discussion and unity amongst us it is necessary for a number of things to be fully stopped, such as your saying that the Quran in our hands is altered and that the Mushaf Faatemah is an addition to this Quran, and the constant insults upon the Sahaabah, May Allah be pleased with them . And it is beyond imagination that I would say Abu Bakr, Radhia Allahu Anhu, and you say, La'anahu Allah, this is totally unacceptable. Also to stop consistently talking about Ali's higher right to Khilaphah, for all of them have died and the matter is finished, and that Umar bin Abdul Aziz was asked on the past conflict between Ali and Muawiyah and the blood in this conflict, he said that Allah has cleansed our hands from this blood so why should we soil our tongues with it." (September 3, 2006)[13]

Similar fatwas (promoting the acceptance of Shi'as into mainstream Islam) have not been issued by some Sunni scholars or universities. A number of contemporary Sunni scholars such as Shaykh Dr Khaalid ibn ‘Ali al-Mushayqih (who released a fatwa regarding praying with the Shia) maintain that Shia are not considered as Muslims, unless they deny certain beliefs found in a number of Shia hadith books like al-kafi that are accepted by the majority of twelver Shia: A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Usul al-Kafi (literally, Sufficing fundamentals) is one of the most authoritative Shia hadith collections, collected by Muhammad Yaqub Kulainy. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ...


The Shia and Sunnis differ in their view of Aisha (one of the wives of the Muhammad). The Shia have a dim view of her character whereas the Sunnis consider her an exemplary woman. The differences stem primarily from the Shia claim of dishonourable behaviour with Muhammad and her taking a position opposed to the position of the fourth Caliph Ali regarding how to handle the prosecution of the assassinators of the third Caliph Uthman. For more details, please refer to Sunni and Shia views of Aisha. For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ...


Notable Shia Muslims

Scholars

See also: List of Shia Islamic scholars

Abbasali Amid Zanjani (1937-..) Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (1953-..) Abdul Hakeem Buturabi Abdul Karim Mousavi Ardebili (1926-..) Abdollah Noori Abdolhossein Moezi Abdolvahed Mousavi-Lari (1954-..) Ahmad Jannati (1926-..) Ahmad Khatami Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (1934-..) Ali Akbar Mohtashami-Pur Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri Ali al-Sistani (1930-..) Ali Fallahian (1945-..) Ali... Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Yaqoub bin Ishaaq al-Kulainy Ar-Razi (d. ... Mohammad ibn-Ali ibn-e Babuyeh , ( who is known as Sheikh Saduq and ibn-e Babuyeh) (306- 381 A.H) in Qom. ... Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ebn Noman known as Sheikh al-Mufid (~932-1006 CE) was an eminent shiite scholar. ... ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ...

Contemporary Scholars

Iraq

  • Ayatollah al Baghdadi
  • Ali al-Sistani
  • Bashir Hussain Najafi
  • Muhammed Saeed Al-Hakeem
  • Mohammad Ishaq Al-Fayyad
  • Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim (late)
  • Abul-Qassim Khoei (late)
  • Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (late)

His Honourarable Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani (Arabic: السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني Persian: سید علی حسینی سیستانی), born approximately August 4, 1930, is a Grand Ayatollah, a Shia marja and currently an important person in relation to the occupation of Iraq. ... Grand Ayatollah Bashir al-Najafi (Arabic: آية الله بشير النجفي) (born 1942) is one of the four Grand Ayatollahs in Iraq. ... Mohammad Said al-Hakeem Grand Ayatollah residing in Najaf. ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ishaq al-Fayyadh ( Arabic: محمد إسحاق الفياض ). He lives in Najaf, Iraq. ... Ayatollah Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim Tabatabai was born in late 19th century in a family renowned for its scholarship. ... Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei (1899 - August 8, 1992) was an important Shia Ayatollah, who at one point was considered the premiere leader of Shias across the world. ... Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر ) (March 1, 1935 - April 8, 1980) was an Iraqi Shia cleric born in al-Kadhimya, Iraq. ...

Iran

Grand Ayatollah Hossein Vahid Khorasani (born in 1924) is an Iranian Shia Marja. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Bahjat Foumani (born in 1917)is an Iranian Shia Marja. ... The Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is one of the most important and influential Ayatollahs currently in Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Hossein Noori Hamedani is an Iranian Shia Marja. ... Grand Ayatollah Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani is an Iranian Shia Marja. ... Grand Ayatullah Sayid Ruhullah Musawi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ« (September 21, 1900 [1]– June 3, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... Grand Ayatollah Mirza Javad Tabrizi (1926-2006) was an Iranian Shia Marja. ...

Lebanon

Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah (b. ...

Pakistan

  • Ali Alhari (Allama Hindi)(late)
  • Hamid Ali Mosvi
  • Sayyad Iejaz Kazmi
  • Mohsin Najfi
  • Safdar Najfi (late)
  • Talib Johri
  • Naseem Abbass Razvi
  • Al-Ahammad Bilgrami
  • Irfan Haider Abdi(late)
  • Najmul Hassan Kararvi(late)
  • Allama Farman Ali(late)
  • Allama Ghazanfer Abbas Tonsvi
  • Syed Baqir Nisar Zaidi
  • Molana Hafiz Mohammad Ismail(late)
  • Janab AbdulKarim Mushtaq shaheed(late)
  • Syed Sajid Ali Naqvi

India

  • Maulana Kalbe Abid(late)
  • Maulana Kalbe Sadiq
  • Maulana Kalbe Jawaad
  • Maulana Athar
  • Shaik Ahmad Mohammadi,, president islamia scholl KARGIL j&k

See also

For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... // Introduction There are numerous books on history, literature, bibliography, etc - by both early and contemporary writers - that undermine the scholastic, literary, social, and cultural rights of the Shia. ... WORLD SHIA POPULATION Includes all sects - Jafari, Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidi, Alevis, Alawite, Bohri, Imami, Bektashi, etc. ... The Shia Crescent; numbers show percentage of Shia population. ... // These books include discussions about Theology (Tawhīd, Nubuwwah, Imamah, etc ) of Shia. ... Conservative marjas[1] Naser Makarem Shirazi and Hossein Noori Hamedani This is a list of Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usuli Shia Muslims around the world. ... This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... Alevis are adherents of a branch of Islam, related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in (majority Sunni) Turkey, among both Turks, Zazas, and Kurds. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Shia and Sunni are the two major branches of Islam (see Historic background of the Sunni-Shia split for their origins). ... Usulis are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor fatwas over hadith when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Syria’s Alawis and Shi‘ism
  2. ^ See:
    • Lapidus p. 47
    • Holt p. 72
  3. ^ Nasr, Shi'ite Islam, preface , p. 9 and 10
  4. ^ http://pewforum.org/events/index.php?EventID=R120
  5. ^ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/40241_islamsects.shtml Independent News source mentioning Sunni-Shia demographic statistics]
  6. ^ Sunni-Shia demographic statistics
  7. ^ The Gulf 2000 Project SIPA Columbia University
  8. ^ Discrimination towards Shia in Saudi Arabia
  9. ^ hadith number 511 The Shia sheikh Tusi gives the explanation that although this hadith is Sahih, it was narrated by Ali under taqiyah and therefore the contradiction between this hadith and those Shia narrations permitting mut'ah can be overlooked.
  10. ^ Ibn Taymeeyah, Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, 1/39
  11. ^ History of the Middle East Database
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ Qaradawi: Shias have penetrated Egypt and Hassan Nasrallah is an extremist (i.e. ghalli) Shia

The Gulf 2000 Project (G2K) is a cultural and academic project created in 1993 with backing and sponsorship by Columbia Universitys School of International and Public Affairs. ... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ... In Shia Islamic tradition, Taqiyya (التقية) is the dissimulation of one’s religious beliefs when one fears for ones life, the lives of ones family members, or for the preservation of the faith. ...

References

  • Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis (1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364. 
  • Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies, 2nd, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521779333. 
  • Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn; Seyyed Hossein Nasr (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 

For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ...

Further reading

  • Corbin, Henry (1993). History of Islamic Philosophy, translated by Liadain Sherrard and Philip Sherrard. Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies. ISBN 0710304161. 
  • Halm, Heinz (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748618880. 
  • Halm, Heinz (2007). The Shi'ites: A Short History. Markus Wiener Pub. ISBN 1558764372. 
  • Lalani, Arzina R. (2000). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1860644341. 
  • Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300034997. 
  • Moosa, Matti (1988). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat Sects. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815624115. 
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein; Hamid Dabashi (1989). Expectation of the Millennium: Shiʻism in History. SUNY Press. ISBN 088706843X. 
  • Rogerson, Barnaby (2007). The Heirs of Muhammad: Islam's First Century and the Origins of the Sunni Shia split. Overlook Press. ISBN 1585678961. 
  • Wollaston, Arthur N. (2005). The Sunnis and Shias. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1425479162. 

Henry Corbin (April , 1903 - October 7, 1978) was a philosopher, theologian and professor of Islamic Studies at the Sorbonne in Paris. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, (Persian: سيد حسين نصر) A lifelong student and follower of Frithjof Schuon, Persian philosopher and renowned scholar of comparative religion, is a prominent authority in the fields of Islamic esoterism, sufism, philosophy of science, and metaphysics. ... Hamid Dabashi (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian-born American intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic best known for his scholarship on Iran and Shia Islam. ...

External links

  • Shi'ite an article in Encyclopedia Britannica online
  • Shi'ite Doctorine by MOHAMMAD ALI AMIR-MOEZZI an article in Encyclopedia Iranica
  • Ask Shia
  • ALShiatalk Discussion Forums
  • Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project
  • Aalulbayt Global Information Center
  • Imam Al-Khoei Foundation
  • Shia Search Website
  • Rafed Network For Cultural Development
  • SHIACODE.COM -Shia Islamic Guide
  • Online Community Portal For Sunni -Shia
  • Shia YouTube
  • List of Shia websites
  • IslamTutor
  • Institute for Interreligious Dialogue, Tehran
  • Imam Ali commemorative website
  • Who are the Shia? by Paul Sullivan, History News Network
  • Sunni-Shia agreements and similarities
  • Imamia Mission: Bury
  • Islamic Insights -- News, lifestyle, and spirituality online
  • Jageer-e-AliAkbar Networks

  Results from FactBites:
 
ShaikhSiddiqui Shia (3811 words)
Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn, continue the line of the Imams until the twelfth, who is believed to have ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on Judgment Day.
Shia attempts to challenge the Umayyad leaders resulted in the death of Ali’s son and the third Shia Imam, Husayn, at the Battle of Karbala in 680.
Shias believe that during the occultation of the Twelfth Imam, he is spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as well--and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and prayers.
Iran - Shia Islam (3531 words)
Although Shias have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until the seventeenth century.
Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn (also seen as Hosein), continue the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day.
Shias believe that during the greater occultation of the Twelfth Imam he is spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as well-- and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and prayers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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