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Encyclopedia > Shi'a view of Fatimah

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Shī‘a Islam
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...



Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x313, 11 KB) Caption The ThulFiqar sword of Ali. ...

Branches

Twelvers · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ...

People of the House

Muhammad
AliFatimah
HasanHusayn For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Beliefs

View of the Qur'an
View on Hadith
ImamahSuccession
Ghadir KhummKarbala
This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE) [1] [2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. ...

See Also

Views on Shia Islam
History of Shia Islam There are several views on the Shia. ... ...

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This is a sub-article of Fatima Zahra and Shi'a Islam.

According to Shi'a and non-muslim scholars, Fatima Zahra was Muhammad's only daughter. [1]. The Sunni belief that he had other daughters by Khadijah denies Ali ibn Abu Talib the distinction of being Muhammad's only son-in-law. She is held in highest of esteem, as being the single most ideal example for all women; in terms of her purity and the eventual martyrdom of her son, she is considered to be the Muslim counterpart to the Christian Mary, mother of Jesus; indeed, one of her names is Maryam al-Kubrá, or "the greater Mary". [2] This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ...

Contents

Shi'a biography

Muhammad's era

A'isha

Shi'a state that Muhammad's young wife, Aisha, disliked both Fatima and her husband Ali [3]; that Aisha envied the relationship between Fatima and Ali, and also Muhammad's high regard for Fatima as deceased Khadijah bint Khuwaylid's only daughter. Shi'as state that Aisha was also jealous that Muhammad gave Ali more attention than Abu Bakr, Aisha's father. [4] Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (565 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Muhammad's last days

She had some very emotinal talk with her father during his last days. A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: Hadith) is about the rank of Fatima Zahra, the only surviving daughter of Muhammad. ...


Abu Bakr's era

Coup d'état — 632

Part of a series on the
Succession
to Muhammad
The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


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When Muhammad died, Aisha and her father, Abu Bakr, intrigued to grab the leadership of the Muslim community in a Coup d'état. The Shi'a believe that Muhammad had wanted Ali to succeed him but his commands were ignored. After Abu Bakr assumed leadership, he asked Muslims to swear allegiance to him, as was the Arab custom of the time. Ali and his followers refused and were harassed and threatened by Abu Bakr's supporters. This is a sub-article to Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca and the Succession to Muhammad. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... Hadith of the pen and paper is a famous Hadith in Islam about the event when the prophet Muhammad whas prevented to write his will. ... A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: Hadith) is about the rank of Fatima Zahra, the only surviving daughter of Muhammad. ... Hadith of Usamas dispatchment is a Hadith in Islam about an event during Muhammads last days alive. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: Hadith) is about an event involving Abu Bakr, whom Sunni Muslims regard as the successor to prophet Muhammad (Arabic: Caliph). ... This is a sub-article to Succession to Muhammad. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The day after the the meeting at Saqifah, there was an assemby where a general poll of the people was taken and a general bayah of the community was given to Abu Bakr in Al-Masjid al-Nabawi. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Some Shia and Sunni sources narrated that during the Succession to Muhammad, when Abu Bakr sent a group of people headed by Khalid ibn Walid and Umar at Fatimahs house. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Muhammads inheritance is well documented and controversial topic, both then and at the present. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: hadith) is about Fatimah, Fadak and Abu Bakr. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ...


The meeting at Saqifah

During the time that Fatimah and her husband were washing and burying her father, Umar and Abu Bakr left them and went to the meeting at Saqifah, without informing her, her husband or any of her relatives. At that meeting, Abu Bakr was chosen to become her father's successor. Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ...


Umar at Fatimah's house

According to the Shi'a view, Umar ibn al-Khattab was not only one of Abu Bakr's most zealous supporters, but also his co-conspirator and in some cases his superior. Umar led a party of armed men against Ali's house in Medina and called for Ali and his men to come out and swear allegiance to Abu Bakr, who they had decided would take power in the the meeting at Saqifah. Umar and Khalid ibn Walid threatened to burn the house down if they did not submit. The Shi'a view culminated in them breaking in, resulting in Fatimah's ribs being broken between the broken door and the wall, and she miscarriaging an unborn son named Muhsin. This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Some Shia and Sunni sources narrated that during the Succession to Muhammad, when Abu Bakr sent a group of people headed by Khalid ibn Walid and Umar at Fatimahs house. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Saqifah, also known as Saqifa Bani Saeda or Saqifat Bani Saida, was a roofed building used by the tribe, or banu, of Saida, of the faction of the Khazraj, of the city of Medina in the Hijaz, northwestern Arabia. ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ...


Bay'ah to Abu Bakr

Many of those who were presented also are among the List of Sahaba not giving bay'ah to Abu Bakr. There is a List of Sahaba not giving bayah to Abu Bakr. ... There is a List of Sahaba not giving bayah to Abu Bakr. ...


Fadak and inheritance

Abu Bakr successfully seized power. They proceeded by stripping Fatima of all financial means: The land of Fadak, which Shi'a believe was a gift from Muhammad to her before the Conquest of Mecca,[5] was confiscated and any inheritance due to her was denied since Abu Bakr had conveniently been the only one to hear Muhammad state that "prophets do not leave an inheritance"[6]. This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad Muhammads inheritance is well documented and controversial topic, both then and at the present. ... Fadak (Arabic: فدك) was a tract of land in Khaybar, an oasis in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims on the 10th day of Ramadan in the year 630 January AD ( 8 AH) [1] . In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraish and the Muslim community in Medina...


Fatima opposed this confiscation, and contested Abu Bakr's statements: She still had the merit of being Muhammads daughter and people where still watching, although they where in shock over how the events had turned out. However, even though Fatima and Ali successfully contested Abu Bakr's claim, Abu Bakr refused to return her property as this would jeopardize their newly gained power. Fatima made one last attempt: She interrupted Abu Bakr's speech in the mosque of Medinah, with a long speech of her own. After this speech, Abu Bakr repented and went to return the deed to the land. However, he was stopped by Umar, who grabbed Abu Bakr's beard and demanded an explanation, forcing him to stop jeopardizing the mission. Abu Bakr yet again changed his mind. [4]


Breach in relations

This caused a major breach in their relations, she refused to talk to Abu Bakr until her death, something noted in Sunni hadith collections [7]. The question of this inheritance is one of the most debated points in the Sunni/Shi'a conflict. In effect, Abu Bakr's hands were tied: if he acknowledged her claim to Fadak, it would lend credence to her lineage's claim to the succession of Muhhammad.[8] Fatimah was the daughter of Muhammad, and after his demise, Abu Bakr was elected as a Caliph (see Saqifah). ...


Shia continue that some time later, it became evident that Fatima would not be recovering from her wounds. She still had the people's heart as she was Muhammad's favorite and only biological daughter and was also the mother of Muhammad's only grandchildren. Abu Bakr and Umar went to her house to seek her pardon, and asked permistion to enter. Fatimah refused to answer them, but eventually the was door opened by Ali[9]. Fatimah, still angered that Abu Bakr was refusing her inheritance, angrily rebuked them:

"God be my witness that you two have offended me. In every prayer I curse you and will continue cursing you until I see my father and complain against you."[10].

By Allah (Arabic: Wallah) is Arabic expresion meaning [I promise] by God used to make a promise or express great credibility on a expresion. ... In Islam, one can pray for God to curse someone. ...

Last period

When Fatima was ill with the final sickness which caused her death, the wives of the Emigrants and Companions of the Muhammad went out visit her to ask how she was feeling. In reply to them, after asking for the blessings of God for her father, Muhammad, she said:

By God I am alive while I have nothing but contempt for this world. I detest your men. After I tried to show them who their real enemy was and they did not listen, I put them aside." "How ugly are the sharp edges of swords when they are broken and then play with people's efforts and struggles which so many have undertaken, destroying the fortifications, breaking spears, making devious decisions and standing on the precipice of material and personal self-desires. What a terrible future they are preparing for by causing the warth of God and thereby bringing about permanent torment for themselves." ... "God says, ' If citizens are faithful and avoid wrong deeds, We will give blessings from heaven and earth to them. But they deny the truths so we captivated them for their deeds. From those who oppressed, the results of their actions will be returned to themselves. They cannot change the traditions of history. ' ... "It is then that the destroyer of rights will lose and those who will come in the future will find and realize the terrible results of what the ancestors have done. So you should be satified with your daily affairs and live in peace prior to the storm and terrible revolts." For then, the sharp swords of the dominations of the oppressors, anarchy and the rule of tyrants will overcome you. The oppressors will enslave you. No public assets except a small quantity will remain.. They will cultivate with force what you have planted with love. At that time you will only sigh for there will be nothing that you can do because you were blind and could not see the truth. They will oblige you because you have turned your faces from the right way and you did not accept it. [11].

Surat al-Araf (Arabic: سورة الأعراف ) (The Heights)[1] is the 7th sura of the Quran, with 206 ayat. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Sirat al-Mustaqim is the Arabic term for the straight path. ...

Death

Fatima did not survive long after the demise of her father. Sources differ from one month to six months[12] . According to numerous Shi'a sources, because of the rift between her and the Abu Bakr faction, before her death she made these requests of her husband:

  • O Ali, you will personally perform my funeral rites.
  • Those who have displeased me should not be allowed to attend my funeral.
  • My corpse should be carried to the graveyard at night.[13]

Ali did as she wished: she was buried at night, and accompanied to the grave by her relatives and sons. The burial was done secretly, so that Abu Bakr and Umar could not attend.


The Shi'a believe that Fatima died at the age of eighteen in Medina. This caused great grief to her husband. Eventually, in accordance with another part of her will, Ali married the woman of Fatima's choice, so that Fatima's children would be well take care of. After Fatima's death, Ali renewed the claim to the properties, but was again denied by Abu Bakr [14].


Shi'a gave Fatima Zahra many titles of praise. See List of Shi'a titles for Fatima Zahra Muslims express their love and devotion to pivotal figures in Islamic history by giving these figures titles. ...


Legacy

In Iran, her birthday was chosen as the date for National Women's Day, and annual mowludi or birthday celebrations are held in her honor by Iranian women; the themes routinely reflected in sermons at these functions are those of Fatimah's example as a pious daughter and wife and caring mother, and her simple lifestyle.[15]


Among the Shi'a writings about Fatimah, the following is included:

Fatemeh is Fatemeh is a book written by Ali Shariati. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

See also

Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Surat al-Kawthar (Arabic: سورة الكوثر ) (Abundance) is the 108th sura of the Quran, and the shortest. ... Khamsa used as a pendant The Khamsa (Arabic: ‎, literally five, Hebrew: ). An alternative Islamic name for this charm is the Hand of Fatima or Eye of Fatima, in reference to Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammed. ... The Book of Fatimah, Mushaf of Fatimah or Fatimahs Mushaf is according to Shias tradition, a book written by Fatima Zahra, the daughter of Muhammad. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Books. ... There are a number of uncertainties and disputes over Islamic historical dates. ...

References

Prose contains specific citations in source text which may be viewed in edit mode.

  1. ^ See Genealogy of Khadijah's Daughters for further discussions. and also see here
  2. ^ Kassam-Hann 2002, p 84.
  3. ^ Umar abu Nasr, cited in Jafri 1970 p95
  4. ^ a b Thomson, Ahmad (1993). Fatima Az-Zahra. Ta-Ha Publishers. ISBN 1-897940-06-8. 
  5. ^ Jafri 1979 p 62; citing Yaqubi II p 127, Tabarsi Ihtijaj I pp 131-149 and others.
  6. ^ Jafri 1979 p 62; citing Bukhari and Yaqubi.
  7. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim
  8. ^ Jafri 1979 p 63
  9. ^ Tarikh al-Khulafa, vol 1 p 20 cited in Muhammad al-Tijani Then I was Guided, chapter "The Opinion of the Companions about each other".
  10. ^ Peshawar Nights [1] on Al-Islam.org
  11. ^ Ali Shariati. Fatemeh is Fatemeh. Tahrike Tarsile Quran' 1982 ISBN 0-940368-09-9 Excerpts online accessed 11 July 2006.
  12. ^ Jafri, S.H.M. The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam. Longman, New York; 1979 ISBN 0-582-78080-2 p59.
  13. ^ at-Tabari I p1825; Bukhari Sahih V p288 and others, cited in Jafri 1979 p63
  14. ^ Sahih Muslim
  15. ^ Kalinock, Sabine. "Between party and devotion: Mowludi of Tehran women." Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies. Fall 2003, Vol. 12 Issue 2, p173-187.

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, had six children. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Imam Muslim. ... History of the Caliphs (Arabic: Tarikh al-khulafa) is a famous book writen by Suyuti, the classic Sunni scholar. ... Dr. Muhammad al-Tijani al-Samawi was a Tunisian student who was raised in a family that followed the rites of the Sufi Tijaniyyah order, based on the teachings of Sidi Ahmed al-Tidjani. ... And Then I was Guided is a famous book on by Muhammad al-Tijani. ... Peshawar Nights is a Shia book depicting a imaginary argument between a Shia and a Sunni Muslim. ... Al-Islam. ... Dr. Ali Shariati (Persian: علی شريعتی‎) (1933–1977) was an Iranian sociologist, well known and respected for his works in the field of sociology of religion. ... Fatemeh is Fatemeh is a book written by Ali Shariati. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Imam Muslim. ...

External links

Shi'a links:


 
 

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