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Encyclopedia > Shi'a Islam

Shi‘a

Islam Zulfiqar, the sword of Ali. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x313, 11 KB) Caption The ThulFiqar sword of Ali. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ...

People of the House

Muhammad
AliFatimah
HasanHusayn
Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (c. ... Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib ()‎ 28th August (626 – 680) ( Shaban 3 , 4 - Muharram 10 , 61 A.H.)was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'an
This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ...

Major branches

TwelversIsmaili
SufismZaidiyyah Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is part of Shīʿa community after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Sufism is a mystic tradition of Islam encompassing a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah/God, divine love and sometimes to help a fellow man. ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a Shīa maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlī. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ...

Societal aspects

History of Shi'a Islam

See also

Views on Shi'a Islam
There are several views on the Shia. ...

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"Shi'a" terms

Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic شيعة šīʿah) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. It is short for šīʿat ʿAlī (شيعة علي "the party of Ali"). Shi'a Muslims adhere to the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family whom they refer to as the Ahl al-Bayt. Thus, Shi'as consider the first three ruling Sunni caliphs a historical occurrence and not something attached to faith. The singular/adjective form is šīʿī (شيعي.) and refers to a follower of the Household of Muhammad and of Imam Ali in particular. A moderate Shia is a Sunni term for the Shia Salaf who loved Ali. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ... In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak as if he were a formal representative of God. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Shi'a Islam, like Sunni Islam, has at times been divided into many branches, however only three of these currently have a significant number of followers. The best known and the one with most adherents is Twelvers (اثنا عشرية iṯnāʿašariyya), while the others are Ismaili and Zaidiyyah. Alawites and Druzes consider themselves Shi'as, although this is sometimes disputed by mainstream Shi'as[1]. The Sufi orders among the Shi'as are the Alevi, Bektashi, Kubrawiya, Noorbakhshi, Oveyssi, Qizilbashi, Hamadani, Tijānī, and Fatimid orders and denominations. Twenty percent of Turkey's population is Alevi while Lebanon and Syria have huge presence of Druze and Alawites. Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is part of ShÄ«Ê¿a community after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a maðhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or are occasionally called Fivers in the West). ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Tariqah ( translit: ; pl. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler) are adherents of a specific strand of Islam, with influences that include Anatolian traditions and ancient Turkic Shamanism . ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: BektaÅŸi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ... The Kubrawiya order is a Sufi order (tariqa) named after its 13th century founder Najmeddin Kubra. ... The Holy Quran, 2:148 Whoever knows the true self, knows God. ... Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Ottoman Turkish/Persian: ‎ ​ Qezelbāš, Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ) - Ottoman Turkish for Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... The Tijāniyyah (Arabic: الطريقة التجانية, transliterated: Al-ṬarÄ«qah al-Tijāniyyah, or The TijānÄ« Path) is a sufi á¹­arÄ«qah (order, path) originating in North Africa but now more widespread in West Africa, particularly in Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, and Northern Nigeria and Sudan. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler) are adherents of a specific strand of Islam, with influences that include Anatolian traditions and ancient Turkic Shamanism . ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Shi'a etymology

"Shi'a" is the short form of the historic phrase Shi'at ‘Ali شيعة علي, meaning "the followers of Ali" or "the faction of Ali". Both Shi'a and Sunni sources trace the term to the years preceding the death of Muhammad, see Shi'a etymology. ImageMetadata File history File links Mawla. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Shia Islam. ...


The word "Shia" means "followers; members of party". The Shia Muslims are the followers and believers of (Allah) the Allmighty Creator of existence, His Prophets and Imams (Guides to Heaven), His Messages and the Ahlul Bayt (The Family of the House of Prophet Mohammad). The Messenger of Allah (Prophet Mohammad) said to Imam Ali: "Good News to you O Ali! Verily you and your companions and your Shia (followers) will be in Paradise." (Reference: See Below)


Overview

Nahj al-Balagha, one of the most cherished Shi'a Collections
Nahj al-Balagha, one of the most cherished Shi'a Collections

Shi'a Muslims believe that specific persons from Muhammad's family (the Imams) were the best source of knowledge about the Qur'an and Islam, the most trusted carriers and protectors of Muhammad's Sunnah (traditions), and the most worthy of emulation. Image File history File links Nahj. ... Image File history File links Nahj. ... It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎ , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In particular, Shi'a Muslims recognize the succession of Ali (Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law, the first young man to accept Islam — second only to Muhammad's wife Khadija —and the male head of the Ahl al-Bayt or "people of the [Prophet's] house") as opposed to that of the caliphate recognized by Sunni Muslims. Shi'a Muslims believe that Ali was appointed successor by Muhammad's direct order on many occasions, and that he is therefore the rightful leader of the Muslim faith. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadija al-Kubra [1] (Arabic: ‎ ) (555 or 565 [1] or 570 to 619 or 623 [1]) was the first wife of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


This difference between following either the Ahl al-Bayt (Muhammad's family) or the Caliph Abu Bakr has shaped Shi'a and non-Shi'a views on some of the Qur'an, the Hadith (narrations from the prophet) and other areas of Islam. For instance, the collection of Hadith venerated by Shi'a Muslims is centered around narrations by members of the Ahl al-Bayt, while some Hadith by narrators not belonging to the Ahl al-Bayt are not included (those of Abu Huraira, for example). Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Hadith ( translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. ... `Abdul-Rahman bin Sakhr Al-Azdi [AKA Abu Hurairah, Abu Hurayrah or even Abu Horaira. ...


Regardless of the dispute about the Caliphate, the Shi'a recognize the authority of the Shi'a Imams (also called Khalifa Ilahi) as a religious authority. The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ...


Demographics

See Shi'a population or Demographics of Islam for details. WORLD SHIA POPULATION Includes all sects - Jafari, Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidi, Alevis, Alawite, Bohri, Imami, Bektashi etc. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ...

Map showing distribution of Shi'a and Sunni muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe.
Map showing distribution of Shi'a and Sunni muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe.

According to most sources, including the US Library of Congress, present estimates indicate that approximately 85% of the world's Muslims are Sunni and approximately 15% are Shi'a. Today there are an estimated 130 to 190 million Shi'a Muslims[2] (including Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaydis) throughout the world, about three quarters of whom reside in Iran, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Afghanistan. [3][4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2480x1302, 557 KB)This map is copied from lib. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2480x1302, 557 KB)This map is copied from lib. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... The Ismaili ( اسماعيلي, Persian Esmaaili) branch of Islam is the second-largest Shia community, after the Twelvers who are dominant in Iran. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ...


A large portion of the world's Shi'a live in the Middle East. They constitute a majority in Azerbaijan, Iraq, Bahrain and especially Iran, where 90% of the population is Shi'a, giving it the highest population of Shi'a Muslims of any country in the world[3]. In Lebanon Shi'a form a plurality, and they remain as significant minorities in Afghanistan, Syria, Pakistan, Turkey and Yemen. Among the smaller Persian Gulf states, Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates also have significant Shi'a minorities, as does the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A plurality, or relative/simple majority as it is also referred to outside the United States (especially in non-English speaking countries; in the US, simple majority has another meaning), is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority in the American sense of the... Eastern Province (Arabic: المنطقة الشرقية al-Mantaqa ash-Sharqiyah) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United...


About 20% of India's Muslim population is Shi'a, and significant Shi'a communities exist on the coastal regions of West Sumatra and Aceh in Indonesia (see Tabuik). Shi'a presence is negligible elsewhere in Southeast Asia, where Muslims are predominantly Shafi'i Sunnis. Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


One of the lingering problems, according to the Shi'a, in estimating the Shi'a population is that unless the Shi'a form a significant minority in a Muslim country, the entire population is often listed as Sunni. The reverse, however, has not held true, which may contribute to imprecise estimates of the size of each sect. For example, the 1926 rise of the House of Saud in Arabia brought official discrimination against Shi'a [5]. The Shi'a-majority areas of Al-Ahsa, Qatif and Hofuf on the Persian Gulf, and western Arabia provinces of Jazan, Asir and Hijaz, that had large Shi'a minorities, have officially been completely stripped of their religious identities. Shi'a claim that they endure much bigotry and other indignities from Walmens authorities daily and that Shi'a pilgrims from other countries are often singled out for harassment (see Status of religious freedom in Saudi Arabia)In Saudi Arabia they called them (accaf) (عكف) which means rejecters (رافضه). The House of Saud ( translit: ) is the royal family of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... The great oasis of al-Ahsa or al-Hassa is located in Ash Sharqiyah, Saudi Arabia, about 60 km from the coast of the Arabian Gulf. ... Qatif (Arabic: القطيف al-QaTiif) is a historic coastal city and oasis located on the western shore of the Arabian/Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, some 13km north of the port city of Dammam and southwest of major oil port Ras Tanura. ... Hofuf (Arabic: الهفوف) is a common name for the major city also called Al-Hasa or Hassa in the Al-Hasa oasis in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... Jizan (or Jazan) (Arabic: جيزان) is the capital of the Jizan Province in the far south-west of Saudi Arabia. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Saudi Arabia ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Islamic theocratic monarchy without legal protection for freedom of religion, and such protection does not exist in practice. ...


Doctrines

Part of a series on the Islamic creed:
Aqidah
Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ...


Sunni Five Pillars of Islam

Shahādah - Profession of faith
Salat - Prayer
Zakât - Paying of alms (giving to the poor)
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Image File history File links Mosque02. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to what are understood among many Muslims to be the five core aspects of Sunni Islam. ... The shahadah (Arabic:   translit: ) (Turkish: Åžehadet) is the Islamic creed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting is also called Ramadan (in Arabic: رمضان, Ramadhan) – or Ramzan in several countries – and it is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, translit: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

Sunni Six articles of belief

Tawhīd - Oneness
Nabi and Rusul - Prophets and Messengers
Kutub - Divinely Revealed Books.
Malā'ikah - Angels
Qiyâmah - Judgment Day
Qadar - Fate
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Six articles of belief is a set of beliefs enumerated by the Sunnis: The six Sunni articles of belief are: Belief in God (Allah), the one and only one worthy of all worship (tawhid). ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Nabi can refer to the Arabic and Hebrew word for Prophet the Korean word for butterfly one of the Nabis, a group of artists in Paris in the 1890s the 2005 Typhoon Nabi North American Bus Industries, a major transit bus manufacturing company Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, a Biopharmaceutical company based in... The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... Islamic holy books are the books the Quran records as dictated by Allah to prophets; they are the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (commonly the Psalms), the Injil (commonly the Gospel), and the Quran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. ... Qadar in Arabic means fate or divine destiny. ...

Shia Twelvers
Principles of the Religion

Tawhīd - Oneness
Adalah - Justice
Nubuwwah - Prophethood
Imamah - Leadership
Qiyâmah - Judgment day
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. ...

Shia Twelvers
Practices of the Religion

Salat - Prayer
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Zakât - Poor-rate
Khums - One-fifth tax
Jihad - Struggle
Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf - Commanding good
Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbidding evil
Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt
Tabarra - Disassociating Ahl al-Bayt's enemies
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting is also called Ramadan (in Arabic: رمضان, Ramadhan) – or Ramzan in several countries – and it is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, translit: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, Jawwad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, meaning to strive or struggle in the way of God, and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it has no official status. ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...

Shia Ismaili 7 pillars

Walayah - Guardianship
Taharah - Purity & cleanliness
Salat - Prayers
Zakât - Purifying religious dues
Sawm - Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca
Jihad - Struggle
Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is part of ShÄ«Ê¿a community after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Shia Ismaili Seven Pillars of Islam have three doctrines that are not included in the Sunni Five Pillars of Islam: Walayah, Taharah and Jihad. ... Guardianship is a Ismaili and Druze pillar of Islam. ... Purity is a Ismaili pillar of Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ramadan. ... The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting is also called Ramadan (in Arabic: رمضان, Ramadhan) – or Ramzan in several countries – and it is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, translit: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, Jawwad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, meaning to strive or struggle in the way of God, and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it has no official status. ...

Others

Salafi/Kharijite Sixth pillar of Islam. This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Muslim faith. ...

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Main doctrines

The Shi'a believe in the five pillars of Islam, as do Sunnis, but categorize them differently. Shi'a beliefs include the following: The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to what are understood among many Muslims to be the five core aspects of Sunni Islam. ...


Theology of Shi'a (Usūl al-Dīn) In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ...

  • Tawhīd (Oneness): The Oneness of God
  • Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God
  • Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (that is, a perfect system of how to live in "peace"(("submission to God")).)
  • Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise.
  • Qiyamah (The Day of Judgment): God will raise mankind for Judgment

Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Arabic name for the Last Judgement. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ...

  • Salat—called "Namaaz" in Persian (Prayer) – performing the five daily prayers
  • Sawm—called "Roozeh" in Persian (Fast) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan
  • Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Zakat (Poor-rate) – paying the poor-tax
  • Khums (One-fifth of savings) – paying tax
  • Jihad (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater, or internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihad bil qalam) and speaking truth in front of an opressor are also forms of Jihad.
  • Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf – commanding what is good
  • Nahi-Anil-Munkar – forbidding what is evil
  • Tawalla – loving the Ahlul Bayt and their followers
  • Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان ) is the ninth month of the Islamic year. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, translit: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, Jawwad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, meaning to strive or struggle in the way of God, and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it has no official status. ... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Additional doctrines

Shi'a have many other doctrines that are shared with other Muslims, like wearing of the Hijab. However, some are seen as more predominantly used by Shi'as, like Dissimulation (Arabic: Taqiyya), which is the dissimulation of one’s religious beliefs when one fears for one's life and the lives of one's family members. There are Additional Shia doctrines besides the Roots of Religion and the Branches of Religion. ... Hijab or ħijāb () is the Arabic term for cover (noun), based on the root حجب meaning to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter. In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to womens head, face, or body covering. ... Dissimulation is a form of deception in which one conceals the truth. ... In Islamic tradition, Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] is the dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ...


Misconceptions

See also: Shi'a view of the Qur'an

There are seemingly widespread misconceptions about Shi'a doctrines, regarding how and why the Shi'a uphold them. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ...


It is often said that the Shi'a worship or deify Imam Ali; however, this refers to a group who actually lived in Ali's time and who saw him as an incarnation of God. Ali, upon learning this had them killed (they are known as the Ghulat and have no association with The Shi'a). The term Shi'a literally means The Party. Early on, the Shi'a were referred to as Shi'at Ali, or The Party of Ali. As the majority of Muslims at the time of Muhammed's death favoured Abu Bakr as the Caliph, a large portion of the population supported Ali, the prophet's son-in-law and cousin. Therefore, the Shi'a do not recognize Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman as the first three caliphs (Ali was recognized as the fourth caliph 656 AD).


Shi'a Islam was seen by some as a political-religious sect that recognizes the leadership of Ali and his descendants. Theologically, Sunni Islam and Shi'a Islam do not differ, however many schools of thought that developed later on did become differentiated. Shi'a Islam claims it follows the words of Muhammed as given to him through divine guidance from God in the Qur'an. Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


However, the Alawites known as Nusairi, claiming to be a sect of Shi'a Islam, hold Ali as an incarnation of God.[6] Shi'a Islam denounces such beliefs as blasphemous[citation needed] and against the grain of Islam (absolute, total and inarguable belief and existence of one God). Shi'a do not view Ali as a Prophet as many accuse them of doing. He is seen only as the proper protector of the Islamic nation after the death of the prophet Muhammed. For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shia Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria The terms Alawī and Alevi, although they share...


While Shi'a and Sunni Muslims accept the same sacred text, the Qur'an, some groups mainly wahabbis or salafis claim that the Shi'a dispute the current version, i.e. they add two additional surahs known as al-Nurayn and al-Wilaya.[7] Nonetheless, Shi'a claim that they are falsely accused of this, as they believe, like Sunnis, that the Qur'an has never been changed.[8] [9] Shi'as use the Qur'an which is conformable with recitation of `Asim of Kufa transmitted by Hafs.Is the Qur’an Corrupted?Shi’ites’ View The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎ , literally the recitation; also called The Noble Quran; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... A Salafi (Arabic سلفي lit. ... See also: Sura (disambiguation). ... There are two verses named Surah of Wilaya and Nurayn that are claimed to be included in the Quran. ...


Denominations

  • Most Shi'a are Twelvers and they recognize twelve Imams.
  1. Ali ibn Abu Talib (600661), also known as Ali, Amir al-Mo'mineen (commander of the faithful), also know as Shah-e Mardan Ali (King of men)
  2. Hasan ibn Ali (625669), also known as Hasan al Mujtaba
  3. Husayn ibn Ali (626680), also known as Husayn al Shaheed, also known as Sah Hüseyin
  4. Ali ibn Husayn (658713), also known as Ali Zainul Abideen
  5. Muhammad ibn Ali (676743), also known as Muhammad al Baqir
  6. Jafar ibn Muhammad (703765), also known as Jafar as Sadiq
  7. Musa ibn Jafar (745799), also known as Musa al Kazim
  8. Ali ibn Musa (765818), also known as Ali ar Ridha
  9. Muhammad ibn Ali (810835), also known as Muhammad al Jawad (Muhammad at Taqi), also known as Taki
  10. Ali ibn Muhamad (827868), also known as Ali al-Hadi, also known as Naki'
  11. Hasan ibn Ali (846874), also known as Hasan al Askari
  12. Muhammad ibn Hasan (868—), also known as Muhammad al Mahdi

Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (c. ... Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... Events Theodore appointed Archibishop of Canterbury Births Justinian II, Byzantine emperor Deaths Hasan ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad and second Shia Imam Categories: 669 ... HÌ£usayn ibn ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib ()‎ 28th August (626 – 680) ( Shaban 3 , 4 - Muharram 10 , 61 A.H.)was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Ali ibn Husayn, Zayn al-Abideen, (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) ‎ (658 - 713) was the fourth Shia Imam (see Shia Imams). ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... Events Byzantine Emperor Philippicus deposed. ... Events November 2 - Donus becomes Pope. ... Events Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) succeeded by al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744). ... Imam Muhammad al Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... Events Births Deaths Empress Jito of Japan In Other Fields 703 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Northern Virginia region of the United States. ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... Events 29 November - Pope Leo III, aided by Charles the Great, returns to Rome. ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... Events Bishop Theodulf of Orléans is deposed and imprisoned after getting involved in a conspiracy of Bernard, king of Italy, against Louis the Pious Births Deaths May 26 - Ali ar-Rida, Shia Imam Categories: 818 ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... 8-10 is also going to be the Toronto Raptors record as of Dec. ... Events Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date) The celebration of All Saints is made an obligation throughout the Frankish Empire and fixed on November 1. ... Imam Muhammad at-Taqi (April 12, 811 - November 27, 835) was the ninth Shia Imam. ... Events Succession of Pope Valentine, then Pope Gregory IV. Arabs invade Sicily. ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... Imam Ali al-Hadi (September 8, 828 _ July 1, 868) was the tenth Shia Imam. ... Events The Moors temporarily recapture León. ... Events March 13 - The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople. ... Imam Hasan al-Askari (December 6, 846 - January 4, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... Muhammad al-Mahdi (868 - ?) is the twelfth and final Imam of the Shia. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is part of ShÄ«Ê¿a community after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Nizari Ismailis are the sect of Islam that followed what happened at Ghadir-I-Khum(yes that is how you say it). ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रस) are the main branch of the Bohras, a MustaˤlÄ« subsect of IsmāīlÄ« Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Seveners (Arabic سبعية) are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Zayn ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Ismail may refer to: Ishmael, son of Abraham, mentioned in both the Torah and the Quran Izmail, a town in Ukraine This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ...

Status of a Shi'a Imam

Shi'a Islam holds that the Imamate is one of the fundamentals of Islam (A part of the Usul-Ad-din) and that one should follow the Imams of Ahlul Bayt, in order to correctly follow the Prophet Muhammad and his Sunnah. The Shi'a believe that the Imams of Ahlul Bayt are infallible based on one of the verses of Quran:
Among twelver shia muslims, the status of an Imam is secondary only to that of a full-fledged divinely instated prophet(a Nabi or Rasul). ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... This is an Arabic phrase literally translated as People of the House, or family. ... Infallibility is the ability to be free from error (obtain certainty). ...

And stay quietly in your houses, and make not a dazzling display, like that of the former Times of Ignorance; and establish regular Prayer, and give regular Charity; and obey Allah and His Messenger. And Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, ye members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless. [33:33]

) Sunni sources In Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of Ali, 1980 Edition Pub. In Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1874, Tradition #37


Narrated Yazid Ibn Hayyan:


We went to Zaid Ibn Arqam and said to him: You have found goodness (for you had the honor) to live in the company of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and offered prayer behind him, and the rest of the Hadith is the same (as 3 traditions before) but the Prophet said: "Behold, for I am leaving amongst you two weighty things, one of them is the Book of Allah...", and in this (Hadith) these words are also found: We said: "Who are his Ahlul-Bayt (that the Prophet was referring to)? Are they his wives?" Thereupon Zaid said: "No, by Allah! A woman lives with a man (as his wife) for a while; he then divorces her and she goes back to her parents and her people. The Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet are his lineage and his descendants (those who come from his blood) for whom the acceptance of charity (Sadaqah) is prohibited


The Ahlul Bayt are the perfect example for mankind, and like the prophets, they should be emulated in acts and deeds. The Shi'a believe that the Imams of Ahlul Bayt carry the divinely appointed responsibility of protecting Islam and enacting the example of the pure Sunnah of Muhammad. The Imams of Ahlul Bayt have guided Muslims throughout history, in many cases under the most horrible circumstances and under the most severe forms of discrimination due to the cruel policies of the reigning governments of the time. They are seen as incorruptible and infallible role models for Muslims that have shown the way of goodness and prosperity in this world and the next in the best way until their martyrdom or occultation. In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak as if he were a formal representative of God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is becoming very long. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


Jurisprudence

Main article: Ja'fari jurisprudence

Ja'fari jurisprudence or Ja'fari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shi'a Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 6th Shia Imam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Jafar al-Sadiq (Arabic جعفر الصادق, April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, is considered the sixth Shia imam by Twelver Shia Muslims. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ...


The Ja'ffari Shi'a consider Sunnah to be the oral traditions of Muhammad and their implimenation and interpretation by the Imams who were all scholars and descendants of the Prophet Muhammed through his Daughter Fatima and her Husband- the first Imam-Ali. Fatima may refer to: Fátima, Portugal, a town in Portugal Our Lady of Fatima, a famous Marian apparition at Fátima in 1917 Fatima Zahra, daughter of Muhammad and wife of the first Shia Imam. ... Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ...


Role of religious scholars

Main article: The Shi'a clergy

Shi'a Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of God's laws. Sunni Muslims also believe that they can interpret the Qur'an and hadith with the same authority as their predecessors - that the door to ijtihad was never closed. However, the opinion of the 1st and 2nd Century (7th and 8th century Gregorian calendar) scholars Hanbali, Hanafi, Maliki and Shaafii are given greater weight. Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Differences of Shi'a and Sunni traditions

Because Islamic law is based partly on the hadith, Shi'a rejection of some Sunni hadith and Sunni rejection of some Shi'a hadith means that the versions of the law differ somewhat. For example, while both Shi'a and Sunni pray five daily prayers, some of the prayer times differ. Also another issue of difference between the sects is that Nikah Mut‘ah or "temporary marriage" which is not forbidden for the Shi'a because it was permitted in the [Qur'an] and was practiced during the Prophet's time but then later this practice was abrogated. Many Shi'a discourage the practice of Mut'ah, but maintain that it is permissible. Hadith ( translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... It has been suggested that Mutta marriage be merged into this article or section. ...


Supplications

The Shi'a have a rich collection of prayers believed to be traced back to the Shi'a Imams (Ali and his descendants through Muhammad's daughter). These prayers are held in a high esteem among the Shi'a. These prayers (dua) include: Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

  • Supplication of Shabaniya
  • Supplication of Kumail
  • Supplication of The Noble Traits

Religious calendar

All Muslims, Sunni or Shi'a, celebrate the following annual holidays:

  • Eid ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر), which marks the end of fasting during the month of Ramadan and falls on the first day of Shawwal.
  • Eid ul-Adha, which marks the end of the Hajj or pilgrimage to Makkah, starts on the 10th day of Dhul Hijja.

The following holidays are observed by Shi'a only, unless otherwise noted: Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر, Persian: عید فطرTurkish: Ramazan Bayramı / Åžeker Bayramı) , often abbreviated as simply Eid, sometimes spelled Eid al-Fitr, is an Islamic holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. ... The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting is also called Ramadan (in Arabic: رمضان, Ramadhan) – or Ramzan in several countries – and it is the ninth month of the Islamic (Hijri) calendar, established in the year 638. ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى), or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) or Kurban Bayramı (Turkish) occurs on the tenth day of the Islamic month of Dhul Hijja. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, translit: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ...

  • The Festival of Muharram and Ashurah (عاشوراء) for Shi'a commemorates Imam Husayn bin Ali's martyrdom. Imam Husayn was grandson of prophet Mohammad, who was martyred by Yazid ibn Muawiyah Sunnis 6th Khalif. Ashurah is a day of deep mourning which occurs on the 10th of Muharram. Sunnis also celebrate Ashurah, but give it a different meaning (see Ashurah).
  • Arba'een commemorates the suffering of the women and children of Imam Husayn's household. After Husayn was killed, they were marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arba'een occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah.
  • Milad al-Nabi, Muhammad's birth date, is celebrated by the Shi'a on the 17th of Rabbi al-Awwal, which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
  • Mid of Shaban is the birth date of the 12th and final imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Twelvers on the 15th of Shaban. Many Shi'a fast on this day to show gratitude.
  • Eid al-Ghadeer celebrates Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali's imamate before a multitude of Muslims. Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhil-Hijjah.
  • Al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the household of Muhammad and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhil-Hijjah.

The Festival of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... Arbaeen (اربعين, Arabic forty) is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after Aashura, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Shrine of Karbala Karbala (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Karbalā’; also spelled Kerbala, Kerbela, Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi or Milad al-Nabi (Arabic: ‎) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Shia Muslims celebrate this day on the 17th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, coinciding with the birth date of the... This article is becoming very long. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Mohammad al-MahdÄ« () (or Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Ali) is, according to Twelver Shias, the twelfth Imam and the Mahdi, a figure considered by both Sunnis and Shias to be the ultimate saviour of mankind. ... Shaaban (Arabic: شعبان ) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. ... Eid al-Ghadir is an eid (holiday) celebrated by Shias. ... Ghadir(-e) Khum (Persian/Arabic: غدیر خم) or Qadir(-e) Khum is a location in Saudi Arabia between Mecca and Medina and an event wich for Shia Muslims from authentic Hadiths confirm one of the refrences to the direct successorship of Imam Ali after the Prophet Muhammad as Leader and Caliph of... This is an Arabic phrase literally translated as People of the House, or family. ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ...

History of Shi'a-Sunni relations

Main article: Historical Shi'a-Sunni relations

The Shi'a believe that the split between the Shi'a and Sunni began with Muhammad's death, when some number of Muslims supported the successorship of Ali and the rest accepted Abu Bakr, then Umar and Uthman. They believe that the successorship was given to Ali at Ghadir Khum (a hadith accepted by both Sunni and Shi’a scholars[citation needed]), and that the testimony that can be traced back to reliable sources is to be trusted, while traditions that cannot be fully verified are suspect. // Origins of the schism Shias record the start of the schism with the death of Muhammad, and in their view, a violent coup détat against Ali in his first day as caliph, which they argue was automatic without recourse to an election or a formal investiture. ...


Shi'a and Sunni historians record that many Shi'a have been persecuted, intimidated, and killed, through what Shi'a consider a coup d'état against Ali's caliphate. [citation needed] Many prominent Sunni scholars are known to have openly considered the Shi'a as "kufar" (disbelievers). Imam Ash-Shafi'i, one of the most prominent early scholars of his time said in regards to the Shi'a "I have not seen among the heretics a people more famous for falsehood than the Raafidite Shi’ites."[10] Such statements stem mainly from differences in beliefs regarding Ali, Umar, and other companions, and in the Shi'a's use of various concepts, such as Muta. A coup d’État (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about an Islamic term. ... Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ... `Umar ibn al-Khattāb (in Arabic, عمر بن الخطاب) (c. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... It has been suggested that Mutta marriage be merged into this article or section. ...


The renowned al-Azhar university of theology in Egypt, originally founded by the Shi'a during the reign of the Fatimid caliphate in 988[11] , considers Shi'a philosophy to be an indivisible part of the body of Islamic jurisprudence. [12] Today, both Sunni and Shi'a students graduate from the Al-Azhar university which also teaches regarding both doctrines and uses certain Shi'a material in its courses. (See List of Shi'a books). On July 6, 1959, Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot -the head of the al-Azhar Theological school- announced the al-Azhar Shia Fatwa Al-Azhar Islamic university in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University is connected to the mosque in Cairo named to honor Fatima Az-Zahraa, the daughter of Muhammad, from whom the Fatimid Dynasty claimed descent. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... // Hadith collections The book of Sulaym ibn Qays — ? by ? Nahj al-Balagha — ? by ? Bihar al-Anwar — 1600s by Allama Majlesi Usul al-Kafi — ? by ? Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya — 678-713 by ? Shahr Usul al-Kafi — ? by ? Furu al-Kafi — ? by ? Tafsir Tafsir al-Mizan — ? by Allameh Tabatabaei History books Restatement of... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... The renowned al-Azhar Theological school in Egypt, one of the main centers of Sunni scholarship in the world hade a ten year long exchange with a Shia scholar. ...

1) Islam does not require a Muslim to follow a particular Madh'hab (school of thought). Rather, we say: every Muslim has the right to follow one of the schools of thought which has been correctly narrated and its verdicts have been compiled in its books. And, everyone who is following such Madhahib [schools of thought] can transfer to another school, and there shall be no crime on him for doing so. 2) The Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shia al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought. Muslims must know this, and ought to refrain from unjust prejudice to any particular school of thought, since the religion of Allah and His Divine Law (Shari'ah) was never restricted to a particular school of thought. Their jurists (Mujtahidoon) are accepted by Almighty Allah, and it is permissible to the "non-Mujtahid" to follow them and to accord with their teaching whether in worship (Ibadaat) or transactions (Mu'amilaat)[13][14].

On the other hand, similar fatwas have not been issued by many prominent Sunni scholars or universities. A number of contemporary Sunni scholars such as Shaykh Dr Khaalid ibn ‘Ali al-Mushayqih (who released a fatwa regarding praying with the Shi'a) maintain that Shi'a are not considered as Muslims, unless they deny certain beliefs found in a number of Shi'a hadith books like al-kafi that are accepted by the majority of twelver Shi'a: Usul al-Kafi is one of the most authoritarian Shia hadith collections, collected by Muhammad Yaqub Kulainy. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ...


The Shi'a and Sunnis differ in their view of Aisha (one of the wives of the Prophet Muhammad). The Shi'a have a dim view of her character whereas the Sunnis consider her an exemplary woman. The differences stem primarily from her (perceived) dishonourable behaviour with the Prophet and her taking a position opposed to the fourth Caliph Ali when he was the ruler. For more details, please refer Sunni and Shia views of Aisha. This article is becoming very long. ... Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) was the final prophet in Islam. ... Aisha bint Abu Bakr (RA) (Arabic `āisha, she who lives, also transcribed as Aishah, Ayesha, Aisha, or Aisha, Turkish Ayşe etc. ...


Major centers of Shi'a scholarship

The three primary centers of Shi'a scholarship are Karbala, Najaf and Qom. Other notable centers are: Shrine of Karbala Karbala (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Karbalā’; also spelled Kerbala, Kerbela, Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ...

Lucknow   (Hindi: लखनऊ; Urdu: لكهنو;) is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Hyderabad   or Haydarābād // (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు,Urdu: حیدر آباد ) is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Imam Reza Shrine Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Qom is famous for the shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, first built in the late 8th century. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... Shiraz can refer to: Shiraz, Iran Shiraz grape/wine This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, Middle Persian: طھران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population (as of 2005) 7,314,000 (metropolitan: 12,151,000), and a land area of 658 square kilometers (254 sq mi), is the capital city of Iran (Persia) and the center of Tehran Province. ... Al Hillah is a city in central Iraq on the river Euphrates, 100 km (62 miles) south of Baghdad, with an estimated population of 364,700 in 1998. ... Shrine of Karbala Karbala (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Karbalā’; also spelled Kerbala, Kerbela, Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... , Sidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا á¹¢aydā) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... Qatif (Arabic: القطيف al-QaTiif) is a historic coastal city and oasis located on the western shore of the Arabian/Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, some 13km north of the port city of Dammam and southwest of major oil port Ras Tanura. ... Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...

Notable Shia Muslims

Sahaba

Bilal redirects here. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... This person is among the Sahaba of Muhammad . ... Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi (Arabic مقداد) is one of the Sahaba. ... Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Prophet Muhammads companions. ... Abd-Allah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. ...

Scholars

see Complete List Shi'a Muslim Islamic scholars Abbasali Amid Zanjani (1937-..) Abdul Aziz al-Hakim (1953-..) Abdul Karim Mousavi Ardebili (1926-..) Abdollah Noori Abdolhossein Moezi Abdolvahed Mousavi-Lari (1954-..) Abdul Hakeem Buturabi Ahmad Jannati (1926-..) Ahmad Khatami Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (1934-..) Ali Akbar Mohtashami-Pur Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri Ali al-Sistani (1930-..) Ali Fallahian (1945-..) Ali...

Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Yaqoub bin Ishaaq al-Kulainy Ar-Razi (d. ... Mohammad ibn-Ali ibn-e Babuyeh , ( who is known as Sheikh Saduq and ibn-e Babuyeh) (306- 381 A.H) in Qom. ... Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ebn Noman known as Sheikh al-Mufid (~932-1006 CE) was an eminent shiite scholar. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ...

Contemporary Scholars

Iran

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای) (Also known as : Seyyed Ali Khamenei) born April 18, 1939, is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Fazel Lankarani (born 1931 in Qom, Iran) is the son of the late Ayatollah Fazel Lankarani and was a student of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. ... The Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi is one of the most important and influential Ayatollahs currently in Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی Arabic: روح الله الموسوي الخميني) (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... Allameh Tabatabaei, one of contemporarys greatest Islamic Philosophers, chatting with Ayatollah al-Shirazi. ...

Iraq

  • Ali Sistani
  • Bashir Hussain Najafi
  • Muhammed Saeed Al-Hakeem
  • Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim (late)
  • Abul-Qassim Khoei (late)
  • Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (late)

His Hounarable Eminence Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani (Arabic: السيد علي الحسيني السيستاني Persian: سید علی حسینی سیستانی), born approximately August 4, 1930, is a Grand Ayatollah, a Shia marja and currently an important person in relation to the occupation of Iraq. ... Mohammad Said al-Hakeem Grand Ayatollah residing in Najaf. ... Ayatollah Sayed Muhsin al-Hakim Tabatabai was born in late 19th century in a family renowned for its scholarship. ... Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei (1899 - August 8, 1992) was an important Shia Ayatollah, who at one point was considered the premiere leader of Shias across the world. ... Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر ) (March 1, 1935 - April 8, 1980) was an Iraqi Shia cleric born in al-Kadhimya, Iraq. ...

See also

Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... This is a list of Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usulli Shia Muslims around the world. ... This is a partial list of Ayatollahs, a title given to high ranked Shia Muslims clerics. ... Alevis are adherents of a branch of Islam, related to Shia Islam and practised mainly in (majority Sunni) Turkey, among both Turks, Zazas, and Kurds. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is part of ShÄ«Ê¿a community after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community, or ummah, after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad Muhammad died in 632 CE. in Medina following a brief illness. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... // Origins of the schism Shias record the start of the schism with the death of Muhammad, and in their view, a violent coup détat against Ali in his first day as caliph, which they argue was automatic without recourse to an election or a formal investiture. ... // Hadith collections The book of Sulaym ibn Qays — ? by ? Nahj al-Balagha — ? by ? Bihar al-Anwar — 1600s by Allama Majlesi Usul al-Kafi — ? by ? Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya — 678-713 by ? Shahr Usul al-Kafi — ? by ? Furu al-Kafi — ? by ? Tafsir Tafsir al-Mizan — ? by Allameh Tabatabaei History books Restatement of... This page is a list of Shia Muslims in various professions, fields, and nations: // Arash, Iranian singer. ... WORLD SHIA POPULATION Includes all sects - Jafari, Twelvers, Ismailis, Zaidi, Alevis, Alawite, Bohri, Imami, Bektashi etc. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  1. ^ Syria’s Alawis and Shi‘ism
  2. ^ http://pewforum.org/events/index.php?EventID=R120
  3. ^ http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/40241_islamsects.shtml Independent News source mentioning Sunni-Shia demographic statistics]
  4. ^ Sunni-Shia demographic statistics
  5. ^ Discrimination towards Shi'a in Saudi Arabia
  6. ^ "The ages of the world are seven in number, each of these having its own manifestation of deity. But the manifestation of the 7th age is not a Mandi who is yet to come, but the historical person `Ali ibn abu Talib. This is stated in the crudest form in Sura 1 i of the Majmu`: " I testify that there is no God but `Ali ibn abu Talib." `Ali is also called the Ma`na (" Idea"; cf. the Logos of the New Testament), hence the Nosairis are also called the Ma`nawiyya." Nosairis - From the 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica
  7. ^ The Shi'i Qur'an: an Examination of Western Scholarship by Jonah Winters
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ Ibn Taymeeyah, Minhaaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah, 1/39
  11. ^ History of the Middle East Database
  12. ^ What Early and contemporary Scholars Say About Shi'a Sect?
  13. ^ al-Sha'ab newspaper (Egypt), issue of July 7, 1959
  14. ^ al-Kifah newspaper (Lebanon), issue of July 8, 1959
  • http://www.shiacode.com/

External links

  • SHIACODE -The Shia Islamic Guide
  • List of Shi'a websites
  • Alshiatalk Worldwide Discussion Forum
  • IslamTutor
  • Ahlulbayt Islamic Mission
  • Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project
  • Al-Shia Website (al-shia.com)
  • Shia Search Website
  • AlMujtaba Islamic Network
  • Bay Area Shiite-Muslims Association
  • Institute for Interreligious Dialogue, Tehran
  • Imam Ali commemorative website
  • Jabal Amel--- Shia Islam in Lebanon
  • Contemporary issues, philosophical issues, and tafsir from a shia perspective
  • Marafi Hussainiah - Online Library - Kuwait
  • Who are the Shia? by Paul Sullivan, History News Network
  • Momin-A Message for Shitte!, Karachi
  • Sunni-Shia difference
  • Article in NYT explainig the Sunni-Shia difference

  Results from FactBites:
 
ShaikhSiddiqui Shia (3811 words)
Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn, continue the line of the Imams until the twelfth, who is believed to have ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on Judgment Day.
Shia attempts to challenge the Umayyad leaders resulted in the death of Ali’s son and the third Shia Imam, Husayn, at the Battle of Karbala in 680.
Shias believe that during the occultation of the Twelfth Imam, he is spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as well--and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and prayers.
Iran - Shia Islam (3531 words)
Although Shias have lived in Iran since the earliest days of Islam, and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and eleventh centuries, it is believed that most Iranians were Sunnis until the seventeenth century.
Shias revere Ali as the First Imam, and his descendants, beginning with his sons Hasan and Husayn (also seen as Hosein), continue the line of the Imams until the Twelfth, who is believed to have ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day.
Shias believe that during the greater occultation of the Twelfth Imam he is spiritually present--some believe that he is materially present as well-- and he is besought to reappear in various invocations and prayers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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