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Encyclopedia > Sheriff
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Sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or U.S. common law, or the person who holds such office. The term "sheriff" originates from the older office position of "shire reeve". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Sheriff may refer to: Sheriff, a political and a legal office held under Scots law and English common law Sheriff (weapon), a crowd-control vehicle of the U.S. military Sheriff (band), a Canadian rock band from the early 1980s Sheriff (company), a Transnistrian (Moldovan) conglomerate FC Sheriff Tiraspol, a... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article is about law in society. ... English law is the law of England and Wales, rather than Scotland and Northern Ireland. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain and Australia. ... In England, a reeve was an official appointed to supervise lands for a lord. ...


Early modern usage

"The sheriff is an officer of high respectability in our juridical system, and was known to the most early ages of the common law." (James Wilson, Lectures on Law, vol. 2, chapter 7, "The subject continued. Of sheriffs and coroners.") At the time Wilson stated this, in 1790-1, the powers and duties of a sheriff were "in general, coincident with those of a [marshal]." At that time, marshals were appointed "for each district for the term of four years; but [were] removable from... office at pleasure." According to the then state of constitutional law, the "president nominates, and, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoints him."


Wilson also notes that the office of coroner is, "in many instances, a necessary substitute: for if the sheriff is interested in a suit, or if he is of affinity with one of the parties to a suit, the coroner must execute and return the process of the courts of justice." (Ibid.)


Modern usage

Australia

The office of Sheriff was first established in Australia in 1824. This was simultaneous with the appointment of the first Chief Justice of New South Wales. The role of the Sheriff has not been static, nor is it identical in each Australian State. In the past his duties included: executing court judgements, acting as a coroner, the transportation of prisoners, managing the gaols, and carrying out executions (through the employment of an anonymous hangman). Currently, the criminal law of no Australian State provides for capital punishment. A government department (usually called the Department of Corrections or similar) now runs the prison system and the Coroner’s Office handles coronial matters. The Sheriff is now largely responsible for enforcing the civil orders and fines of the court (seizing and selling the property of judgement debtors who do not satisfy the debt), providing court security, enforcing arrest warrants, evictions, taking juveniles into custody and running the jury system. 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth- or other countries with an Anglosaxon type of justice, such as the Supreme Court of the United States, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the Supreme... NSW redirects here. ... The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... Judgment or judgement implies a balanced weighing up of evidence preparatory to making a decision. ... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ... The word Gaol can refer to the following: Gaol American/British English jail, Early Modern English spelling, though this spelling is seldom used today, it is still considered the official spelling in Australian English. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ...


Canada

Various jurisdictions in Canada on provincial and sub-provincial levels operate sheriff's departments primarily concerned with court bailiff services such as courtroom security, post-arrest prisoner transfer, serving legal processes, and executing civil judgments. Sheriffs are defined under Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada as "peace officers" and in many cases have the same authority as a police officer. In other parts of Canada not covered by a sheriff's agency, bailiff functions are handled directly by the local, provincial police or Royal Canadian Mounted Police as appropriate. The Canadian Criminal Code (formal title An Act respecting the Criminal Law) is the codification of most of the criminal offenses and procedure in Canada. ... Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... RCMP redirects here. ...


In 2006 in the province of Alberta, the sheriff duties were expanded to include highway patrols in the province to free up RCMP officers for other police duties; 21 new armed sheriffs were appointed for this purpose in September 2006.[1] As of the beginning of July 2007, there are 84 armed sheriffs patrolling Alberta highways. In November 2007 the Alberta Sheriffs' introduced a Warrant Apprehension Unit to clean up the some 200,000 warrants in ALberta. [2] A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... A highway patrol is either a police agency created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing traffic safety compliance on roads and highways, such as the California Highway Patrol, or a detail within an existing local or regional police agency that is primarily concerned with such duties, such as... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


India

See also: Sheriff of Mumbai

Among cities in India, only Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras) and Kolkata (Calcutta) have a Sheriff. The Sheriff has an apolitical, non-executive role. Sheriffs preside over various city-related functions and conferences and welcomes foreign guests. The post is second to the mayor in the protocol list. The Sheriff of Mumbai is an apolitical titular position of authority bestowed for one year on a prominent citizen of Mumbai (Bombay). ... , Bombay redirects here. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ...


United Kingdom

England and Wales

Main article: High Sheriff

The High Sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries. The High Sheriff of an English or Welsh county is an unpaid, partly ceremonial post appointed by The Crown through a Warrant from the Privy Council. In Cornwall the High Sheriff is appointed by the Duke of Cornwall. The High Sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries. ...


Historically, the court officers empowered to enforce High Court writs were called Sheriffs or Sheriff's Officers. In April 2007 they were replaced by High Court enforcement officers. Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... High Court Enforcement Officers are authorised by the Lord Chancellor to execute High Court Writs amongst other things. ...


City of London

In the City of London, the position of sheriff is one of the officers of the Corporation. Two are elected by the liverymen of the City each year to assist the Lord Mayor, attend the Central Criminal Court at the Old Bailey, and present petitions to Parliament: usually one is an alderman and the other is not. The aldermanic sheriff is then likely to become Lord Mayor in due course. There are two Sheriffs of the City of London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... Former Lord Mayor of London John Stuttard during the parade on November 11, 2006 Michael Berry Savory, Lord Mayor 2004–2005 The Right Honourable Lord Mayor of London is the Mayor of the City of London and head of the Corporation of London. ... The Old Bailey. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ...


Scotland

Main article: Sheriff Court
See also: Scots law

In Scotland, a sheriff is an analogous to a judge and sits in a second-tier court, called the Sheriff Court. The Sheriff is legally qualified, in comparison with a lay Justice of the Peace who preside over the first-tier District Courts in Scotland. The Sheriff Courts are the local Court system in Scotland. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... This article is about the country. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... The Sheriff Courts are the local Court system in Scotland. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ... District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations. ... This article is about the country. ...


The sheriff court is the court of first instance for both civil and criminal cases. However, the court's powers are limited, so that major crimes such as rape or murder and complex or high-value civil cases are dealt with in the High Court (for criminal matters) or the Court of Session (for civil matters). Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ...


There are six Sheriffdoms in Scotland, each with a Sheriff Principal. Within each Sheriffdom there are several Sheriff Courts; each Court has at least one courtroom and at least one Sheriff. A Sheriff may sit at different courts throughout the Sheriffdom. Scottish Courts Website A sherrifdom is a judicial district in Scotland. ... The office of sheriff principal is unique within the judicial structure of the United Kingdom, and it cannot therefore readily be compared with any other judicial office. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... A courtroom is the actual enclosed space in which a judge regularly holds court. ...


Sheriffs are usually advocates and, increasingly, solicitors with many years legal experience. Until recently, they were appointed by the Scottish Executive, on the advice of the Lord Advocate. However, the Scotland Act 1998 introduced the European Convention of Human Rights into Scots law. A subsequent legal challenge to the impartiality of the Sheriffs based on the provisions of the Convention led to the setting up of the Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland, which now makes recommendations to the First Minister, who nominates all judicial appointments in Scotland other than in the District Court. Nominations are made to the Prime Minister, who in turn makes the recommendation to the Queen. An advocate is one who speaks on behalf of another, especially in a legal context. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... Her Majestys Advocate, known as the Lord Advocate (Morair Tagraidh in Scottish Gaelic) is the chief legal adviser to the Scottish Executive and the Crown in Scotland for both civil and criminal matters that fall within the devolved powers of the Scottish Parliament. ... The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... The European Convention on Human Rights (1950) was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe† to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The First Minister of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ; Scots: ) is, in practice, the political leader of Scotland, as head of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the Scottish Parliament. ... This article is about the country. ... District courts are a category of courts which exists in several nations. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ...


Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland Sheriff is the title given to tax collection agents for the Revenue Commissioners. They are charged with recovering unsettled tax debts from late payers or seizing stock and goods in lieu thereof. The Sheriff of Dublin also acts as Returning Officer for all elections in the city. The Office of the Revenue Commissioners (RC) - now called simply Revenue - is the Irish Government agency responsible for customs, excise, taxation and related matters. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... In United Kingdom, a Returning Officer is responsible for overseeing elections in one or more constituencies. ...


United States

Main article: Sheriffs in the United States
Deputy Sheriff in 1940
Deputy Sheriff in 1940

In the United States a sheriff is generally (but not always) the highest, usually elected, law enforcement officer of a county and commander of militia in that county. The political election of a person to serve as a police leader is an almost uniquely American tradition. (The practice has been followed in the British Channel Island of Jersey since at least the 16th century.[3]) All law enforcement officers working for the agency headed by a sheriff are called sheriff's deputies or deputy sheriffs and are so called because they are deputized by the sheriff to perform the same duties as he. (In some states, however, a Sheriff may not be a sworn officer but merely an elected official in charge of sworn officers.) These officers may be subdivided into general deputies and special deputies. In some places, the sheriff has the responsibility to recover any deceased persons within their county. That is why often the full title is Deputy Sheriff-Coroner, Deputy Sheriff Coroner or Deputy Sheriff/Coroner, and the sheriff's title is Sheriff Coroner or Sheriff/Coroner. The second-in-command of the department is sometimes called an undersheriff or "Chief Deputy". This is akin to the deputy chief of police position of a police department. In some counties, the undersheriff is the Warden of the county Jail (gaol) or other local Correctional institution. // Sheriffs in the United States generally fall into three broad categories: Restricted service — provide basic services such as keeping the county jail, transporting prisoners, providing courthouse security and other duties with regard to service of process and summonses that are issued by county and state courts. ... Image File history File links Deputy_sheriff_Mogollon_New_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Deputy_sheriff_Mogollon_New_Mexico. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ... The Undersheriff in American law enforcement is the second in charge of an American Sheriffs Office. ... Chief of Police is the title typically given to the head of a police department, particularly in the United States and Canada. ... A car of the Devon and Cornwall Constabulary, England Police forces are government organisations charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order. ... ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ...


In the U.S., the relationship between the sheriff and other police departments varies widely from state to state, and indeed in some states from county to county. In the northeastern U.S., the sheriff's duties have been greatly reduced with the advent of state-level law enforcement agencies, especially the state police and local agencies such as the county police. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... State police are a type of sub-national territorial police force, particularly in Australia and the United States. ... County police are the police of a county in the United States and England (formerly throughout the United Kingdom). ...


Sheriff offices may coexist with other county level law enforcement agencies such as the County police, County park police, county detectives etc. County police are the police of a county in the United States and England (formerly throughout the United Kingdom). ...


High Sheriff in the United States

Some U.S. States have a similar position to the British High Sheriff; however, only the states of Hawaii, New Hampshire and Rhode Island still use it. The High Sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The New York City Sheriff functions as a de facto high sheriff, as his jurisdiction covers New York City, which contains the five New York Counties - each of which contains an Undersheriff. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Undersheriff in American law enforcement is the second in charge of an American Sheriffs Office. ...


See also

The High Sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sayyid. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... In medieval Germany, the Schultheiß (Middle High German: Schultheize, latinised: Scultetus; in Switzerland: Schultheiss; also: Schulthies, Schulte or Schulze) was the head of a municipality (akin to todays office of mayor), a Vogt or an executive official of the ruler. ... For the painter, see John Constable. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ...

References

  1. ^ Alberta sheriffs make highway debut this weekend, CBC News, 1 September 2006
  2. ^ Alberta Highway Sheriff Patrol Ranks Increased by 20, Alberta Association of Municipal Districts and Counties, 18 May 2007
  3. ^ Balleine's History of Jersey

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