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Encyclopedia > Sheikh

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Usul al-fiqh

(The roots of jurisprudence) Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with murshid, Pir (Sufism) and Peer-E-Tariqat (Discuss) A Shaykh of Sufism is a Sufi who is authorized to teach, initiate and guide aspiring dervishes. ... Shaikh, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh (Arabic: شيخ), is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ...

Fiqh
Ahkam
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The classical Western image of a 'sheikh': Sheikh Sattam de Haddadin of Palmyra, by Russian painter Alexandr Evgenievich Yacovleff.
The classical Western image of a 'sheikh': Sheikh Sattam de Haddadin of Palmyra, by Russian painter Alexandr Evgenievich Yacovleff.

Sheikh, also rendered as Sheik, Cheikh, Shaikh, and other variants (Arabic: شيخ‎, shaykh; pl. شيوخshuyūkh), is a word or honorific term in the Arabic language that literally means "elder". It is commonly used to designate an elder of a tribe, a lord, a revered wise man, or an Islamic scholar. Although the title generally refers to a male person, there existed in history also a very small number of female sheikhs. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Minhaj means the way/the path. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge. ... Istihlal (Arabic: ) is a term used in Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh, to refer to the act of regarding some action as permissible, or halaal; the implication is that such a regard is an erroneous and improper distortion of Islamic law. ... Istihsan is an Arabic term for juristic preference and is one of the methods of reasoning for understanding the sources of shariah and itjihad. ... For other uses, see Risala (disambiguation). ... In Islamic context, the Ahkam (أحكام) are rulings and orders of the Quran and Sunnah. ... Halaal (حلال, halāl, halal) is an Islamic Arabic term meaning permissible. In English it is most frequently used to refer to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Fard also farida (arabic فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Mustahab, recomended, is a Islamic term denoting a actions between Mubah (neutral) and Wajib (actions which must be performed). ... Mubah is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor commended; neutral. ... Acts and substances which should be evaded by muslims. ... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ... Batil is an Arabic word meaning falsehood, and can be used to describe a nullified or invalid act or contract according to the sharia. ... A term in Islam. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, meaning both vicar and guardian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maulvi (also spelled: Moulvi, Mawlawi and Mawlvi Persian: مولوی) is an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Sunni Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names, similar to the titles Maulana, Mullah or Shaykh. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... A Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), in Islamic tradition, refers to a person who Muslims believe is sent by God in the first half of every century of the Islamic calendar. ... Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic: حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ... Hakim is a title in various oriental languages, derived from two separate Arabic words, both transcribed into English as Hakim: // حكيم ħakÄ«m It means wise man or physician Furthermore, al-Hakim the Wise is #47 of names of Allah revealed to man حاكم ħākim It means a ruler, governor, or judge. ... Maulana is a title of respect, technically reserved for Muslim scholars or Ulema (plural of Aalim) who are knowledgable about Islam and have studied under a scholar or at a religious institution, e. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language) is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority. ... http://www. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...

Contents

Etymology and meaning

The word in Arabic stems from a triliteral root connected with age and ageing: ش-ي-خ, shīn-yā'-khāf. The term literally means a man of old age, and it is used in that sense in Qur'anic Arabic. Later it came to be a title meaning leader, elder, or noble, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, where shaikh became a traditional title of a Bedouin tribal leader in recent centuries. Due to the cultural impact of Arab civilization, and especially through the spread of Islam, the word has gained currency as a religious term or general honorific in many other parts of the world as well, notably in Muslim cultures in Africa and Asia. In the terminology used to discuss the grammar of the Semitic languages, a triliteral is a root containing a sequence of three consonants (so also known as a triconsonantal root). ... Quranic Arabic refers to the type of Arabic used in the Holy Quran. ... The term Elder (or its equivalent in another language) is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Arabia redirects here. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


While the title can be used religiously by Muslims to designate a learned person, as an Arabic word it is essentially independent of religion. It is notably used by Druze for their religious men, but also by Arab Christians for elder men of stature. Its usage and meaning is similar to the Latin senex meaning old man, from which the English "senator" is derived. Accordingly, the Arabic term for eg. the US Senate is majlis al-shuyukh, meaning the Senators' Council, but more literally the Council of Elders. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... Religions Druzism Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), Quran Languages Arabic. ... The majority of Arab Christians (Arabic,مسيحيون عرب) live in the Middle East where, although Islam is undoubtedly the preponderant religion, significant religious minorities exist in a number of countries. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


As a secular honorific

The title is sometimes more informally used to people who have a certain financial or political influence, but especially in relation to royalty and other nobility. In the Persian Gulf States the title is used for men of stature, whether they are managers in high posts, wealthy business owners, or local rulers. For example, it was the term used in the West to refer to the leaders of Kuwait's ruling al-Sabah dynasty, even though the monarchic style was actually Hakim (Arabic 'ruler') until June 19, 1961, when Kuwait joined the Arab League, and the title Emir was adopted. The same applied to Bahrain and Qatar. The term is used by almost every male member of all the Gulf royal houses with the exception of Saudi Arabia.[citation needed] Royalty may refer to either: the royal family of a country with a monarchy royalties the payment made to the owner of a copyright, patent, or trademark, for the use thereof This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Al-Sabah (Arabic: الصباح) are the ruling Family of Kuwait. ... Hakim, or Al-hakim with the article, may refer to: Hakim (title), a title in Arabic al-Hakim, one of the 99 names of Allah Hakim is the name of the following individuals: George Habash, founder of the PFLP Maximos V Hakim, former patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...


In Lebanon, the title and its equivalent female form (shaykha) are commonly used when addressing members of the traditional Christian feudal families such as, in chronological order of the Maronite families who first had this title bestowed upon them: El-Hachem (Hashemite) of Akoura (since 1523, ruled the current Jbeil casa and the north till the Bcharri casa), El-Khazen (since 1545, ruled the Kiserwan area) and El Daher of Zgharta. The term sheikh is known to have been bestowed upon the families who battled with the Emir Fakhr al-Din in the historical battle of Anjar. Note that the term is not used for the seven traditional Beiruti families, but primarily for the above-mentioned four families. The other families that have this term (such as El-Dahdah, Gemayel, Harb...)are second and third degree sheikhs, because unlike the above mentioned three families, they did not rule any territory in previous ages. Instead, they were high-ranking employees or secretaries(kouttab) (such as Hobeich (since 1567)of Ghazir) in the Ottoman Empire, or political 'allies' of the rulers of the time, which provided them a certain financial status.[citation needed] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Byblos was a city of Phoenicia, in ancient times. ... Districts of Lebanon. ... Zgharta, or Zghorta (زغرتا Arabic) is a large town in North Lebanon, with an estimated population of around 70,000. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Anjar may mean: Anjar, India, town and district of India Anjar, Lebanon, town in the Bekaa valley of Lebanon Anjar Company, toy and game licensing company This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


In Pakistan and rest of South Asia, the title Shaikh signifies the Arab ancestory. The Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to Islamic Sultanate in South Asia and many settled in the Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


Religious usage

The term is often used by Muslims to address learned men of various Islamic sciences, such as faqihs, muftis, and muhaddiths, and more generally to convey respect for religious authorities. In Sufism tariqah (orders), it is often useda as an honorific for an elder Sufi who has been authorized by the order to teach, initiate and guide aspiring murids & dervishes, as such, he is also known as, in Arabic, as a formal Murshid (lit: Guide). In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... Murid (Arabic: مريد ) is a Sufi term meaning committed one. It refers to a person who is committed to a teacher in the spiritual path of Sufism. ... For other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... A Murshid is the teacher and guide to his disciples (Mureedh). ...


The term is and/or was also used in certain Islamic parts of Africa, as in imperial Ethiopia by the hereditary Muslim rulers of Bela Shangul, and by certain Muslim notables of Wollo, Tigray and Eritrea. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Wollo was a province in the north-eastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Dessye. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Tigray region. ...


For women

A daughter or wife of a Sheikh is sometimes called Sheikhah (Arabic: شيخة‎). Although the title generally refers to a male person, there existed in history also a very small number of female sheikhs.{citation needed}


See also

Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ), meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... Sheikh (Arabic: شيخ ), meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... Khawaja Shaikh (Arabic: خواجہ شيخ ) are a community of traders in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Qanungoh Shaikhs (Persian: قانون گوہ شيخ ) is a clan of Muslim Shaikhs in Punjab, Pakistan. ... Siddiqui, (also rendered as Siddiqi, Siddiquee, Siddighi, Seddighi or Siddiquie) (Arabic: صدیقی) is a Muslim family name. ...

References

  • Shaikh Siddiqui
  • History of El Douaihy
  • History of the Maronites and Lebanon
  • "History of Lebanon" by Kamal Salibi

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