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Encyclopedia > Shechem

Shechem is a name of geographical places.

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Biblical original

Shechem, Sichem, or Shkhem (שְׁכֶם / שְׁכָם "Shoulder", Standard Hebrew Šəḫem / Šəḫam, Tiberian Hebrew Šəḵem / Šəḵām was an Israelite city in the tribe of Ephraim, situated at Tell Balatah 32°12′11″N, 35°18′40″E, 2 km east of present-day Nablus) was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel. The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... Nāblus (sometimes Nābulus; Arabic: (help· info); IPA , Hebrew: (help· info); IPA ); ) is a major city under Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and, with a population of over 100,000, is one of the largest Palestinian population centers in the Middle East. ... The Kingdom of Israel Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YiÅ›rāʼēl) was the Kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1030-1020 BCE. // Biblical Account of Israels Origins According to the Biblical account, Israel is descended from Hebrew slaves who left the Land...


Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was raised and reconstructed up to 22 times before its final demise in 200 CE. Within the remains of the city can still be found a number of walls and gates built for defense, a government house, a residential quarter and the ruins of a temple raised to Zeus by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, the latter dating to the second century CE. Statue of Zeus Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BCE. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th-century engraving. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ...


Its position is clearly indicated in the Bible: it lay north of Bethal and Silo, on the high road going from Jerusalem to the northern districts (Judges xxi, 19), at a short distance from Machmethath (Joshua 17:7) and of Dothain (Genesis 37:12-17); it was in the hill-country of Ephraim (Joshua 20:7; 21:21; 1 Kings 12:25; 1 Chronicles 6:67; 7:28), immediately below Mount Garizim (Judges 9:6-7). These indications are completed by Josephus, who says that the city lay between Mt. Ebal and Mt. Garizim, and by the Medaba map, which places Sychem, also called Sikima between the Tour Gobel (Ebal) and the Tour Garizin (Garizim). We may therefore admit unhesitatingly that Sichem stood on (St. Jerome, St. Epiphanius), or very close to (Eusebius, "Onomast.", Euchem; Medaba map), the site occupied by the town of Nablus, the Neapolis, or Flavia Neapolis of early Christian ages.


Pre-Roman History and Biblical tradition

The old city of Shechem dates back an estimated four thousand years.


At Shechem, Abram "built an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him ... and had given that land to his descendants" (Gen 12:6-7). This Biblical account, considered by some to be the first place Abram stopped when Abraham Sarah, Lot and their party entered Canaan. The Bible states that on this occasion, God confirmed the covenant He had first made with Abraham in Ur, regarding the possession of the land of Canaan. On a later sojourn, the sons of Jacob avenged their sister's rape by massacring the city. Joshua assembled the Israelites in Shechem and encouraged them to reaffirm their adherence to the Torah. During the Judges period, Abimelech was crowned king in Shechem. Tomb of Abraham Abraham (between 2000 BC/BCE and 1500 BC/BCE) (Hebrew: אברהם, Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ابراهيم,  ; Geez: አብርሃም,  ; Father/Leader of many) is regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites whom God chose to bless out of all the families of the earth. ... Sara (שָׂרָה a woman of high rank, Standard Hebrew Sara, Tiberian Hebrew Śārāh, Arabic: سارة, Yiddish Shóre) is the wife of Abraham as described in the Hebrew Bible. ... Lot is: Place Specific - A French département, see Lot (département) A French river, a tributary of the Garonne, see Lot River A Belgian town, see Lot, Belgium A Polish Airline, see LOT Polish Airlines Character Specific - A Biblical figure, the nephew of Abraham, see Lot (Biblical) Lot, a... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Covenant, in its most general sense, is a word for a solemn promise or similar undertaking. ... , For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the original mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Dinah (דִּינָה Judged; vindicated, Standard Hebrew Dina, Tiberian Hebrew Dînāh), mentioned in the Book of Genesis as the daughter of Jacob and Leah. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ... Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... pages edit history. ...


Shechem was a commercial center due to its position in the middle of vital trade routes through the region. It traded in local grapes, olives, wheat, livestock and pottery between the middle Bronze Age and the late Hellenic Period (1900-100 BCE). The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history which lasted for around one thousand years and ended with the rise of Christianity. ...


Shechem had been a Canaanite settlement, mentioned on an Egyptian stele of a noble at the court of Senusret III (c. 18801840 BC). Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... nomen or birth name Senusret III was a pharaoh of Egypt. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the Amarna Letters of about 1350BC, Shachmu (i.e. Shechem) was the center of a kingdom carved out by Labaya (or Labayu), a Canaanite warlord who recruited mercenaries from among the Habiru. Labaya was the author of three Amarna letters, and his name appears in 11 of the other 382 letters, referred to 28 times, with the basic topic of the letter, being Labaya himself, and his relationship with the rebelling, countryside Habiru. One of the Amarna letters The designation Amarna letters denotes an archive of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru. ... Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Libayu) was a Canaanite warlord who lived about contemporaneously with Pharaoh Akhenaten (14th century BCE). ... Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ... Habiru or Hapiru was the name given by various Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Hittite, Mitanni, and Ugaritic sources (dated, roughly, from before 2000 BC to around 1200 BC) to a group of people living in the areas of Northeastern Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent from the borders of Egypt in Canaan...


Shechem first appears in the Tanakh in Genesis 12:6–8, which records how Abraham reached the "great tree of Moreh" at Shechem and offered sacrifice nearby. Later Joseph's bones were brought out of Egypt and reburied at Shechem. That the city of Sichem, the name of which (Hebrew shékém — 'shoulder, saddle') appears to have been suggested by the configuration of the place, existed in the time of Abraham is doubted by a few who think it is referred to in Genesis, xii, 6, by anticipation; but there can be no question touching its existence in Jacob's time (Genesis 33:18, 19); it is certainly mentioned in the El-Amarna letters (letter 289), and is probably the Sakama of the old Egyptian traveler Mohar (fourteenth century B.C.; Muller, "Asien u. Europ.", p. 394, Leipzig, 1893). Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach, IPA: or ) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah, the first book of the Tanakh and also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Tomb of Abraham Abraham (between 2000 BC/BCE and 1500 BC/BCE) (Hebrew: אברהם, Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ابراهيم,  ; Geez: አብርሃም,  ; Father/Leader of many) is regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites whom God chose to bless out of all the families of the earth. ... Moreh (Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897) Encyclopaedia Biblica Moreh) Translators who consider the obscure elon moreh of Genesis 12:6 to be the name of a locality, render it as the plains of Moreh. Translators who consider the term to be a sacred tree or grove, often render it terebinth... The mohar was the currency of Nepal until 1932. ...


Owing to its central position, no less than to the presence in the neighborhood of places hallowed by the memory of Abraham (Genesis 12:6, 7; 34:5), Jacob (Genesis 33:18-19; 34:2, etc.), and Joseph (Joshua 24:32), the city was destined to play an important part in the history of Israel. The city, including its Bronze Age temple, fell to the Israelites sometime before 1000 BC. It has been suggested that Yaqub be merged into this article or section. ... Joseph is a given name originating from Hebrew, recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as יוֹסֵף, Standard Hebrew Yosef, Tiberian Hebrew and Aramaic Yôsēp̄. In Arabic, including in the Quran, the name is spelt يوسف or Yūsuf. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...


There it was that, after Gideon's death, Abimelech, his son by a Sichemite concubine, was made king (Judges 9:1-6). Yotam, the youngest son of Gideon, made a famous speech on Mount Gerizim known as Yotam's allegory where he warned the people of Shechem about Abimelech's future tyranny (Judges 9:7-20). When the city has, three years later, risen in rebellion, Abimelech took it, utterly destroyed it, and burnt the temple of Baal-berith where the people had fled for safety. From the excavations, it was learnt that the city was destroyed on B.C 1100. Gideon (גִּדְעוֹן, Standard Hebrew Gidʿon, Tiberian Hebrew Giḏʿôn) is a character who appears in the Bibles Book of Judges. ... pages edit history. ... Jotham (God is perfect; also Yotam) is the name of two people of the Hebrew Bible: 1. ... Mount Gerizim; archaeological research Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew Ar-garízim, Arabic جبل جرزيم Jabal JarizÄ«m, Tiberian Hebrew הַר גְּרִזִּים Har GÉ™rizzîm, Standard Hebrew הַר גְּרִיזִּים Har GÉ™rizzim) is a mountain in the West Bank near Nablus which is sacred to the Samaritan sect. ... Baal-Berith was the god of the Canaanite city. ...


It was rebuilt in the 10th century B.C and was probably the capital of Har Efraim(1 Kings 4). Shechem was the place appointed, after Solomon's death, for the meeting of the people of Israel and the investiture of Roboam; the meeting ended in the secession of the ten northern tribes, and Sichem, fortified by Jeroboam, became for a while the capital of the new kingdom (1 Kings 12:1; 14:17; 2 Chronicles 10:1). Book of Kings may refer to: The Books of Kings in the Bible. ... Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Rehoboam was king of Judah, succeeding his father Solomon. ... Jeroboam (increase of the people), the son of Nebat an Ephrathite (1 Kings 11:26-39), was the first king of the break-away ten tribes or Kingdom of Israel, over whom he reigned twenty-two years. ... Book of Kings may refer to: The Books of Kings in the Bible. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...


When the kings of Israel moved first to Tirzah, and later on to Samaria, Shechem lost its importance, and we do not hear of it until after the fall of Jerusalem (587 B.C.; Jeremiah 12:5). The events connected with the restoration were to bring it again into prominence. When, on his second visit to Jerusalem, Nehemias expelled the grandson of the high priest Eliashib (probably the Manasse of Josephus, "Antiq., XI, vii, viii), who refused to separate from his alien wife, Sanaballat's daughter, and with him the many Jews, priests and laymen, who sided with the rebel, these betook themselves to Shechem; a schismatic temple was then erected on Mount Garizim and thus Shechem became the "holy city" of the Samaritans. The latter, who were left unmolested while the orthodox Jews were chafing under the heavy hand of Antiochus IV (Antiq., XII, v, 5) and welcomed with open arms every renegade who came to them from Jerusalem (Antiq., XI, viii, 7), fell about 128 B.C. before John Hyrcanus, and their temple was destroyed ("Antiq.", XIII, ix, 1). A town in the highlands north of Jerusalem, it has been identified with Tell el-Farah (North). ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... Nehemiah or Nechemya (נְחֶמְיָה Comforted of/is the LORD (YHWH), Standard Hebrew Nəḥemya, Tiberian Hebrew Nəḥemyāh) was a person in the Bible, believed to be the primary author of the Book of Nehemiah. ... For the ethnic group of this name, see Samaritan. ... There are several monarchs known by the title of Antiochus IV: Antiochus IV of Syria, who ruled during the time of Caligula; Antiochus Epiphanes, the Seleucid oppressor of the Jews who provoked the revolt of the Maccabees. ...


From that time on, Shechem shared in the fate of the other cities of Samaria.


Classical and modern history

In Classical times, Shechem was the main settlement of the Samaritans, whose cultic center was on Mount Gerizim, just outside of the town. In Acts 7:16 the place is called Sychem, and in the Gospel of John 4:5 it is called Sychar. For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ...


Shechem, which lay in a narrow shoulder of land in the narrow valley between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, approximately 65 km north of Jerusalem, is also the location of Jacob's Well, where John 4:5–6 sets Jesus' meeting with the woman of Samaria, The Ancient Roman and Arab city of Nablus lies 2 km to the west of the site. Josephus, writing in about AD 90 (Jewish Antiquities 4.8.44), placed the city between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, and other ancient writers knew that it was on the outskirts of "Neapolis" (Nablus), but its archaeological site was only stumbled upon in 1903 by a German party of archaeologists led by Dr. Hermann Thiersch at a site known as Tell Balatah, beside the traditional site associated with the tomb of Joseph (Joshua 24:32). Mount Gerizim; archaeological research Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew Ar-garízim, Arabic جبل جرزيم Jabal JarizÄ«m, Tiberian Hebrew הַר גְּרִזִּים Har GÉ™rizzîm, Standard Hebrew הַר גְּרִיזִּים Har GÉ™rizzim) is a mountain in the West Bank near Nablus which is sacred to the Samaritan sect. ... Mount Ebal, a mountain peak 940 meters above sea level just north of the West Bank city of Nablus. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Greek: Ιεροσόλυμα, Ierosólyma or Ιερουσαλήμ, IerousalÄ“m; Latin: Hierosolyma; Arabic: , al-Quds; official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس, Urshalim-Al-Quds) is the largest city of Israel. ... Jesus (8–2 BC/BCE — 29–36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Nāblus (sometimes Nābulus; Arabic: (help· info); IPA , Hebrew: (help· info); IPA ); ) is a major city under Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and, with a population of over 100,000, is one of the largest Palestinian population centers in the Middle East. ... Josephus (c. ... For other uses, see number 90. ... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A tomb is a small building (or vault) for the remains of the dead, with walls, a roof, and (if it is to be used for more than one corpse) a door. ... Joseph, in the Hebrew Bible appears in the Book of Genesis. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


Like all Samaria it was annexed, at the time of the deposition of Archelaus, in A.D. 6, to the Roman Province of Syria. Some, no doubt, of its inhabitants (whether Sichar of John 4:5, is the same as Sichem or a place near the latter we shall leave here undecided) were of the number of the "Samaritans" who believed in Jesus when He tarried two days in the neighborhood (John 4), and the city must have been visited by the Apostles on their way from Samaria to Jerusalem (Acts 8:25). Of the Samaritans of Sichem not a few rose up in arms on Mt. Garizim at the time of the Galilean rebellion (A.D. 67); the city was very likely destroyed on that occasion by Cerealis ("Bell. Jud.", III, vii, 32), and a few years after a new city, Flavia Neapolis, was built by Vespasian a short distance to the west of the old one; some fifty years later Hadrian restored the temple on Mt. Garizim, and dedicated it to Jupiter (Dion Cass., xv, 12). Neapolis, like Sichem, had very early a Christian community and had the honor to give to the Church her first apologist, St. Justin Martyr; we hear even of bishops of Neapolis (Labbe, "Conc.", I, 1475, 1488; II, 325). On several occasions the Christians suffered greatly from the Samaritans, and in 474 the emperor, to avenge an unjust attack of the sect, deprived the latter of Mt. Garizim and gave it to the Christians who built on it a church dedicated to the Blessed Virgin (Procop., "De edif", v, 7).


Since the Mohammedan conquest (636, first under the Arab Caliphates, ultimately underthe Ottoman Turks) Christianity, except during the twelfth century, had practically disappeared from Nablús, which, however, remained the headquarters of the Samaritan sect (about 150 members) and of their high priest. Nāblus (sometimes Nābulus; Arabic: ; IPA , Hebrew: ; IPA ); ) is a major city under Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and, with a population of over 100,000, is one of the largest Palestinian population centers in the Middle East. ...


Homonym

Sichem is also the old spelling for Zichem, a Flemish municipality which is named after the biblical Sichem; it is now merged into Scherpenheuvel-Zichem. Scherpenheuvel-Zichem is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant. ...


See also

Biblical archaeology involves the recovery and scientific investigation of the material remains of past cultures that can illuminate the periods and descriptions in the Bible. ... The Kingdom of Israel Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʼēl) was the Kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1030-1020 BCE. // Biblical Account of Israels Origins According to the Biblical account, Israel is descended from Hebrew slaves who left the Land... Nāblus (sometimes Nābulus; Arabic: (help· info); IPA , Hebrew: (help· info); IPA ); ) is a major city under Palestinian Authority in the West Bank and, with a population of over 100,000, is one of the largest Palestinian population centers in the Middle East. ...

References

  • Stager, Lawrence (2003). "The Shechem Temple Where Abimelech Massacred a Thousand". Biblical Archaeology Review 29:4 (July/August): 26-35, 66, 68-69.

Sources and External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shechem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1156 words)
Shechem, Sichem, or Shkhem (שְׁכֶם / שְׁכָם "Shoulder", Standard Hebrew Šəḫem / Šəḫam, Tiberian Hebrew Šəḵem / Šəḵām was an Israelite city in the tribe of Ephraim, situated at Tell Balatah 32°12′11″N, 35°18′40″E, 2 km east of present-day Nablus) was the first capital of the Kingdom of Israel.
Shechem was a commercial center due to its position in the middle of vital trade routes through the region.
Shechem was the place appointed, after Solomon's death, for the meeting of the people of Israel and the investiture of Roboam; the meeting ended in the secession of the ten northern tribes, and Sichem, fortified by Jeroboam, became for a while the capital of the new kingdom (1 Kings 12:1; 14:17; 2 Chronicles 10:1).
"Shechem" by Robert I Bradshaw (2979 words)
Shechem’s strategic location and plentiful supplies of both food and water explain why it was occupied for thousands of years.
Shechem was a city of refuge and as such was supposed to be a place of safety.
The surviving population relocated to the nearby towns of Sychar and Neapolis (Anderson, 1988: 304; Wright, 1965: 183-184).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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