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Encyclopedia > Sheba

Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name sh'va and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Qur'an. The actual location of the historical kingdom is disputed between southern Arabia and Ethiopia; the kingdom may have been situated in either present-day Ethiopia or present-day Yemen. “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


The nation makes its first appearance in world literature with the mention of the Queen of Sheba (named Makeda in Ethiopian tradition and Bilqis in Islamic tradition), who travels to Jerusalem to behold the fame of King Solomon (1 Kings 10). The location of Sheba has thus become closely linked with national prestige, as various royal houses have claimed descent from the Queen of Sheba and Solomon. Sheba is also mentioned in other biblical texts. For instance, in the Old Testament genealogy of the nations Genesis 10:7, Sheba, along with Dedan, is listed as one of the descendants of Noah's son Ham (as son of Raamah, son of Cush, son of Ham). In Genesis 25:3, Sheba and Dedan are listed as sons of Jokshan. Another Sheba is listed in the genealogy appearing in Genesis 10 as a descendant of Noah's son Shem: that is, as a Semite (this genealogy lists Sheba as a son of Joktan, son of Eber, son of Shelah, son of Arphaxad, son of Shem.) However, these accounts are of little historical value as they merely represent the ahistorical beliefs of ancients writers who had minimal contact with the actual historical kingdom of Sheba. The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom which modern archaeology speculates was located in... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... Artists depiction of Solomos court (Ingobertus, c. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Dedan - low ground. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... Shem (שֵׁם renown; prosperity; name, Standard Hebrew Šem, Tiberian Hebrew Šēm; Greek Σημ, Sēm; ) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible who adhered to the Noahide Laws. ... Semitic is an adjective which in common parlance mistakenly refers specifically to Jewish things, while the term actually refers to things originating among speakers of Semitic languages or people descended from them, and in a linguistic context to the northeastern subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. ...


Long the most vigorous claimant has been Ethiopia and Eritrea, where Sheba was traditionally linked with the ancient Axumite Kingdom. As Ethiopia has remained a Christian state, the connection to Sheba has been an important one, especially to the former ruling family, the Solomonic dynasty. The Axumite Kingdom, also known as the Aksum Kingdom, was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from circa the 5th century BC to become an important trading nation by the 1st century AD. It converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 (various sources). ... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ...


The Qur'anic Queen of Sheba, Bilqis, was a ruler who visited Solomon after receiving a letter from him inviting her to submit to God. The letter read, "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, and Most Merciful: be you not exalted against me, but come to me as Muslims (true believers who submit with full submission)" (27:30-31 Quran). After visiting with King Solomon the Queen of Sheba said, "My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, and I submit (in Islam), together with Sulayman, to Allah, the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, jinns, and all that exists)" (27:20-44 Quran). The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān, literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Artists depiction of Solomos court (Ingobertus, c. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Artists depiction of Solomos court (Ingobertus, c. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Evidence is mounting of a region in northern Tigray and Eritrea which called itself Saba. As yet, most scholars would call it Ethiopian Saba, and indicate that it supports the assumption that Sabean culture existed both in Ethiopia and Yemen, without one colonizing the other. Tigray may refer to a place in Ethiopia or a people in Ethiopia: Tigray Region Tigray Province Tigray-Tigrinya people Category: ...


Nevertheless, recent archaeological evidence has not supported the Ethiopian claim strongly[citation needed]. Most scholars today believe that, at most, the kingdom of Sheba controlled some coastal regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea but was centered on the southwestern tip of the Arabian peninsula, modern Yemen. Linguistic evidence also points to a close historical relationship between the two sides of the Red Sea, as South Semitic languages are found only in two places: southern Arabia (modern Yemen and Oman), and the Horn of Africa (modern Eritrea and Ethiopia). Additionally, the modern Ge'ez alphabet developed from the old South Arabian alphabet. The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... South Semitic is one of the three macro-classifications in Semitic linguistics, the other two being North Semitic (e. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ...


Modern scholars tend to think a link to the Sabaeans of southern Arabia, who inhabited the same region, is the most probable. However, Ethiopist Donald Levine argued in favor of one Ethiopian tradition that "Sheba is Shewa!" What is left of Awam Temple or the Sun temple in Marib. ... Shewa (also spelled Shoa) is a historical region of Ethiopia. ...


Ruins in many other countries, including Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen, Sudan, Egypt, Eritrea, and Iran, have been credited as being Sheba, but with only minimal evidence. There has even been a suggestion of a link between the name "Sheba" and that of Zanzibar. Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...


According to Marco Polo, Saba is the location of the tombs of the three Magi.


See also

N.B.: Genesis X:27 The following are the two alternative listings of the Rulers of the Yemeni kingdom of Sheba. ... The Queen of Sheba, (Hebrew מלכת שבא , Arabic ملكة سبأ , Geez: ንግሥተ ሳባ Nigista Saba), referred to in the Hebrew scriputures (Old Testament), Bible books of 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, the New Testament, the Quran, and Ethiopian history, was the ruler of Sheba, an ancient kingdom which modern archaeology speculates was located in... The Queen of Sheba, known in Islamic tradition as Bilquis, was invited by Solomon to Islam and thus submitted to God. ... It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ...


External links

  • "Queen of Sheba mystifies at the Bowers" - UC Irvine news article on Queen of Sheba exhibit at the Bowers Museum
  • "A Dam at Marib" from the 'Saudi Aramco World' online - March/April 1978
  • Queen of Sheba Temple restored (2000, BBC)

 
 

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