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Encyclopedia > Shawnee
Shawnee

Flag of The Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma There are several places with the name Shawnee: Shawnee, Kansas Shawnee, Ohio Shawnee, Oklahoma Fort Shawnee, Ohio Shawnee County, Kansas Shawnee Hills, Ohio Shawnee Hills, Delaware County, Ohio Shawnee Hills, Greene County, Ohio Shawnee Mission, Kansas All of these places were named after the Shawnee tribe of Native Americans. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Flag of The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x540, 228 KB) [edit] Sumari Bandera Eastern Shawnee —Walden69 16:24, 5 February 2006 (UTC) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shawnee Gallery of flags...

Flag of The Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma
Total population

14,000 Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Regions with significant populations
Oklahoma
(also a small community in Ohio)
Language(s)
Shawnee, English
Religion(s)
traditional beliefs and Christianity
Related ethnic groups
Sac and Fox

The Shawnee, or Shawano, are a people native to North America. They originally inhabited the areas of Ohio, West Virginia, Western Maryland, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Distribution of the Shawnee language around 1650 The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by only around 200 Shawnee, making it very endangered. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Western Maryland is the portion of U.S. state of Maryland that consists of Frederick, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett counties. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ...

Contents

History

Prehistory to 1750s

Shawnee distribution around 1755
Shawnee distribution around 1755

Randy Moran loves underage drinking. The prehistoric origins of the Shawnees are quite uncertain. The other Algonquian nations regarded the Shawnee as their southernmost branch, and other Algonquian languages have words similar to "shawano" meaning "south". However, the stem shawan does not mean "south" in Shawnee, but "moderate, warm (of weather)". In one Shawnee tale, Shawaki is the deity of the south. Some scholars have speculated that the Shawnee are descendants of the people of the prehistoric Fort Ancient culture of the Ohio country, although other scholars disagree, and no definitive proof has been established.[1] Image File history File links Shawnee_lang. ... Image File history File links Shawnee_lang. ... Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture that flourished from 1000-1550 among a people who predominantly inhabited land along the Ohio River in areas of southern modern day Ohio and northern Kentucky. ...


Sometime before 1670, a group of Shawnee had migrated to the Savannah River area. The English of Province of Carolina based in Charles Town were first contacted by these Shawnees in 1674, after which a long lasting alliance was forged. The Savannah River Shawnee were known to the Carolina English as "Savannah Indians". Around the same time other Shawnee groups migrated to Florida, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and other regions south and east of the Ohio Country. Historian Alan Gallay speculates that this Shawnee diaspora of the middle to late 17th century was probably driven by the Iroquois Wars that began in the 1640s. The Shawnee became known for their widespread settlements and migrations and their frequent long-distance visits to other Indian groups. Their language became a lingua franca among numerous tribes, which along with their experience helped make them leaders in initiating and sustaining pan-Indian resistance to European and Euro-American expansion.[2] For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... The Carolina Colony grants Haystack of 1663 and 1665 The Province of Carolina from 1663 to 1729, was a North American British colony. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Prior to 1752, they had a headquarters at Shawnee Springs near Winchester, Virginia, where the father of the later chief Cornstalk had his court. At some point, they had settled in the Ohio country, the area that is now West Virginia, southern Ohio, and northern Kentucky. Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1802 Mayor Elizabeth Minor Area    - City 24. ... Cornstalk (1720?–November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people in the era of the American Revolution. ... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


The Iroquois later claimed the Ohio Country region by right of conquest, regarding the Shawnees and Delawares who resettled there as dependent tribes. A number of Iroquois also migrated westward at this time, and became known as the Mingo. These three tribes—the Shawnee, the Delaware, and the Mingo—became closely associated in the Ohio country. For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


Sixty Years' War, 1754–1814

After the Battle of the Monongahela, in 1755, many Shawnees fought with the French during the early years of the French and Indian War until they signed the Treaty of Easton in 1758. When the French were defeated, in 1763, many Shawnees joined Pontiac's Rebellion against the British, which failed a year later. Combatants France Indian Tribes Britain Commanders Liénard de Beaujeu † Jean-Daniel Dumas Charles de Langlade Edward Braddock † Strength 105 regulars 147 militia 600 natives 1,459 regulars and militia Casualties 23 killed 20 wounded 456 killed 521 wounded The Braddock expedition (also called Braddocks campaign) was a failed... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Treaty of Easton was an colonial agreement in North America signed in October 1758 between the colonial British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country, including the Shawnee and Lenape. ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a...


The Royal Proclamation of 1763, which was issued during Pontiac's Rebellion, drew a boundary line between the British colonies in the east and the Ohio Country, which was west of the Appalachian Mountains. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768, however, extended that line westwards, giving the British a claim to what is now West Virginia and Kentucky. Shawnees did not agree to this treaty: it was negotiated between British officials and the Iroquois, who claimed sovereignty over the land although Shawnees and other Native Americans hunted there. A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Two different treaties between Native Americans and European-Americans were signed at Fort Stanwix, which was located near present-day Rome, New York. ...


After the Stanwix treaty, Anglo-Americans began pouring into the Ohio River Valley. Violent incidents between settlers and Indians escalated into Dunmore's War in 1774. British diplomats managed to isolate the Shawnees during the conflict: the Iroquois and the Delawares stayed neutral, while the Shawnees faced the British colony of Virginia with only a few Mingo allies. Lord Dunmore, royal governor of Virginia, launched a two-prong invasion into the Ohio Country. Shawnee Chief Cornstalk attacked one wing, but was defeated in the only major battle of the war, the Battle of Point Pleasant. In the Treaty of Camp Charlotte, Cornstalk and the Shawnees were compelled to recognize the Ohio River boundary established by the 1768 Stanwix treaty. Dunmores War (or Lord Dunmores War) was the result of several collisions that took place in the spring of 1774, on the Ohio River above the mouth of the Little Kanawha River, between Native American peoples (particularly Shawnee, Miami, and Wyandot) and parties of Anglo_American settlers who were... Lord Dunmore John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (1730–February 25, 1809) was the British governor of the Province of New York from 1770 to 1771 and the Virginia Colony, from September 25, 1771 until just before the American Revolutionary War began in June 1775. ... Cornstalk (1720?–November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people in the era of the American Revolution. ... The Battle of Point Pleasant was an action in Lord Dunmores War between Virginia militia and the Indians fought on October 10, 1774 near modern Point Pleasant, West Virginia. ...


Many other Shawnee leaders refused to recognize this boundary, however, and when the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, a number of Shawnees advocated joining the war as British allies in an effort to drive the colonists back across the mountains. The Shawnees were divided: Cornstalk led those who wished to remain neutral, while war leaders such as Chief Blackfish and Blue Jacket fought as British allies. This article is about military actions only. ... Blackfish (c. ... Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. ...


In the Northwest Indian War between the United States and a confederation of Native American tribes, the Shawnee combined with the Miamis into a great fighting force. After the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, most of the Shawnee bands signed the Treaty of Greenville a year later, in which large parts of their homeland were turned over to the United States. Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana and Ohio. ... Combatants United States Legion of the United States consisting of: 1st Sub-Legion: 3d Infantry Regiment 2nd Sub-Legion: U.S. 1st Infantry Regiment 3rd Sub-Legion: Captain Moses Porters Company of Artillery of the 3rd Sub-Legion 4th Sub-Legion: U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment Kentucky Volunteers Blue... This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Waynes officers. ...


Other Shawnee groups rejected this treaty and joined their brothers and sisters in Missouri and settled near Cape Girardeau. By 1800, only the Chillicothe and Mequachake tribes remained in Ohio while the Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Piqua had migrated to Missouri. Cape Girardeau is a city located in the county of the same name in Missouri, 100 miles south of Saint Louis. ...


From 1805, a minority of Shawnees joined the pan-tribal movement of Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, which led to Tecumseh's War and his death at the Battle of the Thames on October 5, 1813. This was the last attempt (in vain) of the Shawnee nation to defend the Ohio country from American expansion. This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... Tenskwatawa Tenskwatawa, Tenskatawa,, Tensquatawa or Elskwatawa (1775 – November 1836) was a Native American religious and political leader known as the Shawnee Prophet (of the Shawnee tribe). ... At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne. ... Combatants British Empire Indian Confederation United States Commanders Henry Procter Tecumseh † William Henry Harrison Strength 800 regulars 500 natives1 2,380 militia 1,000 cavalry 120 regulars 260 natives1 Casualties 155 British dead or wounded 477 captured 33 natives dead 15 dead 30 wounded The Battle of the Thames, also... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


After the war

Several hundred Missouri Shawnee left the United States in 1815 together with some Delaware people and settled in Texas, which was at that time controlled by Spain. This tribe became known as the Absentee Shawnee; they were once again expelled in 1839 after Texas had gained its independence three years earlier. These people settled in Oklahoma, close to present-day Shawnee and were joined, in 1845, by Shawnee from Kansas that shared their traditionalist views and beliefs. Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Photo of the Santa Fe Depot in downtown Shawnee. ...


In 1817, the Ohio Shawnee signed the Treaty of Fort Meigs, ceding their remaining lands in exchange for three reservations in Wapaughkonetta, Hog Creek (near Lima) and Lewistown (here together with the Seneca). The Treaty of Fort Meigs, also called Treaty of the Foot of the Rapids, was signed September 29, 1817 between the chiefs and warriors of the Wyandot, Seneca, Delaware, Shawnee, Potawatomi, Ottawa and Chippewa, tribes of native americans and the United States of America. ... Wapakoneta is a city in and the county seat of Auglaize CountyGR6, Ohio, United States with a population of 9,474 as of the 2000 U.S. census. ... Along State Route 235 in Ada. ... Lewistown is an unincorporated community located in the American state of Ohio, within Washington Township, Logan County. ... For other uses, see Seneca. ...


Missouri joined the Union in 1821 and, after the Treaty of St. Louis in 1825, the 1,400 Missouri Shawnees were forcibly relocated from Cape Girardeau to southeastern Kansas, close to the Neosho River. Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Treaty of St. ... Cape Girardeau is a city located in the county of the same name in Missouri, 100 miles south of Saint Louis. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... The Neosho River is a tributary of the Arkansas River in eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma in the United States. ...


During 1833, only the Black Bob's band of Shawnee resisted. They settled in northeastern Kansas near Olathe and along the Kansas (Kaw) River in Monticello near Gum Springs. Olathe ( O-Lay-tha) is a city located in northeast Kansas, and is the second most populous city and county seat of Johnson County. ... The Kansas River near De Soto Kaw River (map) looking southward from middle of Turner Diagonal bridge. ... In northwest Johnson County, Kansas, Monticello Township is now merged with Shawnee, Kansas. ... Shawnee is a rapidly growing community located in northwest Johnson County, Kansas and is a western suburb of Kansas City, Missouri. ...


About 200 of the Ohio Shawnee followed the Prophet Tenskwatawa and joined their Kansas brothers and sisters in 1826, but the main body followed Black Hoof, who fought every effort to give up the Ohio homeland. In 1831, the Lewistown group of Seneca-Shawnee left for the Indian territory (present-day Oklahoma). After the death of Black Hoof, the remaining 400 Ohio Shawnee in Wapaughkonetta and Hog Creek surrendered their land and moved to the Shawnee Reserve in Kansas. Tenskwatawa This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Catecahassa or Black Hoof (c. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ...


During the American Civil War, the Black Bob's band fled from Kansas and joined the Absentee Shawnee in Oklahoma to escape the war. After the Civil War, the Shawnee in Kansas were once again dispelled and moved to Oklahoma—whereupon the Shawnee part of the former Lewistown group became known as the Eastern Shawnee and the former Missouri Shawnee became known as the Loyal Shawnee (due to their allegiance with the Union during the war). The latter group was regarded as part of the Cherokee nation by the United States because they were also known as the Cherokee Shawnee. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Today, the largest part of the Shawnee nation still resides in Oklahoma.


Groups

Before contact with Europeans, the Shawnee tribe consisted of a loose confederacy of five divisions which shared a common language and culture. These division names have been spelled in a variety of ways, but the phonetic spelling is added after each following the work of C. F. Voegelin (see [1] for details on the regularized phonetic spelling):

  • Chillicothe (Chalahgawtha) [Chalaka, Chalakatha]
  • Hathawekela Thawikila]
  • Kispokotha (Kispoko)[kishpoko, kishpokotha]
  • Mequachake (Mekoche, Machachee, Maguck, Mackachack, etc.)
  • Pekuwe (Piqua, Pekowi,, Pekowitha]

Membership in a division was inherited from the father. Each division had a primary village where the chief of the division lived; this village was usually named after the division. By tradition, each Shawnee division had certain roles it performed on behalf of the entire tribe, although these customs were fading by the time they were recorded in writing by European-Americans and are now poorly understood. Chalahgawtha (or Chillicothe) was the name of one of the two principal septs of the Shawnee tribe of Native Americans in the Ohio Country in North America during the 18th century, as well as the name one of the principal village of this sept. ... Hathawekela was the name of one of the five divisions (or bands) of the Shawnee, a Native American people, during the 18th century. ... Kispoko was the name of one of the five divisions (or bands) of the Shawnee, a Native American people, during the 18th century. ... Mekoche was the name of one of the five divisions (or bands) of the Shawnee, a Native American people, during the 18th century. ... Pekowi was the name of one of the five divisions (or bands) of the Shawnee, a Native American people, during the 18th century. ...


This arrangement gradually changed due to the scattering of the Shawnee tribe from the 17th century through the 19th century. Today there are three federally recognized tribes in the United States:

  • The Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, consisting mainly of Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Pekuwe, living in Oklahoma
  • The Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma mostly of the Mekoche Division living in Oklahoma
  • The Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma formerly an official part of the Cherokee nation mostly of the Chaalakatha and Mekoche Divisions living in Oklahoma

There are presently about 14,000 Shawnee, most in Oklahoma. At least five bands of Shawnee (the Old Town Band, the Blue Creek Band, the East Of The River Shawnee, the Piqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee and the Shawnee Nation, United Remnant Band[3][4][5][6] reside in Ohio, but are not federally recognized nor are they accepted by any of the three federally recognized Shawnee Tribes residing in Oklahoma. For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ...


In 1993, leaders of the three federally recognized tribes of Oklahoma met with leaders of three alledged Shawnee groups of Ohio, here at Minnetrista Cultural Center, Muncie, Indiana. After four hours of questioning, not one of the Ohio people could produce any name or information which would identify with any Shawnee presently on a tribal role, which, given the fact that their Shawnee ancestors were not listed on rolls, would make sense (though a few such Shawnee whose ancestors came back east do have such affiliation). In addition, the ceremonies, attempts at language and other cultural information was also lacking in authenticity. Since that meeting, the Minnetrista Council for Great Lakes Native American Studies, a cultural consortium of 20 federally recognized Great Lakes Woodland Tribes, including the Shawnee, have not recognized any Shawnee groups other than the three federally recognized tribes.[citation needed]


In their frequent movements over the centuries, Shawnees established villages in numerous locations, from Illinois to New York and as far south as Georgia. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the state. ...


Articles on historic Shawnee towns include:

Other historic Shawnee towns were located in the following places: Chalahgawtha (or Chillicothe) was the name of one of the two principal septs of the Shawnee tribe of Native Americans in the Ohio Country in North America during the 18th century, as well as the name one of the principal village of this sept. ... Kittanning was an 18th century Native American village in the Ohio Country, located on the Allegheny River at present-day Kittanning, Pennsylvania. ... The village of Logstown (also Loggs Town) was a significant Native American settlement in Western Pennsylvania in the years leading to the French and Indian War. ... Shamokin was a multi-ethnic Native American trading village on the Susquehanna River, located near the site of the modern Sunbury, Pennsylvania. ... Lower Shawnee Town, also known as Sonnontio, was one of the earliest known Shawnee settlements within the boundaries of the present state of Ohio. ... Wakatomika was the name of two 18th century Shawnee villages in what is now the U.S. state of Ohio. ...

City nickname: The Peak of Ohio Location in the state of Ohio Founded 1820 County Logan County Mayor Robert C. Lentz Area  - Total  - Water 22. ... Pickaway Plains is a wide area of rolling hills beginning about 3 miles south of Circleville, Ohio, and extending several miles to the north and south. ... Coshocton is the county seat in Coshocton County, OhioGR6. ... Cumberland is a city located in Allegany County, Maryland. ... Nickname: Location in Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Auglaize incorporated 1834 Government  - Type Mayor-Administrator  - Mayor Greg Freewalt  - Director of Public Service and Safety Thomas J. Hitchcock Population (2000)  - City 8,342  - Density 1,926. ... Pickaway Plains is a wide area of rolling hills beginning about 3 miles south of Circleville, Ohio, and extending several miles to the north and south. ... Shawnee is a rapidly growing community located in northwest Johnson County, Kansas and is a western suburb of Kansas City, Missouri. ... Lewistown is an unincorporated community located in the American state of Ohio, within Washington Township, Logan County. ... The Christian Munsee were a group of Lenape native American Indians, primarily Munsee, who converted to Christianity, following the teachings of the Moravian missionaries. ... Olathe ( O-Lay-tha) is a city located in northeast Kansas, and is the second most populous city and county seat of Johnson County. ... Paxtang is a borough located in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania. ... Paxtonville is a census-designated place (CDP) in Snyder County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Pequea Township is a township in central Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Piqua is a town in Miami County, Ohio, United States. ... Springfield is the county seat of Clark County in the State of Ohio. ... Sewickley during Autumn Sewickley is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 12 miles west northwest of Pittsburgh along the Ohio River. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Talladega is a city located in Talladega County, Alabama. ... Shawneetown is a city located in Gallatin County, Illinois. ... Sylacauga is a city located in Talladega County, Alabama. ... Tallapoosa County is a county of the State of Alabama. ... Combatants Tecumsehs confederacy United States Commanders Tenskwatawa William Henry Harrison Strength 550-700 1,000 regulars and militia Casualties 50+ killed 70+ wounded 62 killed 126 wounded The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought in 1811 between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory... Venango is the name of several places in the United States, including four in the state of Pennsylvania: Venango in Nebraska Venango, Pennsylvania in Crawford County, Pennsylvania Venango Township in Butler County, Pennsylvania Venango Township in Crawford County, Pennsylvania Venango Township in Erie County, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page... Lawrence is a river city in Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... Wapakoneta is a city in and the county seat of Auglaize CountyGR6, Ohio, United States with a population of 9,474 as of the 2000 U.S. census. ... Portal:Cumberland, Maryland Top * Places * Culture * Media * Companies * Education * History * People * Religion * Sports * Trans* Tourism For other places with the same name, see Cumberland (disambiguation). ...

Language

For more details on this topic, see Shawnee language.

The Shawnee language is part of the Algonquian family and is closely related to Mesquakie-Sauk (Sac and Fox) and Kickapoo. Distribution of the Shawnee language around 1650 The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by only around 200 Shawnee, making it very endangered. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Fox tribe of Native Americans are an Algonquian language-speaking group that are now merged with the allied Sac tribe as the Sac and Fox Nation. ... For the abbreviation or acronym SAC, please see SAC. The Sauks or Sacs (Asakiwaki in their own language) are a group of Native Americans whose original territory may have been along the St. ... The Sac and Fox Nation is the modern political entity encompassing the historical Sac and Fox nations of Native Americans. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ...


Famous Shawnee individuals

  • Tecumseh, the outstanding Shawnee leader, and his brother Tenskwatawa attempted to unite the Eastern tribes against the expansion of white settlement; see also Tecumseh's War. This alliance was broken up by the Americans, leading to the Shawnee's expulsion to Oklahoma.
  • Blue Jacket, also known as Weyapiersenwah, was an important predecessor to Tecumseh, and a leader in the Northwest Indian War. Blue Jacket surrendered to General "Mad" Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, and signed the Treaty of Greenville, ceding much of Ohio to the United States.
  • Cornstalk, Blue Jacket's most prominent predecessor, led the Shawnee in Dunmore's War, and attempted to keep the Shawnee neutral in the American Revolutionary War.
  • Black Hoof, also known as Catecahassa, was a respected Shawnee chief and one of Tecumseh's adversaries. He thought the Shawnee had to adapt culturally to the ways of the whites in order to prevent decimation of the tribe through warfare.
  • * Nas'Naga, novelist and poet.
  • Linda Cook, United States CEO of Shell Gas & Power, part of Royal Dutch Shell, in London and later in Canada. The first of a very few female leaders in the male dominated oil industries. She has been recognized as one of the world's leading female entrepreneurs.

This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... Tenskwatawa Tenskwatawa, Tenskatawa,, Tensquatawa or Elskwatawa (1775 – November 1836) was a Native American religious and political leader known as the Shawnee Prophet (of the Shawnee tribe). ... At Vincennes in 1810, Tecumseh loses his temper when William Henry Harrison refuses to rescind the Treaty of Fort Wayne. ... Blue Jacket or Weyapiersenwah (c. ... Combatants United States Western Lakes Confederacy Commanders Josiah Harmar Arthur St. ... Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 - December 15, 1796), was a United States Army general and statesman. ... Combatants United States Legion of the United States consisting of: 1st Sub-Legion: 3d Infantry Regiment 2nd Sub-Legion: U.S. 1st Infantry Regiment 3rd Sub-Legion: Captain Moses Porters Company of Artillery of the 3rd Sub-Legion 4th Sub-Legion: U.S. 4th Infantry Regiment Kentucky Volunteers Blue... This depiction of the treaty negotiations may have been painted by one of Anthony Waynes officers. ... Cornstalk (1720?–November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee people in the era of the American Revolution. ... Dunmores War (or Lord Dunmores War) was the result of several collisions that took place in the spring of 1774, on the Ohio River above the mouth of the Little Kanawha River, between Native American peoples (particularly Shawnee, Miami, and Wyandot) and parties of Anglo_American settlers who were... This article is about military actions only. ... Catecahassa or Black Hoof (c. ... NasNaga, the pen-name of Shawnee writer Roger Russell, was the fourth writer published by the Harper & Row Native American Publishing series. ... Linda Zarda Cook, an American CEO of Shell Gas & Power, part of Royal Dutch Shell, in London and later in Canada. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ O'Donnell, James H. Ohio's First Peoples, p. 31. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback), ISBN 0-8214-1524-7 (hardcover), also: Howard, James H. Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a Native Indian Tribe and its Cultural Background, p. 1. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8214-0417-2; ISBN 0-8214-0614-0 (pbk.), and the unpublished dissertation Schutz, Noel W. Jr.: The Study of Shawnee Myth in an Ethnographic and Ethnohistorical Perspective, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Indiana University, 1975.
  2. ^ Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717, p. 55. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-10193-7
  3. ^ "Joint Resolution to recognize the Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band" / as adopted by the [Ohio] Senate, 113th General Assembly, Regular Session, Am. Sub. H.J.R. No. 8, 1979-1980
  4. ^ American Indians in Ohio, Ohio Memory: An Online Scrapbook of Ohio History. The Ohio Historical Society, retrieved September 30, 2007
  5. ^ Koenig, Alexa; Jonathan Stein. [http://works.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=alexa_koenig Federalism and the State Recognition of Native American Tribes: A Survey of State-Recognized Tribes and State Recognition Processes Across the United States]. Santa Clara Law Review Volume 48 (forthcoming) Section 12. Ohio. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. “Ohio recognizes one state tribe, the United Remnant Band. . . . Ohio does not have a detailed scheme for regulating tribal-state relations.”
  6. ^ Watson, Blake A.. Indian Gambling in Ohio:What are the Odds?. Capital University Law Review 237 (2003) (excerpts). Retrieved on 2007-09-30. “Ohio in any event does not officially recognize Indian tribes.” Watson cites legal opinions that the resolution by the Ohio Legislature recognizing the United Remnant Band of the Shawnee Nation was ceremonial and did not grant legal status as a tribe.

The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. ... The Ohio Historical Society is a non-profit organization incorporated in 1885 ...to promote a knowledge of archaeology and history, especially in Ohio. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Callender, Charles. "Shawnee" in Northeast: Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 15, ed. Bruce Trigger. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ISBN 0-16-072300-0
  • Clifton, James A. Star Woman and Other Shawnee Tales. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984. ISBN 0-8191-3712-X; ISBN 0-8191-3713-8 (pbk.)
  • Edmunds, R. David. The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8032-1850-8.
  • Edmunds, R. David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. Originally published 1984. 2nd edition, New York: Pearson Longman, 2006. ISBN 0-321-04371-5
  • Edmunds, R. David. "Forgotten Allies: The Loyal Shawnees and the War of 1812" in David Curtis Skaggs and Larry L. Nelson, eds., The Sixty Years' War for the Great Lakes, 1754–1814, pp. 337-51. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-87013-569-4.
  • Howard, James H. Shawnee!: The Ceremonialism of a Native Indian Tribe and its Cultural Background. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-8214-0417-2; ISBN 0-8214-0614-0 (pbk.)
  • O'Donnell, James H. Ohio's First Peoples. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback), ISBN 0-8214-1524-7 (hardcover).
  • Sugden, John. Tecumseh: A Life. New York: Holt, 1997. ISBN 0-8050-4138-9 (hardcover); ISBN 0-8050-6121-5 (1999 paperback).
  • Sugden, John. Blue Jacket: Warrior of the Shawnees. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8032-4288-3.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shawnee (12385 words)
Shawnee comes from the Algonquin word "shawun" (shawunogi) meaning "southerner." However, this referred to their original location in the Ohio Valley relative to other Great Lakes Algonquin rather than a homeland in the American southeast.
Many important Shawnee ceremonies were tied to the agricultural cycle: the spring bread dance at planting time; the green corn dance when crops ripened; and the autumn bread dance to celebrate the harvest.
Shawnee protests to the Iroquois went unanswered except for a threat of annihilation if they refused to accept the agreement forcing the Shawnee to take matters into their own hands.
The Shawnee Pottery (920 words)
The area is rich in natural clay, and the Shawnee were known to have lived and produced pottery in the Zanesville-Roseville area long before it was settled.
The new Shawnee plant employed some of the same craftsmen that had worked for American Encaustic; however, most of the old kilns in the plant were removed and replaced with state-of-the-art equipment prior to Shawnee's opening.
Much of Shawnee is completely glazed inside and out except for a raised rim or "foot" on the bottom that follows the contour of the entire base.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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