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Encyclopedia > Sharpeville Massacre

The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. The confrontation occurred in the township of Sharpeville, in what is now Gauteng province. March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Children in a township near Cape Town in 1989 In South Africa, the term township usually refers to the (often underdeveloped) urban residential areas that, under Apartheid, were reserved for non-whites (principally black Africans and Coloureds, who were put into separate townships or locations) who lived near or worked... Sharpeville is black township set up by the then apartheid government in southern Gauteng, South Africa between two large industrial cities of Vanderbijlpark and Vereeniging. ... Categories: South Africa stubs | Provinces of South Africa | Gauteng Province ...

Contents

Preceding events

Since 1923, the movements of black South Africans were restricted by pass laws. Leading up to the Sharpeville massacre, the Apartheid-supporting National Party government under the leadership of Hendrik Verwoerd used these laws to archive greater segregation,[1] and had recently been extended by the National Party to include women.[2] 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Pass Laws were introduced by the British governors in South Africa in 1923 to regulate movement of black Africans into urban areas. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... National Party or Nationalist Party can refer to several political parties, including: Australia - National Party of Australia, Nationalist Party of Australia Bangladesh - Bangladesh National Party, National Party, National Party (Manju), National Party (Naziur) Bohemia - National Party Britain - British National Party, Cornish Nationalist Party, Constitutional Movement Canada - National Party of Canada...


The African National Congress (ANC) had decided to launch a campaign of protests against pass laws. These protests were to begin on March 31, 1960, but the rival Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) decided to pre-empt the ANC by launching its own campaign ten days earlier, on March 21, 1960. [3] For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


Massacre

Police surveying the area after the Massacre
Police surveying the area after the Massacre

In a protest organized by the PAC on March 21, a group of between 5,000 and 7,000 people converged on the local police station, offering themselves up for arrest for not carrying their pass books. According to the Times newspaper, there was random shooting in the morning of the day on which the massacre happened, and this later prompted crowds to stone the police vehicles, at which point the police fired on them.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata SharpevilleMassacre. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SharpevilleMassacre. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ...


Sixty-nine people were killed including 8 women and 10 children, and over 180 injured, including 31 women and 19 children. It is debated whether or not the police attack was provoked. Most of those killed and injured were women and children; the photographs taken at various places in Sharpeville at the time of the massacre show no sign of any weapon which might cause the police to open fire on the protestors. The statements of Lieutenant Colonel Pienaar show that the mere gathering of blacks was taken as a provocation:

"The Native mentality does not allow them to gather for a peaceful demonstration. For them to gather means violence."

Aftermath

The uproar among blacks was immediate, and the following week saw demonstrations, protest marches, strikes, and riots around the country. On March 30, 1960, the government declared a state of emergency, detaining more than 18,000 people. March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in a leap year). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


A storm of international protest followed the Sharpeville shootings, including condemnation by the United Nations. On April 1, 1960, the United Nations Security Council sat to "consider seriously the apartheid colonial oppression of the African people in South Africa". Sharpeville marked a turning point in South Africa's history; the country found itself increasingly isolated in the international community. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


The Sharpeville massacre led to the banning of the ANC and PAC and was one of the catalysts for the foundation of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC, and Poqo, the military wing of the PAC. For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Poqo, which means standing alone, was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress. ...


See also

  • History of South Africa

The history of South Africa is viewed differently by various scholars and by its various population groups because South Africa is a multicultural country. ...

References

  1. ^ "The Sharpeville Massacre", Time Magazine, 1960-04-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  2. ^ Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report October 28, 1998 Volume 3, Chapter 6 531-537 Retrieved on 2006-12-15
  3. ^ Boddy-Evans, Alistair. Sharpeville Massacre, The Origin of South Africa's Human Rights Day. about.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.

1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The Sharpeville Massacre - a watershed in South Africa, by The Rt. Reverend Ambrose Reeves

  Results from FactBites:
 
THE SHARPEVILLE MASSACRE - A WATERSHED IN SOUTH AFRICA&1. In 1966, the nternational Day.& partheid published ... (5333 words)
I was not at Sharpeville when the shooting occurred but it was familiar territory to me. Time and again I officiated at the large African Anglican church there and knew intimately many of the congregation, some of whom were to be involved in the events of that tragic day.
Until Sharpeville, violence for the most part had been used in South Africa by those who were committed to the maintenance of the economic and political domination of the white minority in the Republic.
Sharpeville was a tragedy showing most plainly that the ideology of apartheid is a way of death and not of life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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