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Encyclopedia > Sharif Hussein
Image:Sharifhussein.jpg

Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. He ruled until 1924, when he was defeated by Abdul Aziz al Saud.


Hussein ibn Ali was the last of the Hashemites to rule the Hejaz. Hashemite rule over the region had existed in unbroken succession since 1201. During World War I, Hussein was initially allied with the Ottomans and Germany, but was convinced by T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") to rebel. Hussein was an important leader in the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans. Hussein allied himself with both the France and the United Kingdom, and intended to form a unified Arab state that would stretch from Syria to Yemen.


In the aftermath of the war, the Arabs found themselves freed from the Ottomans but under the control of France and the United Kingdom. The sons of Hussein were made the kings of Jordan, Syria and Iraq. However, the monarchy in Syria was abruptly ended when the French were given control over the nation.


When Hussein declared himself king of the Hejaz, he also declared himself king of all Arabs. This brought him into conflict with Ibn Saud, and Saud defeated Hussein in 1924. He was then forced to flee to Cyprus. He went on to live in Amman, Jordan, where his son Abdullah was king. Hussein died there in 1931. His son Faisal was made King of Iraq.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hussein I of Jordan - New World Encyclopedia Preview (3121 words)
Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال Husayn bin Talāl) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was born in Amman to Prince Talal bin Abdullah and Princess Zein al-Sharaf bint Jamil, of the royal Hashemite family.
Hussein was born in Amman on November 14, 1935, to Prince Talal bin Abdullah and Princess Zein al-Sharaf bint Jamil.
Hussein always believed that Jordan’s people are its biggest asset, and throughout his reign he encouraged all—including the less fortunate, the disabled, and the orphaned—to achieve more for themselves and their country.
First World War.com - Primary Documents - Sharif Hussein's Proclamation of Independence from Turkey, 27 June 1916 (1135 words)
On 27 June 1916 Sharif Hussein bin Ali, Emir of Mecca, issued a proclamation in which he announced himself, as a direct descendant of Mohammed, as the true leader of the Islamic faith.
Numerous reasons were cited to support Hussein's claim, not least of which was the alleged mistreatment by the Turks of Arabs in Syria, and the controversial argument put forward by the Young Turks (in 1909) that all religions were to be regarded as equal.
Hussein's objective in initiating the Great Arab Revolt was to establish a single independent and unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo (Syria) to Aden (Yemen), based on the ancient traditions and culture of the Arab people, the upholding of Islamic ideals and the full protection and inclusion of ethnic religious minorities.
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