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Sharia (Arabic: شريعة transliteration: Šarīʿah) is the body of Islamic religious law. The term means "way" or "path to the water source"; it is the legal framework within which the public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence and for Muslims living outside the domain. Sharia deals with many aspects of day-to-day life, including politics, economics, banking, business, contracts, family, sexuality, hygiene, and social issues. Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... In economics, a business (also called firm or enterprise) is a legally recognized organizational entity designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers or corporate entities such as governments, charities or other businesses. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There is no strictly static set of laws of sharia. Sharia is more of a system of how law ought to serve humanity, a consensus of the unified spirit, based on the Qur'an (the religious text of Islam), hadith (sayings and doings of Muhammad and his companions), Ijma (consensus), Qiyas (reasoning by analogy) and centuries of debate, interpretation and precedent. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Scripture redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... This article is about the legal term. ...


Before the 19th century, legal theory was considered the domain of the traditional legal schools of thought. Most Sunni Muslims follow Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki or Shafii, while most Shia Muslims follow the jaafari school of thought and are considered Twelvers.[1] Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... The Shafi`i madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...


Islamic law is now the most widely used religious law, and one of the three most common legal systems of the world alongside common law and civil law.[2] During the Islamic Golden Age, classical Islamic law had a fairly significant influence on the development of common law,[3] and also influenced the development of several civil law institutions.[4] In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law and religious law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ...

Contents

Etymology

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Islamic Jurisprudence

– a discipline of Islamic studies This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...

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The term sharia itself derives from the verb "shara'a" (Arabic: شرع‎), which according to Abdul Mannan Omar's "Dictionary of the Holy Qur'an" connects to the idea of "system of divine law; way of belief and practice".[Qur'an 45:18] This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... gadfglkjfdgvkleajbvgopigreogaerpo[gkaerokgkflgsgopsadfvgks;dfkgsdg;dlsfskgsdfgskgkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... The rules of war in Islam are the basic religious laws of war governing the military conduct of the mujahideen (literally those who struggle [for the Islamic faith]). These rules are part of a broader Islamic military doctrine encompassed by what some Muslims call Lesser Jihad. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Legal scholar L. Ali Khan explains that "the concept of sharia has been thoroughly confused in legal and common literature. For some Muslims, sharia consists of the Qur'an and Sunnah. For others, it also includes classical fiqh. Most encyclopedias define sharia as law based upon the Qur'an, the Sunna, and classical fiqh derived from consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas).This definition of sharia inappropriately lumps together the revealed with the unrevealed. This blending of sources has created a muddled assumption that scholarly interpretations are as sacred and beyond revision as are the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The Qur'an and the Sunnah constitute the immutable Basic Code, which should be kept separate from ever-evolving interpretive law (fiqh). This analytical separation between the Basic Code and fiqh is necessary to" dissipate confusion around the term Sharia.[5] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the context of Islam

Mainstream Islam distinguishes between fiqh (deep understanding, discernment), which refers to the inferences drawn by scholars, and sharia, which refers to the principles that lie behind the fiqh. Scholars hope that fiqh (jurisprudence) and sharia (law) are in harmony in any given case, but they cannot be sure.[6] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sharia has certain laws which are regarded as divinely ordained, concrete and timeless for all relevant situations (for example, the ban against drinking liquor as an intoxicant). It also has certain laws which derived from principles established by Islamic lawyers and judges (mujtahidun). ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ...


The primary sources of Islamic law are the Qur'an and Sunnah. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


To this, traditional Sunni Muslims add the consensus (ijma) of Muhammad's companions (sahaba) and Islamic jurists (ulema) on certain issues, and drawing analogy from the essence of divine principles and preceding rulings (qiyas). In situations where no concrete rules exist under the sources, law scholars use qiyas — various forms of reasoning, including by analogy. The consensus of the community or people, public interest, and others are also accepted as secondary sources where the first four primary sources allow.[citation needed] Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... This article is about the legal term. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ...


Shi'a Muslims reject this approach. They strongly reject analogy (qiyas) as an easy way to innovations (bid'ah), and also reject consensus (ijma) as having any particular value in its own. During the period that the Sunni scholars developed those two tools, the Shi'a Imams were alive, and Shi'a view them as an extension of the Sunnah, so they view themselves as only deriving their laws (fiqh) from the Qur'an and Sunnah. A re-occurring theme in Shi'a jurisprudence is logic (mantiq),[7] something Shi'a believe they mention, employ and value to a higher degree than Sunnis do. They do not view logic as a third source for laws, rather a way to see if the derived work is compatible with the Qur'an and Sunnah. Bidah (Arabic: بدعة ) is an Islamic term meaning (improper) innovation of religious beliefs or worship. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Imami-Shi'i law, the sources of law (usul al-fiqh) are the Qur'an, anecdotes of Muhammad's practices and those of the 12 Imams, and the intellect (aql). The practices called Sharia today, however, also have roots in local customs (al-urf).[citation needed] In Islamic law (Sharia Arabic: شريعة), al-urf العرف is the custom of a given society, leading to change in the Egypt, marriage the Urfi way means to get married without offical papers issued by the state (Zawag Urfi:زواج عرفي). ...


Islamic jurisprudence is called fiqh and is divided into two parts: For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ...

  • Usul al-fiqh (أصول الفقه) — roots of the law: the study of the sources and methodology
  • Furu' al-fiqh (فروع الفقه) — branches of the law: the practical rules[citation needed]

The comprehensive nature of Sharia law is due to the belief that the law must provide all that is necessary for a person's spiritual and physical well-being. All possible actions of a Muslim are divided (in principle) into five categories:

  • obligatory
  • meritorious
  • permissible
  • reprehensible
  • forbidden

Classical Islamic law

The formative period of Islamic jurisprudence stretches back to the time of the early Muslim communities. In this period, jurists were more concerned with pragmatic issues of authority and teaching than with theory.[8] Progress in theory happened with the coming of the early Muslim jurist Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767-820), who laid down the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book ar-Risālah. The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from careful study of the Arabic language.[9] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Al-Shafii, Arabic jurist (150 AH/767 AD - 204 AH/820 AD). ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ...


A number of important legal concepts and institutions were developed by Islamic jurists during the classical period of Islam, known as the Islamic Golden Age, dated from the 7th to 13th centuries.[3][4][10][11] This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many...


Origins

At the heart of Islamic law lies the teachings of God and the acts and sayings of His Prophet, Muhammad;[12] therefore, sharia, Islamic law, is founded on the Qur'an and the Sunnah. However, sharia was not fully developed at the time of Muhammad's death, but rather it evolved around the Muslim community or Ummah through which it would serve. Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


When sharia began its formation in the deserts of Arabia about 1,400 years ago, the time Islam was born,[13] a sense of community did not exist. Life in the desert was nomadic and tribal, thus the only factor that tied people together into various tribes was through common ancestry.[12] However, the nature of Islam challenged that ideology and brought all those who professed their submission to Islam into the Ummah. Additionally, Islam was not just a religion but a way of life and being that it transformed those who were once enemies into neighbors laws had to be instilled and so the doctrines of sharia took root. All who are Muslim are judged by sharia[14] – no matter the location or the culture. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Tribal refers to a culture or society based on tribes or clans. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


However, people do not change overnight nor do their habits of everyday life – sharia was indeed guided through its development by lifestyles of the tribes in which was initially absorbed into Islam. Thus, through the understandings of the tribe, Islamic law would be a law of the community – for the community by the community – even if initially proposed by an individual “for they could not form part of the tribal law unless and until they were generally accepted as such.”[12] Additionally, Noel James Coulson, Lecturer in Islamic Law of the University of London, states that “to the tribe as a whole belonged the power to determine the standards by which its members should live. But here the tribe is conceived not merely as the group of its present representatives but as a historical entity embracing past, present, and future generations.”[12] So, while “each and every law must be rooted in either the Quran or the Sunna,”[15] without contradiction, tribal life bought about a sense of participation. Such participation is further reinforced by Muhammad who stated, “My community will never agree in error”[16] and thus, later recorded as a hadith. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Sunna can refer to: Sunna, a female Viking name[]. A number of English place names are derived from this name including Sonning (historically spelled Sunning), Sonning Eye, Sunbury, Sunningdale, Sunninghill and Sunningwell, many close to the River Thames. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


After the death of Muhammad sharia continued to undergo fundamental changes, beginning with the reigns of caliphs Abu Bakr (632-34) and Umar (634-44) in which many decision making matters were brought to the attention of the Prophet's closest comrades for consultation.[17] In AD 662, during the reign of Mu'awiya b. Abu Sufyan, life ceased to be nomadic and undertook an urban transformation which in turn created matters not originally covered by Islamic law.[17] Each and every gain, loss, and turn of Islamic society has played an active role in developing sharia which branches out into fiqh and Qanun respectively. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680) was founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of Islamic caliphs. ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Political Afghanistani group. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The qanún is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ...


Comparisons with common law

The methodology of legal precedent and reasoning by analogy (Qiyas) used in Islamic law was similar to that of the common law legal system.[10] According to Justice Gamal Moursi Badr, Islamic law is like common law in that it "is not a written law" and the "provisions of Islamic law are to be sought first and foremost in the teachings of the authoritative jurists" (Ulema), hence Islamic law may "be called a lawyer's law if common law is a judge's law."[4] This article is about the legal term. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... A jurist is a professional who studies, develops, applies or otherwise deals with the law. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Influence on English common law

It has been suggested that several fundamental English common law institutions may have been derived or adapted from similar legal instututions in Islamic law and jurisprudence, and introduced to England after the Norman conquest of England by the Normans, who conquered and inherited the Islamic legal administration of the Emirate of Sicily, and also by Crusaders during the Crusades. English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Italy in 1000. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


According to Professor John Makdisi, the "royal English contract protected by the action of debt is identified with the Islamic Aqd, the English assize of novel disseisin is identified with the Islamic Istihqaq, and the English jury is identified with the Islamic Lafif."[3] The Islamic Hawala institution also influenced the development of the agency institution in English common law.[4] Other English legal institutions such as "the scholastic method, the license to teach," the "law schools known as Inns of Court in England and Madrasas in Islam" and the "European commenda" (Islamic Qirad) may have also originated from Islamic law. These influences have led some scholars to suggest that Islamic law may have laid the foundations for "the common law as an integrated whole".[3] A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... An empty jury box in an American courtroom For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... Hawala (also known as hundi) is an informal value transfer system based on performance and honor of a huge network of money brokers which are primarily located in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. ... Agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual tripartite set of relationships when an Agent is authorized to act on behalf of another <No it is not. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... This article is about institutional education. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners (GPs), there are one or more limited partners (LPs). ...


The Waqf in Islamic law, which developed during the 7th-9th centuries, bears a notable resemblance to the trusts in the English trust law.[18] For example, every Waqf was required to have a waqif (founder), mutawillis (trustee), qadi (judge) and beneficiaries.[19] Under both a Waqf and a trust, "property is reserved, and its usufruct appropriated, for the benefit of specific individuals, or for a general charitable purpose; the corpus becomes inalienable; estates for life in favor of successive beneficiaries can be created" and "without regard to the law of inheritance or the rights of the heirs; and continuity is secured by the successive appointment of trustees or mutawillis."[20] The trust law developed in England at the time of the Crusades, during the 12th and 13th centuries, was introduced by Crusaders who may have been influenced by the Waqf institutions they came across in the Middle East.[21][22] The introduction of the trust, or "use" was primarily motivated by the need to avoid medieval inheritance taxes. By transferring legal title to a third party, there was no need to pay feudal dues on the death of the father. In those times, it was common for an underage child to lose many of his rights to his feudal overlord if he succeeded before he came of age. This article is about the religious endowment. ... A charitable trust is a trust established for charitable purposes. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... Usufruct describes the legal right to utilise and derive profit from property that belongs to another person, as long as the property is not damaged. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are in some sense fundamental, are not awarded by human power, and cannot be surrendered. ... At common law, an estate is the totality of the legal rights, interests, entitlements and obligations attaching to property. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The precursor to the English jury trial was the Lafif trial in classical Maliki jurisprudence, which was developed between the 8th and 11th centuries in North Africa and Islamic Sicily, and shares a number of similarities with the later jury trials in English common law. Like the English jury, the Islamic Lafif was a body of twelve members drawn from the neighbourhood and sworn to tell the truth, who were bound to give a unanimous verdict, about matters "which they had personally seen or heard, binding on the judge, to settle the truth concerning facts in a case, between ordinary people, and obtained as of right by the plaintiff." The only characteristic of the English jury which the Islamic Lafif lacked was the "judicial writ directing the jury to be summoned and directing the bailiff to hear its recognition." According to Professor John Makdisi, "no other institution in any legal institution studied to date shares all of these characteristics with the English jury." It is thus likely that the concept of the Lafif may have been introduced to England by the Normans and then evolved into the modern English jury.[3] An empty jury box in an American courtroom For jury meaning makeshift, see jury rig. ... Look up trial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see Muslim conquests for more details). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city, town or suburb. ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ... Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ...


The precursor to the English assize of novel disseisin was the Islamic Istihqaq, an action "for the recovery of usurped land", in contrast to the previous Roman law which "emphasized possession in resolving such disputes." The "assize of novel disseisin broke with this tradition and emphasized ownership, as is found in the Islamic law of Istihqaq."[23] Islamic law also introduced the notion of allowing an accused suspect or defendant to have an agent or lawyer, known as a wakil, handle his/her defense. This was in contrast to early English common law, which "used lawyers to prosecute but the accused were left to handle their defense themselves." The English Parliament did not allow those accused of treason the right to retain lawyers until 1695, and for those accused of other felonies until 1836.[24] For the official Wikipedia policy, see Wikipedia:Usurpation. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the 1987 movie starring Cher, see Suspect (film). ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ...


Islamic jurists formulated early contract laws which introduced the application of formal rationality, legal rationality, legal logic (see Logic in Islamic philosophy) and legal reasoning in the use of contracts.[25] Islamic jurists also introduced the concepts of recession (Iqalah), frustration of purpose (istihalah al-tanfidh or "impossibility of performance"), Act of God (Afat Samawiyah or "Misfortune from Heaven") and force majeure in the law of contracts.[26] However, recission, frustration and other core concepts in the law of contract are relatively recent introductions into the Law of England, dating back to the Victorian period. Early case law indicates that it was impossible to rescind a contract for frustration even where performance became impossible. A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... In macroeconomics, a recession is a decline in a countrys real gross domestic product (GDP), or negative real economic growth, for two or more successive quarters of a year. ... Frustration of purpose is a term used in the law of contracts to describe a defense to an action for non-performance based on the occurance of an unforseen event which makes performance impossible or commercially impracticable. ... Act of God is a common legal term for events outside of human control, such as sudden floods or other natural disasters, for which no one can be held responsible. ... Force majeure (French for greater force) is a common clause in contracts which essentially frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties, such as war, strike, riot, crime, act of God (e. ...


Other likely influences of Islamic law on English common law include the concepts of a passive judge, impartial judge, res judicata, the judge as a blank slate, individual self-definition, justice rather than morality, the law above the state, individualism, freedom of contract, privilege against self-incrimination, fairness over truth, individual autonomy, untrained and transitory decision making, overlap in testimonial and adjudicative tasks, appeal, dissent, day in court, prosecution for perjury, oral testimony, and the judge as a moderator, supervisor, announcer and enforcer rather than an adjudicator.[27] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ... Res judicata (Latin for a matter [already] judged) is, in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal. ... For the episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, see Tabula Rasa (Buffy episode) In music, Tabula Rasa is the title of many compositions, including one by Arvo Pärt, and an album by Einstürzende Neubauten. ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... For other uses, see Definition (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ... Charles James Fox as the biblical serpent tempting John Bull away from monarchy in this James Gillray satire of the Jacobin movement Freedom of contract is a natural law concept that individuals should be free to bargain over the terms of their own contracts without government interference. ... This article is about permission granted by law or other rules. ... Self-incrimination is the act of accusing oneself of a crime for which a person can then be prosecuted. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Autonomy (disambiguation). ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... In promotion and advertising, a testimonial or endorsement consists of a written or spoken statement, sometimes from a public figure, sometimes from a private citizen, extolling the virtue of some product. ... Adjudication is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision or judgment which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved. ... In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. ... Dissent is a sentiment or philosophy of non-agreement or opposition to an idea (eg. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... “Moderates” redirects here. ... This article is about the Atlas Supervisor computer program. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Continuity announcer. ... For the band, see The Police. ... An adjudicator is someone who presides, judges and arbitrates during a formal dispute. ...


Comparison with law in the United States

Similarities between Islamic law and the common law of the United States have also been noted, particularly in regards to Constitutional law. According to Sameer S. Vohra, the United States Constitution is similar to the Qur’an in that the Constitution is "the supreme law of the land and the basis from which the laws of the legislature originate."[28] According to Asifa Quraishi, the methods used in the judicial interpretation of the Constitution are similar to that of the Qur'an, including the methods of "plain meaning literalism, historical understanding “originalism,” and reference to underlying purpose and spirit. "[29][verification needed][dubious ] Vohra further notes that the legislature is similar to the Sunnah in that the "legislature takes the framework of the Constitution and makes directives that involve the specific day-to-day situations of its citizens."[28] He also writes that the judicial decision-making process is similar to the qiyas and ijma methods in that judicial decision-making is "a means by which the law is applied to individual disputes", that "words of the Constitution or of statutes do not specifically address all the possible situations to which they may apply" and that "at times, it requires the judiciary to either use the consensus of previous decisions or reason by analogy to find the correct principle to resolve the dispute."[30] The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... Judicial interpretation is a theory or mode of thought that explains how the judiciary should interpret the law, particularly constitutional documents and legislation (see statutory interpretation). ... Textualism is a formalist theory of statutory interpretation which holds that a statutes ordinary meaning should govern its interpretation, as opposed to inquiries into non-textual sources such as the intention of the legislature in passing the law, the problem it was intended to remedy, or substantive questions of... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


The earliest known lawsuits may also date back to Islamic law. There was a hadith tradition which reported that the Caliph Uthman Ibn Affan (580-656) attempted to sue a Jewish subject for recovery of a suit of armour, but his case was unsuccessful due to a lack of competent witnesses.[31] The concept of a lawsuit was also described in the Ethics of the Physician by Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931) of al-Raha, Syria, as part of an early medical peer review process, where the notes of a practicing Islamic physician were reviewed by peers and he/she could be sued by a maltreated patient if the reviews were negative.[32] Civil action redirects here. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... This article is about witnesses in law courts. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ...


The earliest known prohibition of illegal drugs occurred under Islamic law, which prohibited the use of Hashish, a preparation of cannabis, as a recreational drug. Classical jurists in medieval Islamic jurisprudence, however, accepted the use of the Hashish drug for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, and agreed that its "medical use, even if it leads to mental derangement, remains exempt" from punishment. In the 14th century, the Islamic jurist Az-Zarkashi spoke of "the permissibility of its use for medical purposes if it is established that it is beneficial."[33] According to Mary Lynn Mathre, with "this legal distinction between the intoxicant and the medical uses of cannabis, medieval Muslim theologians were far ahead of present-day American law."[34] For the general concept, see Prohibitionism. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...


Other similarities

Precursors to common law concepts in property law were found in classical Islamic property law, including the concepts of leasehold (including duty to take and keep in possession and holdover tenancy), joint ownership (including partition, pledge, bailment, lost property, license and trespass), acquisition (including intestate succession), duress (Ikrah), transfer by sale (including contract formation, meeting of the minds, declaration, duress and risk of loss), transfer by gift, rights and restrictions on transfers (including restraint on alienation, appurtenance, fixture, preemption, mortgage and water rights), will (including entitlement to shares, revocation, ademption, lapse, abatement and ambiguity), attacks on ownership (including concepts of theft, robbery, usurpation, nuisance, and defense of necessity), and causation (including remote consequences, intervening human cause, concurrent cause and uncertain cause). Many of these concepts were summarized in Islamic juristic texts, including the Hidayah by the Hanafi jurist al-Marghilani, the Minhaj al-Talibin by the Shafi`i jurist Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi, the Mukhtasar by the Maliki jurist Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Jundi, the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri by Hanafi jurists, and the Kasani.[11] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Leasehold is a form of property tenure where one party buys the right to occupy land or a building for a given length of time. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... A leasehold estate is an ownership interest in land in which a lessee or a tenant holds real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A partition is a term used in the law of real property to describe the court-ordered division of a concurrent estate into separate portions representing the proportionate interests of the tenants. ... In law a pledge (also pawn) is a bailment of personal property as a security for some debt or engagement (Story on Bailments, 286). ... Bailment describes a legal relationship where physical possession of personal property (chattels) is transferred from one person (the bailor) to another person (the bailee) who subsequently holds possession of the property. ... Lost and found is also the name of a band. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... “Unlawful entry” redirects here. ... Look up acquisition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Intestacy refers to the body of common law that determines who is entitled to the property of a dead person in the absence of a last will and testament or other binding declaration. ... Duress in the context of contract law is a common law defence, and if you are successful in proving that the contract is vitiated by duress, you can rescind the contract, since it is then voidable. ... Did you mean? decal Population transfer Manhattan Transfer List of Latin words with English derivatives Transfer (movie) Electron transfer Fare transfer A technique in propaganda This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... The Meeting of the Minds (also referred to as mutual assent) is a term in contract law used to describe the intentions of the parties forming the contract. ... In law, a declaration ordinarily refers to a judgment of the court or an award of an arbitration tribunal is a binding adjudication of the rights or other legal relations of the parties which does not provide for or order enforcement. ... For English law on the criminal defence, see duress in English law. ... Risk of loss is a term used in the law of contracts to determine which party should bear the burden of risk for damage occurring to goods after the sale has been completed, but before delivery has occurred. ... A gift, in the law of property, has a very specific meaning. ... This article is about the moral/legal concept. ... In mathematics, a function is a relation, such that each element of a set (the domain) is associated with a unique element of another (possibly the same) set (the codomain, not to be confused with the range). ... A restraint on alienation, in the law of real property, is a clause used in the conveyance of real property that seeks to prohibit the recipient from selling or otherwise transferring his interest in the property. ... Appurtenances (from late Latin appertinentia, from appertinere, to appertain) is a legal term for what belongs to and goes with something else, the accessories or things usually conjoined with the substantive matter in question. ... In the law of real property, fixtures are anything that would otherwise be a chattel that have, by reason of incorporation or affixation, become permanently attached to the real property. ... This article is about the power of federal law in the United States. ... This article is about the legal mechanism used to secure property in favor of a creditor. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... Entitlement is the guarantee for access to benefits because of rights, or by agreement through law. ... See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ... Revocation is the act of recalling or annulling, the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the making void of some deed previously existing. ... Ademption is a term used in the law of wills to determine what happens when property bequested under a will is no longer in the testators estate when the testator dies. ... Lapse and anti-lapse are complementary concepts under the law of wills, which address the disposition of property that is willed to someone who dies before the testator (the writer of the will). ... Abatement (derived through the French abattre, from the Late Latin battere, to beat), a beating down or diminishing or doing away with; a term used especially in various legal phrases. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A young waif steals a pair of boots Stealing redirects here. ... Nuisance is a common law tort. ... This article is about the law definition of necessity. ... Causation is the bringing about of a result, and in law it is an element in various tests for legal liability. ... In law, intervention is a procedure to allow nonparties to join ongoing litigation, either as a matter of right or at the discretion of the court, without the permission of the original litigants. ... For other uses, see concurrency. ... Hidayah is the Arabic word for present or gift. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (1234 - 1278) (Arabic:أبو زكريا يحيى بن شرف النووي), popularly known as al-Nawawi, an-Nawawi or Imam Nawawi (631 - 676 A.H. / 1234 - 1278 CE), was a Sunni Muslim author on Fiqh and hadith. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Fatawa-e-Alamgiri is a compilation of law created at instance of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb (who was also known as Alamgir). This compilation (or fiqh) is based on Islams Sharia law, and was the work of many scholars, principally from the Hanafi school. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...


While some see the Islamic concept of Istihsan as being equivalent to the concept of equity in English law, others see it as being equivalent to the "reasoned distinction of precedent" in American law, in which case Istihsan may be referred to as the "reasoned distinction of qiyas (reasoning by analogy)". John Makdisi writes:[35] Istihsan is an Arabic term for juristic preference and is one of the methods of reasoning for understanding the sources of shariah and itjihad. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legal term. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ...


Other precursors to common law concepts are found in classical Islamic law and jurisprudence, including advocacy,[36] ratio decidendi (illah),[37] arbitrary decision-making, legal opinion, discretion,[38] public policy (Istislah and Maslaha),[38][11] freedom of religion, equal protection, reasoning by analogy and distinction, and consensus and precedent.[11] Advocacy is the act of arguing on behalf of a particular issue, idea or person. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arbitrary is a term given to choices and actions which are considered to be done not by means of any underlying principle or logic, but by whim or some decidedly illogical formula. ... The common law forms a major part of the law of those countries of the world with a history as British territories or colonies. ... Discretion, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV secolo) Discretion is a noun in the English language. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Istislah (to deem proper) a norm employed by Muslim jurists to solve perplexing problems that find no clear answer in sacred religious texts. ... Maslaha (Arabic , public interest) is a concept in traditional Islamic Law. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall make or enforce any law which shall. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... Distinction is a principle under international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the legal term. ...


Influence on civil law

One of the institutions developed by classical Islamic jurists which influenced civil law was the Hawala, an early informal value transfer system, which is mentioned in texts of Islamic jurisprudence as early as the 8th century. Hawala itself later influenced the development of the Aval in French civil law and the Avallo in Italian law.[4] The "European commenda" limited partnerships (Islamic Qirad) used in civil law as well as the civil law conception of res judicata may also have origins in Islamic law.[3] For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Hawala (also known as hundi) is an informal value transfer system based on performance and honor of a huge network of money brokers which are primarily located in the Middle East, Africa and Asia. ... An informal value transfer system (IVTS) refers to any system, mechanism, or network of people that receives money for the purpose of making the funds or an equivalent value payable to a third party in another geographic location, whether or not in the same form. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In finance, an aval is a guarantee by a third party to assume the burden of a debt in the event of default. ... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two areas: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular, civil law (droit civil) and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular, administrative law (droit administratif) and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel). However... A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners (GPs), there are one or more limited partners (LPs). ... For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... Res judicata (Latin for a matter [already] judged) is, in both civil law and common law legal systems, a case in which there has been a final judgment and is no longer subject to appeal. ...


The transfer of debt, which was not permissible under Roman law but is practiced in modern civil law, may also have origins in Islamic law.[39] The concept of an agency was also an "institution unknown to Roman law", where it was not possible for an individual to "conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent." The concept of an agency was introduced by Islamic jurists, and thus the civil law conception of agency may also have origins in Islamic law.[40] The Siete Partidas of Alfonso X, which was regarded as a "monument of legal science" in the civil law tradition, was also influenced by the Islamic legal treatise Villiyet written in Islamic Spain.[41][42] A balance transfer is the act of transferring debt from one credit card to another assuming the newer card has better terms and rates. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Agency is an area of commercial law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual tripartite set of relationships when an Agent is authorized to act on behalf of another <No it is not. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... First page of a 1555 version of the Siete Partidas, as annotated by Gregorio López. ... Alfonso X, El Sabio, or the Learned, (November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284) was a king of Castile and León (1252 - 1284). ... Legal Science is one of the social sciences which deals with the institutions and principles that particualar societies have developed: - for defining the claims and liabilities of a person against one another in various circumstances, and - for peacefully resolving disputes and controversies in accordance with principles accepted as fair and... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


Islamic law also introduced "two fundamental principles to the West, on which were to later stand the future structure of law: equity and good faith", which was a precursor to the concept of pacta sunt servanda in civil law and international law. Another influence of Islamic law on the civil law tradition was the presumption of innocence, which was introduced to Europe by Louis IX of France soon after he returned from Palestine during the Crusades. Prior to this, European legal procedure consisted of either trial by combat or trial by ordeal. In contrast, Islamic law was based on the presumption of innocence from its beginning, as declared by the Caliph Umar in the 7th century:[41] The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... Bona fide redirects here. ... Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for pacts must be respected) is a Brocard, a basic principle of civil law and of international law. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... 1540s depiction of a 1409 judicial combat in Augsburg (Paulus Hector Mair, Munich cod. ... Trial by Ordeal is a judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting them to a painful task. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...

"Only decide on the basis of proof, be kind to the weak so that they can express themselves freely and without fear, deal on an equal footing with litigants by trying to reconcile them." The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Law stubs | Legal terms ...

The concept of Ombudsmen was derived from the example of the second Muslim Caliph, Umar (634-644) and the concept of Qadi al-Qadat (developed in the Muslim world), which influenced the Swedish King, Charles XII. In 1713, fresh from self-exile in Turkey, Charles XII created the Office of Supreme Ombudsman, which soon became the Chancellor of Justice.[43] Look up Ombudsman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... Charles XII redirects here. ... The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ...


Influence on international law

See also: Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective, Islamic economics in the world, Islamic military jurisprudence, and Prisoners of war in Islam

The first treatise on international law (Siyar in Arabic) was the Introduction to the Law of Nations written at the end of the 8th century by Mohammed bin Hassan al-Shaybani[44] (d. 804), an Islamic jurist of the Hanafi school,[45] eight centuries before Hugo Grotius wrote the first European treatise on the subject. Al-Shaybani wrote a second more advanced treatise on the subject, and other jurists soon followed with a number of other multi-volume treatises written on international law during the Islamic Golden Age.[44] They dealt with both public international law as well as private international law.[46] Islamic economics in practice. ... Islamic military jurisprudence consists of the basic religious laws governing warfare and the military conduct of those who participate in it. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Private International Law, International Private Law, or Conflict of Laws is that branch of law regulating all lawsuits involving a foreign law element where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ...


These early Islamic legal treatises covered the application of Islamic ethics, Islamic economic jurisprudence and Islamic military jurisprudence to international law,[45] and were concerned with a number of modern international law topics, including the law of treaties; the treatment of diplomats, hostages, refugees and prisoners of war; the right of asylum; conduct on the battlefield; protection of women, children and non-combatant civilians; contracts across the lines of battle; the use of poisonous weapons; and devastation of enemy territory.[44] The Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs were also in continuous diplomatic negotiations with the Byzantine Empire on matters such as peace treaties, the exchange of prisoners of war, and payment of ransoms and tributes.[47] Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic military jurisprudence consists of the basic religious laws governing warfare and the military conduct of those who participate in it. ... The law of treaties is that part of international law which deals with legally binding agreements between states, generally referred to as treaties. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Non-combatant is a military and legal term describing civilians not engaged in combat. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... Russian prince Taking Tribute, by Nicholas Roerich, 1908 (Moscow). ...


After Sultan al-Kamil defeated the Franks during the Crusades, Oliverus Scholasticus praised the Islamic laws of war, commenting on how al-Kamil supplied the defeated Frankish army with food:[44] Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ...

"Who could doubt that such goodness, friendship and charity come from God? Men whose parents, sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, had died in agony at our hands, whose lands we took, whom we drove naked from their homes, revived us with their own food when we were dying of hunger and showered us with kindness even when we were in their power."[48]

The Islamic legal principles of international law were largely based on Qur'an and the Sunnah of Muhammad, who gave various injunctions to his forces and adopted practices toward the conduct of war. The most important of these were summarized by Muhammad's successor and close companion, Abu Bakr, in the form of ten rules for the Muslim army:[49] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ...

Stop, O people, that I may give you ten rules for your guidance in the battlefield. Do not commit treachery or deviate from the right path. You must not mutilate dead bodies. Neither kill a child, nor a woman, nor an aged man. Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire, especially those which are fruitful. Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food. You are likely to pass by people who have devoted their lives to monastic services; leave them alone.[49]

Islamic private international law arose as a result of the vast Muslim conquests and maritime explorations, giving rise to various conflicts of laws. A will, for example, was "not enforced even if its provisions accorded with Islamic law if it violated the law of the testator." Islamic jurists also developed elaborate rules for private international law regarding issues such as contracts and property, family relations and child custody, legal procedure and jurisdiction, religious conversion, and the return of aliens to an enemy country from the Islamic world. Democratic religious pluralism also existed in classical Islamic law, as the religious laws and courts of other religions, including Christianity, Judaism and Hinduism, were usually accommodated within the Islamic legal framework, as seen in the early Caliphate, al-Andalus, Indian subcontinent, and the Ottoman Millet system.[47][50] Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Islamic economics in practice. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... A testator is a person who has made a legally binding will or testament, which specifies what is to be done with that persons penis family and/or property after death. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamic family relations concerns both the close family as well as the more distant families. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... Legal procedure is the body of law and rules used in the administration of justice in the court system, including such areas as civil procedure, criminal procedure, appellate procedure, administrative procedure, labour procedure, and probate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... In U.S. law, an alien is a term Americans use for a person who owes political allegiance to another country or government and not a native or naturalized citizen of the land where they are found. ... This article is about religious pluralism. ... In the religious sense, law can be thought of as the ordering principle of reality; knowledge as revealed by God defining and governing all human affairs. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Islamic law also introduced "two fundamental principles to the West, on which were to later stand the future structure of law: equity and good faith", which was a precursor to the concept of pacta sunt servanda in civil law and international law. Islamic law also "introduced it to international relations, making possible the systematic development of conventional law, which became a partial substitute for custom."[41] The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ... Bona fide redirects here. ... Pacta sunt servanda (Latin for pacts must be respected) is a Brocard, a basic principle of civil law and of international law. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ...


Islamic law also made "major contributions" to international admiralty law, departing from the previous Roman and Byzantine maritime laws in several ways. These included Muslim sailors being "paid a fixed wage “in advance” with an understanding that they would owe money in the event of desertion or malfeasance, in keeping with Islamic conventions" in which contracts should specify “a known fee for a known duration”, in contrast to Roman and Byzantine sailors who were "stakeholders in a maritime venture, in as much as captain and crew, with few exceptions, were paid proportional divisions of a sea venture’s profit, with shares allotted by rank, only after a voyage’s successful conclusion." Muslim jurists also distinguished between "coastal navigation, or cabotage," and voyages on the “high seas”, and they also made shippers "liable for freight in most cases except the seizure of both a ship and its cargo." Islamic law also "departed from Justinian’s Digest and the Nomos Rhodion Nautikos in condemning slave jettison", and the Islamic Qirad was also a precursor to the European commenda limited partnership. The “Islamic influence on the development of an international law of the sea” can thus be discerned alongside that of the Roman influence.[51] Admiralty law (also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... For other uses of Desertion, see Abandonment. ... The expressions misfeasance and nonfeasance, and occasionally malfeasance, are used in English law with reference to the discharge of public obligations existing by common law, custom or statute. ... This article is about maritime crew. ... Cabotage is the transport of goods or passengers between two points in the same country. ... The terms international waters, transboundary waters, or High Seas apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands. ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hinderance, or puts one at a disadvantage. ... Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... Search and seizure is a legal procedure used in many common law whereby police or other authorities and their agents, who suspect that a crime has been committed, do a search of a persons property and confiscate any relevant evidence to the crime. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... This article is about transported goods. ... Pandects (Lat. ... A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners (GPs), there are one or more limited partners (LPs). ...


There is evidence that early Islamic international law influenced the development of Western international law, through various routes such as the Crusades, Norman conquest of the Emirate of Sicily, and Reconquista of al-Andalus.[41] In particular, the Spanish jurist Francisco de Vitoria, and his successor Grotius, may have been influenced by Islamic international law through earlier Islamic-influenced writings such as the 1263 work Siete Partidas of Alfonso X, which was regarded as a "monument of legal science" in Europe at the time and was influenced by the Islamic legal treatise Villiyet written in Islamic Spain.[41][42] This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Italy in 1000. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria, Statue before San Esteban, Salamanca Statue of Francisco de Vitoria, in Vitoria-Gasteiz Francisco de Vitoria (Francisci de Victoria; c. ... Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; 10th April 1583 - 28th August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... First page of a 1555 version of the Siete Partidas, as annotated by Gregorio López. ... Alfonso X, El Sabio, or the Learned, (November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284) was a king of Castile and León (1252 - 1284). ... Legal Science is one of the social sciences which deals with the institutions and principles that particualar societies have developed: - for defining the claims and liabilities of a person against one another in various circumstances, and - for peacefully resolving disputes and controversies in accordance with principles accepted as fair and... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ...


Influence on legal education

Main article: Madrasah

Madrasahs were the first law schools, and it is likely that the "law schools known as Inns of Court in England" may have been derived from the Madrasahs which taught Islamic law and jurisprudence.[3] Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The origins of the doctorate dates back to the ijazat attadris wa 'l-ifttd ("license to teach and issue legal opinions") in the medieval Islamic legal education system, which was equivalent to the Doctor of Laws qualification and was developed during the 9th century after the formation of the Madh'hab legal schools. To obtain a doctorate, a student "had to study in a guild school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course" and ten or more years for a post-graduate course. The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses," and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose" which were scholarly exercises practiced throughout the student's "career as a graduate student of law." After students completed their post-graduate education, they were awarded doctorates giving them the status of faqih (meaning "master of law"), mufti (meaning "professor of legal opinions") and mudarris (meaning "teacher"), which were later translated into Latin as magister, professor and doctor respectively.[3] Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ... In some educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelors degree. ... Degree ceremony at Cambridge. ... In education, certification, counseling, the military, and many other fields, a test or an exam (short for examination) is a tool or technique intended to measure students expression of knowledge, skills and/or abilities. ... This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ... In the scholastic system of education of the middle ages, disputations (in Latin: disputationes, singular: disputatio) offered a formalized method of debate designed to uncover and establish truths in theology and in other sciences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree, commonly abbreviated LL.M. (also LLM or LL.M) from its Latin name, Legum Magister. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), in the Islamic faith is a ruling on Islamic law issued by an Islamic scholar. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Magister (also magistar, from lat. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ...


Human rights

Main article: Islamic ethics
Further information: Early reforms under Islam and Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective

In the field of human rights, early Islamic jurists introduced a number of advanced legal concepts before the 12th century which anticipated similar modern concepts in the field. These included the notions of the charitable trust and the trusteeship of property; the notion of brotherhood and social solidarity; the notions of human dignity and the dignity of labour; the notion of an ideal law; the condemnation of antisocial behavior; the presumption of innocence; the notion of "bidding unto good" (assistance to those in distress); and the notions of sharing, caring, universalism, fair industrial relations, fair contract, commercial integrity, freedom from usury, women's rights, privacy, abuse of rights, juristic personality, individual freedom, equality before the law, legal representation, non-retroactivity, supremacy of the law, judicial independence, judicial impartiality, limited sovereignity, tolerance, and democratic participation. Many of these concepts were adopted in medieval Europe through contacts with Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily, and through the Crusades and the Latin translations of the 12th century.[52] Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... A charitable trust is a trust established for charitable purposes. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ... Social Solidarity is the degree or type (see below) of integration of a society. ... This article is about virtue. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... millyfan ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... For other uses, see Share. ... In tort law, a duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... This article is about the ethical concept. ... Of Usury, from Brants Stultifera Navis (the Ship of Fools); woodcut attributed to Albrecht Dürer Usury (//,comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from the Latin usura interest) originally meant the charging of interest on loans. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Abuser redirects here. ... A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... Statue of Liberty - Liberty is one meaning of freedom. Freedom may mean any of the following: the British newspaper, Freedom in music: the 1989 album by Neil Young, Freedom a song by Rage Against the Machine a song by Richie Havens geographically: a town in New York, USA; Freedom a... Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. ... Most liberal democracies consider that it is necessary to provide some level of legal aid to persons otherwise unable to afford legal representation. ... Retroactivity in law is the application of a given norm to events that took place or began to produce legal effects, before the law was approved. ... Judicial independence is the doctrine that decisions of the judiciary should be impartial and not subject to influence from the other branches of government or from private or political interests. ... Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather then on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Al-Āndalus (Arabic الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim inhabitants; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750-929) and Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) and its taifa successor kingdoms specifically, and in general to territories under Muslim occupation (711-1492). ... Italy in 1000. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The 12th century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ...


The concept of inalienable rights was found in early Islamic law and jurisprudence, which denied a ruler "the right to take away from his subjects certain rights which inhere in his or her person as a human being." Islamic rulers could not take away certain rights from their subjects on the basis that "they become rights by reason of the fact that they are given to a subject by a law and from a source which no ruler can question or alter." Islamic jurists also anticipated the concept of the rule of law, the equal subjection of all classes to the ordinary law of the land, where no person is above the law and where officials and private citizens are under a duty to obey the same law. A Qadi (Islamic judge) was also not allowed to discriminate on the grounds of religion, race, colour, kinship or prejudice. There were also a number of cases where Caliphs had to appear before judges as they prepared to take their verdict.[53] There is evidence that John Locke's formulation of inalienable rights and conditional rulership, which were present in Islamic law centuries earlier, may have also been influenced by Islamic law, through his attendance of lectures given by Edward Pococke, a professor of Islamic studies.[54] The term inalienable rights (or unalienable rights) refers to a set of human rights that are in some sense fundamental, are not awarded by human power, and cannot be surrendered. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organisation or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either his own or that of his superior and/or employer, public or legally private). ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Edward Pococke (1604-1691) was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ...


Early Islamic law recognized two sets of human rights. In addition to the category of civil rights and political rights (covered in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights), Islamic law also recognized an additional category: social, economic and cultural rights. This latter category was not recognized in the Western legal tradition until the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in 1966.[55] The right of privacy, which was not recognized in Western legal traditions until modern times, was recogonized in Islamic law since the beginning of Islam.[48] In terms of women's rights, women generally had more legal rights under Islamic law than they did under Western legal systems until the 19th and 20th centuries.[56] For example, "French married women, unlike their Muslim sisters, suffered from restrictions on their legal capacity which were removed only in 1965."[57] Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This article is about the moral/legal concept. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Social rights are generally considered an obligation a society places upon itself and its citizens to ensure to all people some specified standard of living, without discrimination. ... As the human rights movement has brought awareness to the needs of the individual throughout the world, the cultural rights movement has provoked attention to protect the rights of groups of people, or culture. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


In the North Carolina Law Review journal, Professor John Makdisi of the University of North Carolina School of Law writes in "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law" article: University of North Carolina School of Law is a school within the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. ...

"[T]he manner in which an act was qualified as morally good or bad in the spiritual domain of Islamic religion was quite different from the manner in which that same act was qualified as legally valid or invalid in the temporal domain of Islamic law. Islamic law was secular, not canonical... Thus, it was a system focused on ensuring that an individual received justice, not that one be a good person."[58] This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ...

Count Leon Ostorog, a French jurist, wrote the following on classical Islamic law in 1927:

"Those Eastern thinkers of the ninth century laid down, on the basis of their theology, the principle of the Rights of Man, in those very terms, comprehending the rights of individual liberty, and of inviolability of person and property; described the supreme power in Islam, or Califate, as based on a contract, implying conditions of capacity and performance, and subject to cancellation if the conditions under the contract were not fulfilled; elaborated a Law of War of which the humane, chivalrous prescriptions would have put to the blush certain belligerents in the Great War; expounded a doctrine of toleration of non-Moslem creeds so liberal that our West had to wait a thousand years before seeing equivalent principles adopted."[59] Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sanctity of life. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Woman under the Safeguard of Knighthood, allegorical Scene. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...

Democratic participation

Main article: Islamic democracy
Further information: Shura and Ijma

In the early Islamic Caliphate, the head of state, the Caliph, had a position based on the notion of a successor to Muhammad's political authority, who, according to Sunnis, were ideally elected by the people or their representatives.[60] After the Rashidun Caliphs, later Caliphates during the Islamic Golden Age had a lesser degree of democratic participation, but since "no one was superior to anyone else except on the basis of piety and virtue" in Islam, and following the example of Muhammad, later Islamic rulers often held public consultations with the people in their affairs.[61][50] Known as Islamic democracy, two kinds of democratic states can be recognized in the Islamic countries. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the political process. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Public consultation, or simply consultation, is a process by which the publics input on projects is sought. ...


Freedom of speech

Main article: Islamic ethics

During the Islamic Golden Age, there was an early emphasis on freedom of speech in the Islamic Caliphate. This was first declared by the Caliph Umar in the 7th century.[41] Later during the Abbasid period, freedom of speech was also declared by al-Hashimi, a cousin of caliph Al-Ma'mun (786–833), in the following letter to a religious opponent:[62] Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... This article is about the general concept. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ...

"Bring forward all the arguments you wish and say whatever you please and speak your mind freely. Now that you are safe and free to say whatever you please appoint some arbitrator who will impartially judge between us and lean only towards the truth and be free from the empery of passion, and that arbitrator shall be Reason, whereby God makes us responsible for our own rewards and punishments. Herein I have dealt justly with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me. For "There is no compulsion in religion" (Qur'an 2:256) and I have only invited you to accept our faith willingly and of your own accord and have pointed out the hideousness of your present belief. Peace be with you and the blessings of God!"[62] For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Sūrata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ...

According to George Makdisi and Hugh Goddard, "the idea of academic freedom" in universities was "modelled on Islamic custom" as practiced in the medieval Madrasah system from the 9th century.[63] Academic freedom is the freedom of teachers, students, and academic institutions to pursue knowledge wherever it may lead, without undue or unreasonable interference. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Slavery / Freeing of slaves

Main article: Islam and slavery

Islam has prescribed five ways to free slaves, has severely chastised those who enslave free persons and has thus regulated the slave trade. The source of slaves was restricted to war in preference to killing whole tribes en masse, as was the tradition at the time. 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ...


Qanun

“After the fall of the Abbasids in 1258,” a practice known to the Turks and Mongols transformed itself into Qanun, which gave power to caliphs, governors, and sultans alike to “make their own regulations for activities not addressed by the sharia.”[16] The Qanun began to unfold as early as Umar I (586-644 CE).[16] Many of the regulations covered by Qanun were based on financial matters or tax systems adapted through the law and regulations of those territories Islam conquered.[16] Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... // Turks and Turkish may refer to: Ethnic Turks Citizens or residents of Turkey in historical contexts, all Turkic peoples collectively Turk one of any of the peoples speaking any of the Turkic languages Turkic peoples A native or inhabitant of Turkey, or a member of Turkic speaking minorities in neighboring... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The qanún is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... A governor is an official who heads the government of a colony, state or other sub-national state unit. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... The qanún is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ... The qanún is a musical string instrument used in Middle-Eastern music. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Modern Islamic law

During the 19th century, the history of Islamic law took a sharp turn due to new challenges the Muslim world faced: the West had risen to a global power and colonized a large part of the world, including Muslim territories. In the Western world, societies changed from the agricultural to the industrial stage, new social and political ideas emerged, and social models slowly shifted from hierarchical towards egalitarian. The Ottoman Empire and the rest of the Muslim world were in decline, and calls for reform became louder. In Muslim countries, codified state law started replacing the role of scholarly legal opinion. Western countries sometimes inspired, sometimes pressured, and sometimes forced Muslim states to change their laws. Secularist movements pushed for laws deviating from the opinions of the Islamic legal scholars. Islamic legal scholarship remained the sole authority for guidance in matters of rituals, worship, and spirituality, while they lost authority to the state in other areas. The Muslim community became divided into groups reacting differently to the change. This division persists until the present day (Brown 1996, Hallaq 2001, Ramadan 2005, Aslan 2006, Safi 2003, Nenezich 2006). Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...

  • Secularists believe that the law of the state should be based on secular principles, not on Islamic legal theory.
  • Traditionalists believe that the law of the state should be based on the traditional legal schools. However, traditional legal views are considered unacceptable by some modern Muslims, especially in areas like women's rights or slavery.[64]
  • Reformers believe that new Islamic legal theories can produce modernized Islamic law[65] and lead to acceptable opinions in areas such as women's rights.[66]

Contemporary practice

There is tremendous variety in the interpretation and implementation of Islamic Law in Muslim societies today. Liberal movements within Islam have questioned the relevance and applicability of sharia from a variety of perspectives; Islamic feminism brings multiple points of view to the discussion. Several of the countries with the largest Muslim populations, including Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan, have largely secular constitutions and laws, with only a few Islamic provisions in family law. Turkey has a constitution that is officially strongly secular. India and the Philippines are the only countries in the world which have separate Muslim civil laws, framed by the Muslim Personal Law board in India, and wholly based on Sharia and the Code of Muslim Personal Laws in the Philippines. However, the criminal laws are uniform. Some controversial sharia laws favour Muslim men, including polygamy and rejection of alimony. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) is an organisation constituted in 1973 to adopt suitable strategies for protection and continued applicability of “Muslim Personal Law” i. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... The Shah Bano case is infamous in India and has generated political controversy in the country; it is seen as an example of appeasement of the vote bank for political gains. ...


Most countries of the Middle East and North Africa maintain a dual system of secular courts and religious courts, in which the religious courts mainly regulate marriage and inheritance. Saudi Arabia and Iran maintain religious courts for all aspects of jurisprudence, and religious police assert social compliance. Laws derived from sharia are also applied in Afghanistan, Libya and Sudan. Some states in northern Nigeria have reintroduced Sharia courts.[67] In practice the new Sharia courts in Nigeria have most often meant the re-introduction of harsh punishments without respecting the much tougher rules of evidence and testimony. The punishments include amputation of one/both hands for theft and stoning for adultery and apostasy.[citation needed] Secularism in the Middle East refers to the ideology of promoting the secular as opposed to the religion. ... The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government-authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law in which governments are either directly controlled by or significantly under... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ...


Many, including the European Court of Human Rights, consider the punishments prescribed by Sharia as being barbaric and cruel. Islamic scholars argue that, if implemented properly, the punishments serve as a deterrent to crime.[68] In international media, practices by countries applying Islamic law have fallen under considerable criticism at times. This is particularly the case when the sentence carried out is seen to greatly tilt away from established standards of international human rights. This is true for the application of the death penalty for the crimes of adultery and homosexuality, amputations for the crime of theft, and flogging for fornication or public intoxication. [1] European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ... Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to consensual sexual intercourse between two persons not married to each other[1]. In contrast adultery is consensual sex where one or both of the partners are married to someone else. ... ...


Though Islamic law is interpreted differently across times, places and scholars, some Muslim fundamentalists following the literal and traditional interpretations believe it should legally be binding on all people of the Muslim faith and even on all people who come under their control.[citation needed] Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. ...


A bill proposed by lawmakers in the Indonesian province of Aceh would impose Sharia law on all non-Muslims, the armed forces and law enforcement officers, a local police official has announced. The news comes two months after the Deutsche Presse-Agentur warned of "Taliban-style Islamic police terrorizing Indonesia's Aceh".[69][70][71] A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Deutsche Presse Agentur (German Press Agency) is a news agency founded in 1949 in Germany. ... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim and ethnic Pashtun movement [2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance, United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. ...


The interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence varies in different modern nations. In the Anglosphere and in Islamic countries with a history of British rule, for example, Islamic finance has been relatively successful due to the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence being compatible with English common law, which was itself significantly influenced by Islamic law. On the other hand, Islamic finance has been relatively unsuccessful in certain regimes such as Iran, Pakistan and Sudan which have diverged from the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence and instead interpret "a common-law variant as if it were a civil law system."[10] For example, modern Iranian law is based on an "Islamic civil code" influenced by the Napoleonic code and German civil code.[72] According to the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, "In some of the ways it has been codified and practised across the world, it has been appalling and applied to women in places like Saudi Arabia, it is grim."[73] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition. ... Publication in the Reich Law Gazette on August 24, 1896 The Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (or BGB) is the civil code of Germany. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For the English boxer, see Rowan Anthony Williams. ... In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject. ...


A prominent Islamic jurist explains the common-law nature of Islamic jurisprudence: Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...

"It must be understood that when we claim that Islam has a satisfactory solution for every problem in any situation in all times to come, we do not mean that the Holy Quran and Sunna of the Holy Prophet or the rulings of Islamic scholars provide a specific answer to each and every minute detail of our socioeconomic life. What we mean is that the Holy Quran and the Holy Sunna of the Prophet have laid down the broad principles in the light of which the scholars of every time have deduced specific answers to the new situations arising in their age. Therefore, in order to reach a definite answer about a new situation the scholars of Shariah have to play a very important role. They have to analyze every question in light of the principles laid down by the Holy Quran and Sunna as well as in the light of the standards set by earlier jurists enumerated in the books of Islamic jurisprudence. This exercise is called Istinbat or Ijtihad. ... [T]he ongoing process of Istinbat keeps injecting new ideas, concepts and rulings into the heritage of Islamic jurisprudence."[74] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Another significant difference between the classical and modern systems of Islamic law is that classical Islamic law was "independent of any state mechanism", while modern Islamic law is "controlled by the state because the state often controls the legal scholars." According to Sameer S. Vohra, "This control mechanism results in a lack of the sort of pluralism that once made the Islamic legal system as innovative and fluid as its United States counterpart."[28] For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Legal pluralism allows for moral laws that are unwritten as formal laws. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the United States The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force...


Contemporary issues

Democracy and human rights

Further information: Islamic ethicsIslamic democracyShura, and Ijma

Some democrats and several official institutions in democratic countries (as the European Court for Human Rights) argue that Sharia is incompatible with a democratic state. These incompatibilities have been clarified in several legal disputes. Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Known as Islamic democracy, two kinds of democratic states can be recognized in the Islamic countries. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


In 1998 the Turkish Constitutional Court banned and dissolved Turkey's Refah Party on the grounds that the "rules of sharia", which Refah sought to introduce, "were incompatible with the democratic regime," stating that "Democracy is the antithesis of sharia." On appeal by Refah the European Court of Human Rights determined that "sharia is incompatible with the fundamental principles of democracy"[75][76][77] Refah's sharia based notion of a "plurality of legal systems, grounded on religion" was ruled to contravene the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. It was determined that it would "do away with the State's role as the guarantor of individual rights and freedoms" and "infringe the principle of non-discrimination between individuals as regards their enjoyment of public freedoms, which is one of the fundamental principles of democracy". It was further ruled that, according to Christian Moe: A clock displaying the emblem of the Welfare Party. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... “ECHR” redirects here. ...

"[T]he Court considers that sharia, which faithfully reflects the dogmas and divine rules laid down by religion, is stable and invariable. Principles such as pluralism in the political sphere or the constant evolution of public freedoms have no place in it. […] It is difficult to declare one’s respect for democracy and human rights while at the same time supporting a regime based on sharia, which clearly diverges from Convention values, particularly with regard to its criminal law and criminal procedure, its rules on the legal status of women and the way it intervenes in all spheres of private and public life in accordance with religious precepts."[78]

On the other side, legal scholar L. Ali Khan concludes "that constitutional orders founded on the principles of Sharia are fully compatible with democracy, provided that religious minorities are protected and the incumbent Islamic leadership remains committed to the right to recall".[79][80] However, Christian Pippan argues, that this contradicts the political reality in most Islamic states. "While constitutional arrangements to ensure that political authority is exercised within the boundaries of Sharia vary greatly among those nations",[81] most existing models of political Islam have so far grossly failed to accept any meaningful political competition of the kind that Khan himself has identified as essential for even a limited conception of democracy. Khan, writes Pippan, dismisses verdicts as from the European Court of Human Rights or the Turkish Constitutional Court "as an expression of purely national or regional preferences."[82] Christian Pippan is lecturer and researcher with the Institute of International Law and International Relations at University of Graz Austria. ...


Several major, predominantly Muslim countries criticized the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) for its perceived failure to take into account the cultural and religious context of non-Western countries. Iran claimed that the UDHR was a "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law. Therefore the Organization of the Islamic Conference, a group representing all Muslim majority nations, adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, which diverges from the UDHR substantially, affirming Sharia as the sole source of human rights. This Declaration was severely criticized by the International Commission of Jurists for allegedly gravely threatening the inter-cultural consensus, introducing intolerable discrimination against non-Muslims and women, restricting fundamental rights and freedoms, and attacking the integrity and dignity of the human being. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Occident redirects here. ... This article is about secularism. ... Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ...


Freedom of speech

See also: Islamic ethics, Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, Blasphemy laws of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and Blasphemy laws of Pakistan

Qadi ‘Iyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi argues that Sharia does not allow freedom of speech on such matters as criticism of Muhammad and that such criticism is considered blasphemy against Muhammad. He writes: Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy began after twelve editorial cartoons, most of which depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad, were published in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten on 30 September 2005. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the general concept. ... The criticism of religion includes criticism of the concept of religion, the validity of religion, the practice of religion, and the consequences of religion for humanity. ... For the black metal band, see Blasphemy (band). ...

"The Qur'an says that Allah curses the one who harms the Prophet in this world and He connected harm of Himself to harm of the Prophet. There is no dispute that anyone who curses Allah is killed and that his curse demands that he be categorized as an unbeliever. The Judgment of the unbeliever is that he is killed. [...] There is a difference between ... harming Allah and His Messenger and harming the believers. Injuring the believers, short of murder, incurs beating and exemplary punishment. The judgment against those who harm Allah and His Prophet is more severe -- the death penalty."[83]

In Egypt, public authorities annulled, without his consent, the marriage of Prof. Nasr Abu Zayd when he got in conflict with an orthodox Islamic cleric from the Al-Azhar University in Cairo.[clarify] The cleric had condemned Abu Zayd's reading of the Qur'an as being against the orthodox interpretation and labeled him an apostate (seen as a non-believer and consequently not permitted to marry or stay married to a Muslim woman). Abu Zayd fled to the Netherlands, where he is now a professor at the University of Leiden.[citation needed] Professor Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd (in Arabic: ) was born in Tanta, Egypt on October 7, 1943 and currently works and resides in The Netherlands. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ...


Gay rights

Homosexual activity is illicit under the sharia, however the prescribed penalties differ from one school of jurisprudence to another. For example these countries may allow the death penalty for homosexual activity: Iran, UAE, Sudan, Nigeria, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Somalia. Sharia does not recognize fundamental human rights based on sexual-orientation, however Sharia does not really have a concept of "human rights" comparable to the post-Enlightenment Western idea - only of man's duties to society and to God. The current focus of human rights organizations is on decriminalization, as well as adding anti-discrimination laws, incitement to hatred laws (Hate crime), and eventually same-sex unions or same-sex marriage. In particular human rights organizations are very concerned about the persecution of gays in Iran and have helped some gay Iranians gain legal asylum in Western countries. For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... UAE redirects here. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science sense. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA, CA eff. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Women

Main article: Women in Islam

In terms of religious obligations, such as certain elements of prayer, payment of zakat, observance of the Ramadan fast .and pilgrimage, women are treated no differently from men. There are, however, some exceptions made in the case of prayers and fasting. They are also forbidden to perform salat(prayer) during menstruation. This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Islam has no clergy, but women do not traditionally become Imams or lead prayer. In practice, it is much more common for men to be scholars than women. Early Muslim scholars such as Abu-Hanifa and Al-Tabary held that there is nothing wrong with women holding a post as responsible as that of judge. Many interpretations of Islamic law hold that women may not have prominent jobs, and thus are forbidden from working in the government. This has been a mainstream view in many Muslim nations in the last century, despite the example of Muhammad's wife Aisha, who both took part in politics and was a major authority on hadith. Islam does not prohibit women from working, as it says "Treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers."[84] Married women may seek employment although it is often thought in patriarchal societies that the woman's role as a wife and mother should have first priority. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


Islam unequivocally allows both single and married women to own property in their own right. Islam grants to women the right to inherit property, in contrast with some cultures where women themselves are considered chattels that can be inherited. (See widow inheritance.) However, a woman's inheritance is different from a man's, both in quantity and attached obligations. For instance, a daughter's inheritance is half that of her brothers, while a woman's share of inheritance is completely hers and no one, including her father or husband, can make any claim on it. In contrast, a son is required to use his inheritance to support his sister, as needed. Widow inheritance, also known as bride inheritance, is a type of marriage in which a widow marries a kinsman of her late husband, often his brother. ...


According to Islamic law, a post-pubescent female cannot be forced to marry anyone without their consent. Besides all other provisions for her protection at the time of marriage, it was specifically decreed that a woman has the full right to her mahr, a marriage gift, which is presented to her by her husband and is included in the nuptial contract. Some muslims believe that a woman can divorce her husband without resorting to the courts if the nuptial contract allows that. A Muslim may not marry or remain married to an unbeliever of either sex [Qur'an 2:221][60:10]. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Islamic jurists have traditionally held that Muslim women may only enter into marriage with Muslim men,[85] although some contemporary jurists question the basis of this restriction.[85][86][87] On the other hand, the Qur'an explicitly allows Muslim men to marry any woman of the People of the Book, a term which includes Jews, Sabians, and Christians.[88][85] However, fiqh law has held that it is mukrah (reprehensible) for a Muslim man to marry a non-Muslim woman in a non-Muslim country.[85] This article is about the theological concept in Islam. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Not to be confused with Sabaeans, who were ancient people living in what is now Yemen. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Sunni Islamic law allows husbands to divorce their wives by just saying talaq ("I divorce you") three times. In 2003 a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal. [2] Such a divorce, known as the "triple talaq" is not allowed in most Muslim states. The divorced wife always keeps her dowry from when she was married, and is given child support until the age of weaning, at which point the father gains automatic custody of the child. The divorced wife also receives spousal support for three months after the divorce until it can be determined whether she is pregnant. Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Text messaging, or texting is the common term for the sending of short (160 characters or fewer) text messages from mobile phones using the Short Message Service. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ...

See also: Ma malakat aymanukum

This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...

Sharia Index

On December 2007, the Tokyo Stock Exchange launched a new sharia index that includes shares of companies that comply with the Islamic law. The index of 79 stocks traded in Japan includes companies that are screened on a daily basis to ensure that they maintain strict Sharia compliance. The index excludes businesses that offer products and services considered unacceptable under Islamic law including alcohol, financial services, gambling, pork, pornography and tobacco.[89] December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... The Tokyo Stock Exchange ), or TSE, is one of the largest stock exchange markets in the world by monetary volume located in Tokyo, Japan, second only to the New York Stock Exchange. ...


Topics of Islamic law

Shari'ah may be divided into five main branches:

  • 'ibadah (ritual worship)
  • mu'amalat (transactions and contracts)
  • adaab (morals and manners)
  • i'tiqadat (beliefs)
  • 'uqubat (punishments) [3]
  • Human interaction, or al-mu'amalat includes:
    • Financial transactions
    • Endowments
    • Laws of inheritance
    • Marriage, divorce, and child care
    • Foods and drinks (including ritual slaughtering and hunting)
    • Penal punishments
    • Warfare and peace
    • Judicial matters (including witnesses and forms of evidence)

See mu`amalat laws according to five major schools of jurisprudence and The Majallah. This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Dietary

Main article: Halal

Islamic law does not present a comprehensive list of pure foods and drinks. However, it sanctions:[90] Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ...

  • Prohibition of swine, blood, meat of dead animals and animals slaughtered in the name of someone other than Allah.
  • Prohibition of slaughtering an animal in any other way except in the prescribed manner of tazkiyah (cleansing) by taking Allah’s name which involves cutting the throat of the animal and draining the blood. Causing the animal needless pain, slaughtering with a blunt blade or physically ripping out the esophagus is strictly forbidden. Modern contemporary 'painless' methods of slaughter like the captive bolt stunning are also prohibited.
  • Prohibition of intoxicants

The prohibition of dead meat is not applicable to fish and locusts.[91][92][93] Also hadith literature prohibits beasts having sharp canine teeth, birds having claws and tentacles in their feet,[94] Jallalah (animals whose meat carries a stink in it because they feed on filth),[95] tamed donkeys,[96] and any piece cut from a living animal.[97][90] Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Stunning is the process of rendering animals immobile or unconscious prior to their being slaughtered for food. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Locust nymph from the Philippines Egyptian grasshopper Anacridium aegyptum Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


Marriage and divorce

There are two types of marriage mentioned in the Qur'an: nikah and nikah mut'ah. The first is more common; it aims to be permanent, but can be terminated by the husband in the talaq process or by the wife seeking divorce. In nikah the couples inherit from each other. A legal contract is signed when entering the marriage. The husband must pay for the wife's expenses. In Sunni jurisprudence, the contract is void if there is a determined divorce date in the nikah, whereas, in Shia jurisprudence, nikah contracts with determined divorce dates are transformed in nikah mut'ah. For the contract to be valid there must be two witnesses under Sunni jurisprudence. There is no witness requirement for Shia contracts. This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... It has been suggested that Mutta marriage be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Nikah mut'ah is considered haraam (forbidden) by Sunni Muslims. It means "marriage for pleasure". Under Shia jurisprudence a nikah mut'ah is the second form of marriage recognized by the Shia. It is a fixed term marriage, which is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the marriage is automatically dissolved. There is controversy about the Islamic legality of this type of marriage, since Sunnis believe it was abrogated by Prophet Muhammad, while Shias believe it was forbidden by Umar and hence that ban may be ignored since Umar had no authority to do so. The Qur'an itself doesn't mention any cancellation of the institution. Nikah mut'ah sometimes has a preset time period to the marriage, traditionally the couple do not inherit from each other, the man usually is not responsible for the economic welfare of the women, and she usually may leave her home at her own discretion. Nikah mut'ah also does not count towards a maximum of wives (four according to the Qur'an). The woman still is given her mahr, and the woman must still observe the iddah, a period of four months at the end of the marriage where she is not permitted to remarry in the case she may have become pregnant before the divorce took place. This maintains the proper lineage of children. For the Islamic term for sanctuary, see Haram. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


Requirements for Islamic Marriages:

  • The man who is not currently a fornicator can only marry a woman who is not currently a fornicatress or a chaste woman from the people of the Book.
  • The Muslim woman can only marry a Muslim man.
  • The woman who is not currently a fornicatress can only marry a man who is not currently a fornicator.
  • The fornicator can only marry a fornicatress -- and vice versa.
  • The guardian may choose a suitable partner for a virgin girl, but the girl is free to contest and has the right to say 'no'.
  • The guardian cannot marry the divorced woman or the widow if she didn't ask to be married.
  • It is obligatory for a man to give bride wealth (gifts) to the woman he marries -- "Do not marry unless you give your wife something that is her right."[98]
  • A woman who wishes to be divorced usually needs the consent of her husband. However, most schools allow her to obtain a divorce without her husband's consent if she can show the judge that her husband is impotent. If the husband consents she does not have to pay back the dower.[citation needed]
  • Men have the right of unilateral divorce. A divorce is effective when the man tells his wife that he is divorcing her. At this point the husband must pay the wife the "delayed" component of the dower.
  • A divorced woman of reproductive age must wait four months and ten days before marrying again to ensure that she is not pregnant. Her ex-husband should support her financially during this period.[citation needed]
  • If a man divorces his wife three times, he can no longer marry her again unless she marries another man, and if they got divorced (only in a way that this divorce is not intended for the woman to re-marry her first husband) the woman could re-marry her first husband.[citation needed]
  • These are guidelines; Islamic law on divorce is different depending on the school of thought.[98]

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Extramarital sex. ... This article is about the theological concept in Islam. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ...

Penalties

Main article: Hudud
See also: Rajm, Islam and domestic violence, Zina (sex), and Apostasy in Islam

In accordance with the Qur'an and several hadith, theft is punished by imprisonment or amputation of hands or feet, depending on the number of times it was committed and depending on the item of theft. However, before the punishment is executed two eyewitnesses under oath must say that they saw the person stealing. If these witnesses cannot be produced then the punishment cannot be executed. Witnesses must be either two men, or, if only one man can be found, one man and two women. Several requirements are in place for the amputation of hands, so the actual instances of this are relatively few[citation needed]; they are: Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... Rajm is an Arabic term that means to stone. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Zina (زنا) is an Arabic term for extramarital or premarital sex. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

  • The thief must be adult and sane.
  • There must have been criminal intent to take private (not common) property.
  • The theft must not have been the product of hunger, necessity, or duress.
  • The goods stolen must: be over a minimum value, not haraam, and not owned by the thief's family.
  • Goods must have been taken from custody (i.e. not in a public place).
  • There must be reliable witnesses (mentioned above).
  • The punishment is not imposed if the thief repents.

All of these must be met under the scrutiny of judicial authority. [Qur'an 5:38][99] For the Islamic term for sanctuary, see Haram. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


In accordance with hadith, stoning to death is the penalty for married men and women who commit adultery. In addition, there are several conditions related to the person who commits it that must be met. One of the difficult ones is that the punishment cannot be enforced unless there is a confession of the person, or four male eyewitnesses who each saw the act being committed. All of these must be met under the scrutiny of judicial authority[100] For unmarried men and women, the punishment prescribed in the Qur'an and hadith is 100 lashes.[101] Stoning, or lapidation, refers to a form of capital punishment execution method carried out by an organized group throwing stones or rocks at the person they mean to execute. ...


Similarly, under Sharia a woman who is accused of adultery cannot be punished unless there are four male eyewitnesses to prove she did commit adultery.[citation needed] The "four witness" standard comes from the Qur'an itself, a revelation Muhammad announced in response to accusations of adultery leveled at his wife, Aisha: "Why did they not produce four witnesses? Since they produce not witnesses, they verily are liars in the sight of Allah."[Qur'an 24:13] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The word in the Quran used for "beat" is idreb.[4:34] It is a conjugate of the word daraba which primarily means "to beat, strike, to hit".[102] The Arabic word idreb is used in two primary ways. 1) to strike up a poem, and 2) to physically "beat", or "strike" someone. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Some consider "hit" to be a misinterpretation, and believe it should be translated as "admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and separate from them." Certain modern translations of the Qur'an in the English language accept the commoner translation of "beat" but tone down the wording with bracketed additions. Whatever idribu¯hunna is meant to convey in the Qur'an -- and ambiguities are common in Islam's holy book -- the verb is directed, not at a single husband, but to the community as a whole. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The word "idrib" is used 12 times in the Quran. Eight times it is used in the physical action of striking, and three times it is used in the context of speaking or applying a proverb. Clearly then, the most frequent use of the word is in physically striking. Here is a Quranic verse in which "idreb" is used:


“"Strike" off their heads, "strike" off the very tips of their fingers!”[Qur'an 8:12] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Several hadith urge strongly against beating one's wife, such as: "How does anyone of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and then embrace (sleep with) her? (Al-Bukhari, English Translation, vol. 8, Hadith 68, pp. 42-43), "I went to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and asked him: What do you say (command) about our wives? He replied: Give them food what you have for yourself, and clothe them by which you clothe yourself, and do not beat them, and do not revile them. (Sunan Abu-Dawud, Book 11, Marriage (Kitab Al-Nikah), Number 2139)". Others hadiths do indicate that husbands have a right to discipline their wives in a civilized manner to a certain extent: Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardiziyeh al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردزبه البخاري), was the author of a collection of traditions, compiled in Sahih Bukhari. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Abu Daud, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ...

Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. (Narrated in Sahih Muslim, on the authority of Jabir.)

[4]

According to Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, head of the European Council for Fatwa and Research: Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي), (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline (a website that he helped to found in 1997), where he offers opinions and religious edicts (fatwa) based... A Dublin-based private foundation, founded in London at 29-30 March 1997 on the initiative of the Federation of Islamic Organisations in Europe, the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) is a largely self-selected body, composed by islamic clerics and scholars, presided by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, and...

If the husband senses that feelings of disobedience and rebelliousness are rising against him in his wife, he should try his best to rectify her attitude by kind words, gentle persuasion and reasoning with her. If this is not helpful, he should sleep apart from her, trying to awaken her agreeable feminine nature so that serenity may be restored, and she may respond to him in a harmonious fashion. If this approach fails, it is permissible for him to smack her lightly with his hands, avoiding her face and other sensitive parts. In no case should he resort to using a stick or any other instrument that might cause pain and injury.

Punishments are authorized by other passages in the Quran and hadiths for certain crimes (e.g., extramarital sex, adultery), and are employed by some as rationale for extra-legal punitive action while others disagree (quotations provided by Syed Kamran Mirza):


“The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication—flog each of them with hundred stripes: Let no compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by God, if ye believe in God and the last day.”[Qur'an 24:2] “Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils).”[Qur'an 17:32] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


In most interpretations of Sharia, conversion by Muslims to other religions, is strictly forbidden and is termed apostasy. Muslim theology equates apostasy to treason, and in most interpretations of sharia, the penalty for apostasy is death. Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ...


In many Muslim countries, the accusation of apostasy is even used against non-conventional interpretations of the Quran. The severe persecution of the famous expert in Arabic literature, Prof. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, is an example of this. In some countries, Sunni and Shia Muslims often accuse each other of apostasy. The current civil strife in Iraq is explained by many in terms of the extremely harsh religious opposition between Sunnis and Shias in Iraq. Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd, in Arabic: , (born October 7, 1943) is an Egyptian Quranic scientist and one of the leading liberal theologists in Islam. ...


Customs and behaviour

See also Islamic hygienical jurisprudence This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ...


Practitioners of Islam are generally taught to follow some specific customs in their daily lives. Most of these customs can be traced back to Abrahamic traditions in Pre-Islamic Arabian society.[103] Due to Muhammad's sanction or tacit approval of such practices, these customs are considered to be Sunnah (practices of Muhammad as part of the religion) by the Ummah (Muslim nation). It includes customs like: For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • Saying Bismillah (in the name of God) before eating and drinking.[104]
  • Using the right hand for drinking and eating.[105]
  • Saying As-Salamu Alaykum (peace be upon you) when meeting someone and answering with Wa alaykumus-Salam (and peace be upon you).[106]
  • Saying Alhamdulillah (all gratitude is for only God) when sneezing and responding with Yarhamukallah (God have mercy on you).[107]
  • Saying the Adhan (prayer call) in the right ear of a newborn and the Iqama in its left.
  • In the sphere of hygiene, it includes:
    • Clipping the moustache
    • Shaving the pubic hair
    • Removing underarm hair
    • Cutting nails
    • Circumcising the male offspring[108][109]
    • Cleaning the nostrils, the mouth, and the teeth[110] and
    • Cleaning the body after urination and defecation[111]
  • Abstention from sexual relations during the menstrual cycle and the puerperal discharge,[Qur'an 2:222] and ceremonial bath after the menstrual cycle, puerperal discharge, and Janabah (seminal/ovular discharge or sexual intercourse).[Qur'an 4:43][Qur'an 5:6]
  • Burial rituals include funeral prayer[112] of bathed[113] and enshrouded body in coffin cloth[114] and burying it in a grave.[115]

Phrases containing Allah Allah is Arabic for God and is the only god (monotheism) in the religion of Islam. ... As-Salāmu `Alaykum (السلام عليكم) is an Arabic language greeting used in both Muslim and Christian cultures. ... ć Alhamdulillah (الحمد لله) (Turkish: Elhamdülillah) means Praise to God in Arabic, similar to the Hebrew Halelu Yah. ... Adhan (Azaan) (أَذَان) is the Islamic call to prayer, recited by the muezzin. ... The word iqama (Arabic: إقامة) refers to the second call to Islamic Prayer, given immediately before the prayer begins. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Rituals

Main articles: Eid, Eid ul-Fitr, and Eid ul-Adha

There are two festivals that are considered Sunnah.[115][116] The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...

Rituals associated with these festivals are:[115] Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ...

  • Sadaqah (charity) before Eid ul-Fitr prayer.[117]
  • The Prayer and the Sermon on Eid day.
  • Takbirs (glorifying God) after every prayer in the days of Tashriq (Normally these days are considered to be the ones in which pilgrims stay at Mina once they return from Muzdalifah i.e. 10th, 11th , 12th, and 13th of Dhu al-Hijjah.)
  • Sacrifice of unflawed, four legged grazing animal of appropriate age after the prayer of Eid ul-Adha in the days of Tashriq.[118]

This is a sub-article of Zakat, Infaq and Mustahabb. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim... For other usages of the phrase Allahu Akbar, see Allahu Akbar (disambiguation). ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Mina is a desert location situated some 5 kilometres to the east of the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia. ... Muzdalifah (Arabic: مزدلفة) is an open, level area near Mecca in Saudi Arabia associated with the Hajj. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ...

Dress codes

Main articles: Hijab and Sartorial hijab

The Qur'an also places a dress code upon its followers. The rule for men has been ordained before the women: “say to the believing men to lower their gaze and preserve their modesty, it will make for greater purity for them and Allah is well aware of all that they do.”[Qur'an 24:30] Allah then says in the Qur'an, “And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts and do not display their ornaments except what appears thereof, and let them wear their khumūr over their bosoms, and not display their ornaments except to their husbands...”[24:31] All those men in whose presence a woman is not obliged to practise the dress code are known as her mahrams. Men have a more relaxed dress code: the body must be covered from knee to waist. However under (strict interpretation of) Sharia Law, women are required to cover all of their bodies except hands and face. The rationale given for these rules is that men and women are not to be viewed as sexual objects. Men are required to keep their guard up and women to protect themselves. In theory, should either one fail, the other prevents the society from falling into fitna (temptation or discord). “Higab” redirects here. ... External Hijab is a phrase used to denote garments (typically female) associated with the modest dress of Muslims. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Clothing has various sociological functions, including: conspicuous consumption stating or claiming identity establishing, maintaining and defying sociological group norms Thus wearing specific types of clothing or the manner of wearing clothing can convey messages about class, income, belief and attitude. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Note: The word Hijab is often used in news reports and common use, by both Muslims and non-Muslims, to refer to a form of headscarf. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ...


However, whether the veil or headscarf is a real Quranic obligation, there are many different opinions. Fundamentalists as Yusuf Al-Qaradawi claim it is, while many others, such as Mohammed Arkoun, Soheib Bencheikh, Abdoldjavad Falaturi, Jamal al Banna claim it isn't. However, the first group appears dominant: "Jamal al Banna has been for a number of years one of the few mainstream Muslim scholars to argue that the Muslim headscarf, or hijab, is not an Islamic obligation." ([5], p. 75). This article is about the article of clothing, or a religious item. ... Turkish women in eastern Turkey wearing the non-Islamic yemeni headscarfs. ... Yusuf al-Qaradawi (Arabic: يوسف القرضاوي), (born September 9, 1926) is an Egyptian Muslim scholar and preacher best known for his popular al Jazeera program, ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (Shariah and Life), and IslamOnline (a website that he helped to found in 1997), where he offers opinions and religious edicts (fatwa) based... Professor Mohammed Arkoun is one of the most influential scholars in Islamic Studies today. ... Soheib Bencheikh (born 1961, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) is an Islamic religious leader and author. ... Abdoldjavad Falaturi was a German scholar (1926–1996) of Iranian origin. ...


Turkey, a secular Muslim-majority country, had controversial laws against these dress codes in schools and work places. After the declaration of the Republic in 1923, as part of revolutions brought by Atatürk, a modern dress code was encouraged. The law changed early in 2008, with much debate, to allow a hijab while attending public school in Turkey[119] as well as France, where the recently enacted rule caused huge public controversy.[120] Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... “Higab” redirects here. ...


It is a common concern in the west that Muslim women are oppressed and forced to wear the Hijab or headscarf by their male counterparts. Muslim males contend that the majority of women choose to wear the garment of their own free will.[citation needed] The main principle reason for the hijab is modesty, which is not wishing to receive unnecessary attention from people, such as admiration and flattery, envy, or, most importantly, sexual attraction from those other than her husband. Great care is taken to keep sexual thoughts, feelings and interactions to within the boundaries of the marital relationship.


One of the garments women wear is the hijāb (of which the headscarf is one component). The word hijab is derived from the Arabic word hajaba which means 'to hide from sight or view', 'to conceal'. Hijāb means to cover the head as well as the body. “Higab” redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Non-Muslims

Main article: Dhimmi

Under Sharia law non-Muslims may be subjected to Sharia Laws however it codifies the treatment of dhimmis in relation to the Muslim state and in cases of over-lapping jurisdiction. The jizya or tax is enforced on those who broke a treaty or attacked Muslim with no right (as a punishment) or required from those who ask for protection without enrolling in the army. The rules include privilege to practice their own religion, except for public demonstration of non-Muslim religious practices and the right to convert Muslims. This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ...


The core component of treatment is the jizya, or tax specifically upon non-Muslims. The jizya originates in the Qur'an which says “Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of the truth among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.”[Qur'an 9:29] The "Book" refers to the People of the Book, Jews and Christians, who don't follow their religion righteously, but the jizya was extended to all conquered non-Muslims. The jizya ultimately is less than the Zakah (money given to the poor and needy) and Sadaqah (charity) that Muslims give.[citation needed] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


However, verse 2:190 states: "Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors."


Notes

  1. ^ Hallaq 1997, Brown 1996, Aslan 2006
  2. ^ (Badr 1978)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h (Makdisi 1999)
  4. ^ a b c d e (Badr 1978, pp. 196-8)
  5. ^ The Second Era of Ijtihad, 1 St. Thomas University Law Review 341
  6. ^ On the Sources of Islamic Law and Practices, The Journal of law and religion [0748-0814] Souaiaia yr:2005 vol:20 iss:1 pg:123 It is a code of laws for the Islamic way of life. Another way to say it is the "straight path."
  7. ^ Al-Islam.org by the Ahlul Bayt DILP - Hawza - Advanced Islamic Studies
  8. ^ Weiss (2002), pp.3,161
  9. ^ Weiss (2002), p.162
  10. ^ a b c (El-Gamal 2006, p. 16)
  11. ^ a b c d Makdisi, John (2005), Islamic Property Law: Cases and Materials for Comparative Analysis with the Common Law, Carolina Academic Press, ISBN 1594601100 
  12. ^ a b c d Coulson, Noel James. A history of Islamic law (Islamic surveys). Oxford: University Press, 1964.
  13. ^ Dien, Mawil Izzi. Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations To Contemporary Practice. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
  14. ^ Liebesny, Majid &, and Herbert J. (Editors) Khadduri. Law in the Middle East: Volume I: Origin and Development of Islamic Law. Washington D.C.: The Middle East Institute, 1955.
  15. ^ Berg, Herbert. "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3 (2005): 1030. In History Reference Center[database online]. Available from Snowden Library (accessed February 11, 2008).
  16. ^ a b c d Berg, Herbert. "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3 (2005): 1030. In History Reference Center[database online]. Available from Snowden Library (accessed February 11, 2008).
  17. ^ a b Dien, Mawil Izzi. Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations To Contemporary Practice. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
  18. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988)
  19. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988, pp. 1237-40)
  20. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988, p. 1246)
  21. ^ (Hudson 2003, p. 32)
  22. ^ (Gaudiosi 1988, pp. 1244-5)
  23. ^ "Review: Islamic Law and Jurisprudence: Studies in Honor of Farhat J. Ziadeh by Nicholas Heer Sherman Jackson", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 54 (1): 68-9, January 1995 
  24. ^ (Badr 1984, pp. 167-8)
  25. ^ Makdisi, John (1985-6)), "Formal Rationality in Islamic Law and the Common Law", Cleveland State Law Review 34: 97-112 
  26. ^ Islam, Muhammad Wohidul (1998), "Dissolution of Contract in Islamic Law", Arab Law Quarterly 13 (4): 336-368 
  27. ^ (Makdisi 1999, pp. 1703-16)
  28. ^ a b c (Vohra 2006, p. 348)
  29. ^ Quraishi, Asifa (2006), "Interpreting the Qur'an and the Constitution: Similarities in the Use of Text, Tradition, and Reason in Islamic and American Jurisprudence", Cardozo Law Review 28: 67-121 
  30. ^ (Vohra 2006, p. 349)
  31. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, p. 132)
  32. ^ Ray Spier (2002), "The history of the peer-review process", Trends in Biotechnology 20 (8), p. 357-358 [357].
  33. ^ Mathre, Mary Lynn (1997), Cannabis in Medical Practice: A Legal, Historical and Pharmacological Overview of the Therapeutic Use of Marijuana, McFarland, p. 40, ISBN 0786403616 
  34. ^ Mathre, Mary Lynn (1997), Cannabis in Medical Practice: A Legal, Historical and Pharmacological Overview of the Therapeutic Use of Marijuana, McFarland, p. 41, ISBN 0786403616 
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  38. ^ a b Makdisi, John (1991), "Hard cases and human judgment in Islamic and common law", Indiana International & Comparative Law Review 2: 191–219 
  39. ^ (Badr 1978, pp. 196)
  40. ^ (Badr 1978, pp. 197)
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  46. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, pp. 138-9)
  47. ^ a b (Weeramantry 1997, p. 138)
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  52. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, pp. 129-32)
  53. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, pp. 132 & 135)
  54. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, pp. 8, 135, 139-40)
  55. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, pp. 7 & 135)
  56. ^ Dr. Badawi, Jamal A. (September 1971), "The Status of Women in Islam", Al-Ittihad Journal of Islamic Studies 8 (2) 
  57. ^ (Badr 1984, pp. 167)
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  59. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, p. 134)
  60. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2004), vol. 1, p. 116-123.
  61. ^ (Weeramantry 1997, p. 135)
  62. ^ a b Ahmad, I. A. (June 3, 2002), "The Rise and Fall of Islamic Science: The Calendar as a Case Study", Faith and Reason: Convergence and Complementarity, Al Akhawayn University, <http://images.agustianwar.multiply.com/attachment/0/[email protected]/IslamicCalendar-A-Case-Study.pdf>. Retrieved on 31 January 2008 
  63. ^ Goddard, Hugh (2000), A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh University Press, p. 100, ISBN 074861009X 
  64. ^ Averroes Foundation - Traditionalist View on Sex Slavery
  65. ^ Averroes Foundation - Islamic Law: An Ever-Evolving Science under Revelation and Reason
  66. ^ Averroes Foundation - Free and Equal under the Qur'an
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  68. ^ "Debate rages over women and Sharia", BBC News, 2003-06-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-01. 
  69. ^ Draft law on Indonesia's Aceh province to impose Islamic law on all residents, The Associated Press / The Sacramento Bee, May 24, 2006
  70. ^ Indonesia's dilemma by Vaudine England, The Standard - China's Business Newspaper, May 6, 2006
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  75. ^ Judgement in the case of Refah Partisi and Others v. Turkey, Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights, February 13 2003
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  84. ^ the last sermon of Muhammad
  85. ^ a b c d On Christian Men marrying Muslim Women
  86. ^ Imam Khaleel Mohammed's defense of inter-faith marriage
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  93. ^ Al-Zamakhshari. Al-Kashaf, vol. 1, (Beirut: Daru’l-Kitab al-‘Arabi), p. 215
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  95. ^ Nisai 4447
  96. ^ Sahih Bukhari 4199
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  98. ^ a b Islamic Law, الشريعة الإسلامية, islamic law sharia
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  104. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi 1513
  105. ^ Sahih Muslim 2020
  106. ^ Sahih Bukhari 6234
  107. ^ Sahih Bukhari 6224
  108. ^ Sahih Muslim 257
  109. ^ Sahih Muslim 258
  110. ^ Sahih Muslim 252
  111. ^ Sunan Abu Da'ud 45
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  114. ^ Sahih Muslim 943
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  117. ^ Sahih Bukhari 1503
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  120. ^ "Effort to ban head scarves in France sets off culture clash", USA Today, February 3, 2003. 

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... The Sacramento Bee is a daily newspaper published in Sacramento, California. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the promotion of scholarship in the fields of economics, finance, accounting, management and law. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Strasbourg Conference is a forum on freedom of religion and belief. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... [edit] Name Al-Kashshaf an Haqaiq at-Tanzil, The Discoverer of Revealed Truths” [edit] See also List of Sunni books Category: ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sunan Abu Daud is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Jami al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎), popularly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six major Hadith collections collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sunan Abu Daud is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sunan Abu Daud is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

References

  • Badr, Gamal Moursi (Spring 1978), "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems", The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 [Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 24-25, 1977]): 187-198
  • Badr, Gamal Moursi (Winter 1984), "Islamic Criminal Justice", The American Journal of Comparative Law 32 (1): 167-169
  • Bakhtiar, Laleh and Kevin Reinhart (1996). Encyclopedia of Islamic Law: A Compendium of the Major Schools. Kazi Publications, ISBN 1567444989
  • Brown, Daniel W. (1996). Rethinking traditions in modern Islamic thought. Cambridge University Press, UK. ISBN 0-521-65394-0
  • Dahlén, Ashk (2003). Islamic Law, Epistemology and Modernity, Routledge. ISBN-13: 978-0415945295
  • Doi, Abd ar-Rahman I., and Clarke, Abdassamad (2008). Shari'ah: Islamic Law. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd., ISBN 978 1 842000 85 3 (paperback), ISBN 978 1 842000 87 8 (hardback)
  • El-Fadl, Khaled Abou (2003), Reasoning with God: Rationality and Thought in Islam, Oneworld, ISBN 1851683062
  • Kafadar, Cemal (1996), Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-20600-2
  • Mumisa, Michael (2002) Islamic Law: Theory & Interpretation, Amana Publications, ISBN 1-59008-010-6
  • Musa, A. Y. Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008
  • El-Gamal, Mahmoud A. (2006), Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521864143
  • Gaudiosi, Monica M. (April 1988), "The Influence of the Islamic Law of Waqf on the Development of the Trust in England: The Case of Merton College", University of Pennsylvania Law Review 136 (4): 1231-1261
  • Ayaz, Maryam (2007), "Sharia'h and Profits", Apvision Revolutionary Islamic Profitability Models
  • Ghamidi, Javed (2001). Mizan. Dar al-Ishraq. OCLC 52901690. 
  • Hudson, A. (2003), Equity and Trusts (3rd ed.), Cavendish Publishing, ISBN 1-85941-729-9
  • Coulson, Noel James. A history of Islamic law (Islamic surveys). Oxford: University Press, 1964.
  • Dien, Mawil Izzi. Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations To Contemporary Practice. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2004.
  • Liebesny, Majid &, and Herbert J. (Editors) Khadduri. Law in the Middle East: Volume I: Origin and Development of Islamic Law. Washington D.C.: The Middle East Institute, 1955.
  • Berg, Herbert. "Islamic Law." Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History 3 (2005): 1030. In History Reference Center[database online]. Available from Snowden Library (accessed February 11, 2008).
  • Makdisi, John A. (June 1999), "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law", North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635-1739
  • Safi, Omid (2003). Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-316-X
  • al-Shafi'i, Muhammad ibn Idris (1993), Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence, Islamic Texts Society, ISBN 0946621152
  • Shahin, Omar (2007), The Muslim Family in Western Society: A Study in Islamic Law (English), Cloverdale Books, ISBN 978-1-929569-30-4
  • Vohra, Sameer S. (2006), "An American Muslim's Right to Die, Incorporating Islamic Law into the Debate", Journal of Legal Medicine 27 (3): 341-359
  • Weeramantry, Judge Christopher G. (1997), Justice Without Frontiers: Furthering Human Rights, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9041102418
  • Weiss, Bernard G. (2002). Studies in Islamic Legal Theory. Boston: Brill Academic publishers. ISBN 9004120661. 


Ashk Peter Dahlén (b. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The University of Pennsylvania Law Review is a scholarly journal focusing on legal issues, published by an organization of second and third year J.D. students at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Al-Mawrid is an Islamic research institute in Lahore, Pakistan founded in 1983 and then re-established in 1991. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Sheikh Omar Shahin is a Jordanian native. ... Cloverdale Corporation has for 29 years been involved in publishing scholarly research for the scientific community. ... Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ...

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

See also

Specific issues

Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, which provides an overview on the Islamic perspective on human rights, and... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Deen (دين) is an Arabic word usually explained as way of life or complete code of life. It is not exclusive to Islam, as it also used by Arab Christians. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Not to be confused with Tafsir al-Mizan (a quranic tafsir). ... Javed Ahmed Ghamidi (Urdu: جاوید احمد غامدی) (b. ... The Mutaween (مطوعين in Arabic) (variant English spellings: mutawwain, muttawa, mutawallees, mutawa’ah, mutawi’) are the government -authorized or -recognized religious police (or clerical police or public order police) within Islamist theocracies which adhere to varied interpretations of Sharia Law, and in which the governments are either directly controlled by, or... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and conform with our NPOV policy, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... In Islamic Law, tazir (or tazir, Arabic تعزير) refers to punishment, usually corporal, that can be administered at the discretion of the judge, as opposed to the hudud (singular: hadd), the punishments for certain offenses that are fixed by the Quran or Hadith. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic criminal jurisprudence and Blood money (term). ... Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally (in Arabic: Qisas قصاص) or unintentionally (in Arabic: Diyat or Diyya ديت). Islam has not prescribed any specific amount for Diyat nor has it obligated to discriminate in this matter between a man... For age-structured homosexuality, see Pederasty in the Middle East Islamic views on homosexuality are as varied as those of most other major religions and have changed throughout history. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic Finance is based on interpretations from the Quran. ...

External links

Look up Sharia in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Sharia
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Islam reveres the one God, who is considered the only Creator and Lord of the Universe. The main fundamental creed (shahadah) of Islam is There is but (one) God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Arabic word for The God is Allah (الله); Muslims consider him the same deity... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Cordoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islam - percentage by country Map showing distribution of Shia and Sunni Muslims in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... 13th century slave market in Yemen The major juristic schools of Islam traditionally accepted the institution of slavery. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic marital jurisprudence and human sexuality. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... // Takaful is an Islamic insurance concept which is grounded in Islamic muamalat (banking transactions), observing the rules and regulations of Islamic law. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Sharia is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Islamic tilework of the Shrine of Hadhrat Masoumah, first built in the late 8th century. ... Arabesque pattern at the Alhambra An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls of mosques, the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants and animals. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... In the history of mathematics, Islamic mathematics or Arabic mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the Islamic civilization between 622 and 1600. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jainism and Islam came in close contact with each other following the Islamic Conquest from Central Asia and Persia in the seventh to the twelfth centuries when much of north and central India came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... In Islam, Prophet Muhammad is seen by Muslims as the last and final Prophet of Allah. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... (Arguments critical to religion in general, or specific to Monotheism, such as the Existence of God, not dealt with here. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Islamophobia is a controversial[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... Islamist terrorism, sometimes called Islamic terrorism, is terrorism that is carried out to further the political and religious ambitions of a segment of the Muslim community. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... Persecution of Muslims refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sharia - MSN Encarta (421 words)
Sharia (Arabic : شريعة transliteration : Šarīʿah) is the body of Islamic religious law.
Shari'a Academy of America is an independent educational institution, with its headquarters located in Tampa, Florida in the USA,Shari'a Academy aims to spread Islamic knowledge in...
The most important debate among modern Muslims concern whether the Sharia should be applied in all aspects of life and whether and how to renovate it so that it addresses the most pressing issues facing the Muslim world today.
Sharia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4590 words)
Sharia has certain laws which are regarded as divinely ordained, concrete and timeless for all relevant situations (for example, the ban against drinking liquor as an intoxicant).
An unusual secular-state example was the (rejected) proposal for a Sharia arbitration court to be established in Ontario, Canada.
In 2003, for example, a Malaysian court ruled that, under Sharia law, a man may divorce his wife via text messaging as long as the message was clear and unequivocal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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