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Encyclopedia > Shared universe

A shared universe is a literary technique in which several different authors create works of fiction that share aspects such as settings or characters and that are intended to be read as taking place in a single universe. This can be contrasted with collaborative writing, in which multiple authors work on a single story. Shared universes are more common within fantasy and science fiction than in other genres. The term has also been used in a wider, non-literary sense to convey interdisciplinarity[1] or social commonality,[2] often in the context of a "shared universe of discourse." A literary technique or literary device may be used in works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. ... // Fiction (from the Latin fingere, to form, create) is the genre of imaginative prose literature, including novels and short stories. ... A fictional universe is a cohesive imaginary world that serves as the setting or backdrop for one or (more commonly) multiple works of fiction. ... ... For the 2001 film, see Storytelling (film) Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in words, images, and sounds. ... Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Interdisciplinarity is a type of academic collaboration in which specialists drawn from two or more academic disciplines work together in pursuit of common goals. ...



There is no formalized definition of when the appearance of fictional characters in another author's work constitutes a shared universe. Fiction in some media, such as most television programs and many comic book titles, is understood to require the contribution of multiple authors and does not by itself create a shared universe. Incidental appearances, such as that of d'Artagnan in Cyrano de Bergerac, may instead be considered literary cameos. More substantial interaction between characters from different sources is often marketed as a crossover. While crossovers occur in a shared universe, not all crossovers are intended to merge their settings' back-stories and are instead used for marketing, parody, or to explore what-if scenarios. A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The statue of dArtagnan in Auch Statue of dArtagnan in Maastricht Charles de Batz-Castelmore, Comte dArtagnan (c. ... Cyrano de Bergerac is a play by Edmond Rostand based on the life of the real Cyrano de Bergerac. ... Martin Scorsese appears briefly in an uncredited role in this scene from his feature film Taxi Driver. ... A fictional crossover occurs when two or more otherwise separated fictional characters, stories, settings, universes, or media meet and interact with each other. ... In narratology, a back-story (also back story or backstory) is the history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ...

The modern definition of copyright, especially under United States copyright law, considers the expansion of a previous work's setting or characters to be a derivative work. Especially for material being considered for publication, this often necessitates licensing agreements. For this reason, some fan fiction and other amateur works written in established settings without permission, are sometimes distinguished from shared universe writings or even described as a "stolen universe".[3] Readers may also object when series are integrated into a shared universe, especially in comic books, feeling it "requir[es] one hero's fans to buy other heroes' titles."[4] Articles with similar titles include copywrite. ... United States copyright law governs the legally enforceable rights of creative and artistic works in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... How to obtain a amature radio licence differs from country to country. ... Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ...

Especially when a shared universe grows to include a large number of works, it becomes difficult for writers to maintain an internally consistent continuity and to avoid contradicting details in earlier works. The version that is deemed official by the author or company controlling the setting is known as canon. Not all shared universes have a controlling entity capable of or willing to determine canonicity, and not all fans agree with these determinations when they occur. A fanon may instead find some degree of consensus within the setting's fandom. In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fanon is a fact or ongoing situation related to a television program, book, movie, or video game that has been used so much by fan writers or among the fandom that it has been more or less established as having happened in the fictional world, but it has not actually... Fandom (from the noun fan and the affix -dom, as in kingdom, dukedom, etc. ...

Some writers, in an effort to ensure that a canon can be established and to keep details of the setting believable, employ tools to correct contradictions and errors that result from multiple contributors working over a long period of time. This is primarily accomplished through retconning, short for "retroactive continuity", when later adjustments result in the invalidation of previously-written material. Retcons are generally used to fix and preserve previously-written material and older sources, although occassionally they're utilized to eliminate them. The most severe form of retcon involves a wholesale rewrite of the groundwork for the entire setting. These reboots, most closely associated with DC Comics, are not always effective at resolving underlaying problems and may meet with a negative reaction from fans.[5] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... DC Comics is one of the largest American companies in comic book and related media publishing. ...


Comic books

In 1941, writer Gardner Fox at All-American Comics (later part of DC Comics) created the Justice Society of America in All-Star Comics #3, credited with being the first superhero team-up and laying the groundwork for the DC Universe, the first comic book shared universe.[6] By 1961, Marvel Comics writer and editor Stan Lee, working with artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, merged the bulk of the publisher's comics characters into the Marvel Universe.[4] Both settings have suffered from the creative difficulties of maintaining a complex shared universe handled by large numbers of writers and editors. DC has substantially altered its in-universe chronology several times, in series such as Crisis on Infinite Earths in 1985, Zero Hour in 1994, and Infinite Crisis in 2005. As of 2007, Marvel has never rebooted its continuity, instead setting stories in an increasing number of alternate realities, each with an assigned number in a greater multiverse. Gardner Francis Fox (May 20, 1911, Brooklyn, New York – December 24, 1986) was an American writer best known for creating numerous comic book characters for DC Comics. ... All-American Comics was the flagship title for its publisher, also called All-American Comics. ... The Justice Society of America, or JSA, is a DC Comics superhero group, the first team of superheroes in comic book history. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Cover to the History of the DC Universe trade paperback. ... Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ... Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber on December 28, 1922[1]) is an American writer, editor, Chairman Emeritus of Marvel Comics, and memoirist, who — with several artist co-creators, most notably Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko — introduced complex, naturalistic characters and a thoroughly shared universe into superhero comic books. ... Jack Kirby (August 28, 1917 – February 6, 1994) was one of the most influential, recognizable, and prolific artists in American comic books. ... The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #1 (1964): Cover art by Ditko. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ... Crisis on Infinite Earths was a 12-issue comic book limited series (identified as a 12 part maxi-series) and crossover event, produced by DC Comics in 1985 in order to simplify their fifty-year-old continuity. ... Zero Hour: Crisis in Time was a 1994 comic book miniseries and crossover storyline that ran in DC Comics. ... Infinite Crisis was a seven-issue limited series of comic books published by DC Comics, beginning in October of 2005. ... Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. ... Within Marvel Comics, most tales take place within the fictional Marvel Universe, this in turn is part of a larger multiverse. ...

DC and Marvel have also periodically co-published series in which their respective characters meet and interact. These intercompany crossovers have generally been written as self-limiting events that avoid implying that the DC Universe and Marvel Universe co-exist. Nevertheless, one such crossover resulted in the printing of 24 comics under the metafictional imprint Amalgam Comics in 1996, depicting a shared universe populated by hybridizations of the two companies' characters. Marvel has since referred to this as part of its setting's greater multiverse by labeling it Earth-692.[7] In comic books, an intercompany crossover (also called cross-company, or simply company crossover) is a comic or series of comics where a character (or group of characters) published by one company meets a character published by another (for example, DC Comics Superman meeting Marvels Spider-Man). ... Look up metafiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Amalgam Comics was a metafictional American comic book publisher, and part of a collaboration between Marvel Comics and DC Comics, in which the two comic book publishers merged their characters to create new ones (e. ...

Although DC and Marvel's successful shared universe approaches to comics have set them apart from competitors in the industry,[8] other companies attempted similar models. While active, Valiant Comics and Crossgen both produced titles primarily set in a single, publisher-wide shared universe, known respectively as Unity[9] and the Sigilverse.[10] Valiant Comics is the comic book publishing company founded by former Marvel Comics editor-in-chief Jim Shooter and renowned writer/artists Bob Layton and Barry Windsor-Smith in 1989. ... Cross Generation Entertainment, or CrossGen, was an American comic book publisher. ... Akamad 12:52, 9 December 2005 (UTC) Category: ... The Sigilverse, also known as the CrossGen Universe, is a fictional shared universe which served as a setting for most titles published by CrossGen Comics. ...

Expanded universes

In a process similar to brand licensing, the intellectual property owners of established fictional settings at times allow others to author new material, creation an expanded universe. Such franchises, generally based on television programs or film, allow for series of novels, video games, original sound recordings and other media. Those owning the rights at the core of these shared universes each take different positions regarding licensing issues and canon acceptance. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Expanded Universe material (e. ... A media franchise is an intellectual property involving the characters, setting, and trademarks of an original work of media (usually a work of fiction), such as a film, a work of literature, a television program, or a video game. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ...

The Star Wars franchise takes a unique view regarding the canon properties of its expanded universe, introducing a four-tier system based on compatibility with the six films. Star Trek canon is less well-defined, generally excluding not only licensed works such as books and video games and acknowledging that "even events in some of the movies have been called into question".[11] Furthermore, both franchises have blurred the lines between canon and non-canon content by adopting unofficial material into later official productions. [12][13] Opening logo to the Star Wars films Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by writer/producer/director George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... The Star Wars canon consists of the six Star Wars feature films, along with all officially licensed, non-contradicting spin-off works to the six films. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Opening logo to the Star Wars films Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by writer/producer/director George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

The shared universe of Doctor Who licensed fiction is particularly complex due to the permissive stance on licensing and canon taken by the BBC. Contradictory material has appeared in various media, including novels, comics, and audio dramas, dividing the Whoniverse into competing subsets that vary from source to source, such as the Big Finish universe, the New Adventures universe, or a universe based on Marvel Comics appearances.[14] Reviewer Robert F.W. Smith attempted to summarize the conflicting continuities:[15] Doctor Who is a long-running British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC, (and a 1996 television movie). ... Doctor Who spin-offs refers to material created outside of, but related to, the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... Radio drama, which had its greatest popularity in the U. S. and in most other countries before the widespread access to television programming, depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to help the listener imagine the story in her or his minds eye--in this sense, it resembles reading... // The Whoniverse, a portmanteau of Doctor Who and universe, is the fictional universe in which Doctor Who, Torchwood and other related stories take place. ... Big Finish Productions is a British company that produces audio plays based on British cult science fiction properties. ... The Virgin New Adventures (often referred to simply as NAs within fandom) were a series of novels from Virgin Publishing based on the British science-fiction television series Doctor Who, which had been cancelled in 1989, continuing the story of the series from where the television programme had left off. ...

As far as I understand it, the situation is this: the New Adventures universe is inside the bottle universe seen in Interference, which was built by BBC universe Time Lords, and in it, the NA Time Lords are all gone – they’ve gone to another bottle and left the NA universe to the Gods/Kings of Space. Most of the New Adventures happened in the BBC universe anyway, except in that universe, the 7th Doctor was the reincarnation of the Other and Rassilon escaped to roam the universe – in the BBC universe, he may or may not have been, and Rassilon probably didn’t. In the BBC universe, Faction Paradox, the Doctor and the Enemy between them have vaped the Time Lords, with the result that there are no longer any Time Lords in the BBC universe, except for five, the fundamental laws of the universe (the magic-and-science thing) have changed, and the Doctor is no longer a Time Lord at all originally but a crystal man named Soul from the end of time. Also in the BBC universe, an infinity of different universes have been released, which helpfully explains how all the shock companion-killings in the novels ever since Eternity Weeps either did or didn’t happen in our universe, according to whatever criteria you like, but Gallifrey didn’t survive in any of them. Despite this, Gallifrey will still be rebuilt in the BBC universe in some form, but it will presumably be much less powerful because it will now be a planet without the original’s special relationship with time, and it won’t have always been there. Where the Big Finish audios fit in is anybody’s guess; the new series can just about be assumed to follow on from the end of The Gallifrey Chronicles, even though the Doc says he’s a Time Lord – not a crystal man from the end of time – in the second episode. There. Tom Baker as the Doctor, in the Time Lord ceremonial robes of the Prydonian chapter (from The Deadly Assassin). ... Rassilon is a fictional character in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... Eternity Weeps is an original novel written by Jim Mortimore and based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ... A Vardan spaceship approaches Gallifrey from space (from The Invasion of Time). ... The Gallifrey Chronicles is the title of two books related to the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. ...

Even Smith's summary does not address spin-offs such as the Bernice Summerfield novels and the Faction Paradox series that are legally distinct from the origins of their characters in officially licensed novels. A spin-off (or spinoff) is a new organization or entity formed by a split from a larger one such as a new company formed from a university research group. ... Bernice Surprise Summerfield (later Professor Bernice Summerfield or just Benny) is a fictional character originally created by author Paul Cornell as a new companion of the Seventh Doctor in Virgin Publishings range of original full-length Doctor Who novels, the New Adventures. ... Faction Paradox is a fictional time travelling voodoo cult/rebel group/organized crime syndicate created by Lawrence Miles. ...

The expansion of existing material into a shared universe is not restricted to settings licensed from movies and television. For example, Larry Niven opened his Known Space setting to other writers initially because he considered his lack of military experience to prevent him from adequately describing the wars between mankind and the Kzinti.[16] The degree to which he has made the setting available for other writers became a topic of controversy, when Elf Sternberg created an erotic short story set in Known Space following an author's note from Niven indicating that "[i]f you want more Known Space stories, you'll have to write them yourself". Niven has since clarified that his setting is still to be used only "under restricted circumstances and with permission".[17] This permission has been granted to the several authors of the Man-Kzin Wars series. Laurence van Cott Niven (born April 30, 1938 Los Angeles, California) is a US science fiction author. ... Known Space is the fictional setting of several science fiction novels and short stories written by author Larry Niven. ... The Kzin (plural Kzinti) are a fictional, very warlike and bloodthirsty race of Felinoid aliens in Larry Nivens Known Space series. ... Elf Mathieu Sternberg, born May 7, 1966, is the former keeper of the alt. ... Erotic literature is a literary genre that either takes the form of erotica written to arouse the reader, or to give instruction in sexual technique. ... The Kzin (plural Kzinti) are a fictional, very warlike and bloodthirsty race of felinoid aliens in Larry Nivens Known Space series. ...

In a less typical example, author Eric Flint has edited and published collaborations with fan fiction writers directly, expanding his 1632 series. Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction, alternate history, and fantasy author and editor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

A setting may also be expanded in a similar manner after the death of its creator, although this posthumous expansion does not meet some strict definitions of a shared universe. One such example is August Derleth's development of the Cthulhu Mythos from the the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, an approach whose result is considered by some to be "completely dissimilar" to Lovecraft's own works.[18] Less controversial posthumous expansions include Ruth Plumly Thompson's and later authors' sequels to L. Frank Baum's Oz stories and the further development of Isaac Asimov's Foundation universe by Greg Bear, Gregory Benford, and David Brin To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cthulhu and Rlyeh Cthulhu Mythos is the term coined by the writer August Derleth to describe the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and associated horror fiction writers. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... Ruth Plumly Thompson (1891-1976) was an American writer of childrens stories. ... The Laughing Dragon of Oz, see Frank Joslyn Baum . ... Oz is a fantasy region containing four countries under the rule of one monarch. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920? – April 6, 1992, IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gregory Dale Bear (born August 20, 1951) is a science fiction author. ... Gregory Benford (born January 30, 1941 in Mobile, Alabama) is an American science fiction author and physicist who is on the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Irvine. ... Glen David Brin, Ph. ...

Original creations

Not all shared universe settings are simply the expansion or combination of pre-existing material by new authors. At times, an author or group of authors has produced a setting intending it to be developed by the contributions of multiple authors, often through collaboration. The term refers to collaboration on writing works of fiction. ...

Many published works of this nature take the form of a series of short-story anthologies with occasional standalone novels. Examples include Robert Lynn Asprin's Thieves' World, C.J. Cherryh's Merovingen Nights,[19] and George R. R. Martin's Wild Cards series. An anthology is a collection of literary works, originally of poems, but in recent years its usage has broadened to be applied to collections of short stories and comic strips. ... Robert Lynn Asprin (born June 28, 1946) is an American science fiction and fantasy author best known for his humorous series. ... Thieves World #1 (Original Printing) Thieves World is a shared world fantasy series created by Robert Lynn Asprin in 1978. ... C. J. Cherryh is the slightly modified working name of author Caroline Janice Cherry (born September 1, 1942), the sister of artist David A.Cherry. ... Merovingen Nights is a series of shared world science fiction books set in writer C. J. Cherryhs Alliance-Union universe. ... George Raymond Richard Martin, sometimes called GRRM, born September 20, 1948 in Bayonne, New Jersey is an American author and screenwriter of science fiction, horror, and fantasy. ... The cover of the first Wild Cards book, Wild Cards. ...

Role-playing games are inherently designed to include some aspects of the shared universe concept, as individual games are derived from the core material. Campaign settings, such as Dungeons & Dragons's Faerûn and Eberron, provide a more detailed world in which novels and other related media are additionally set. Living campaigns, including the RPGA's Living Greyhawk[20] or the AEG-sanctioned Heroes of Rokugan,[21] provide an opportunity for individual games hosted worldwide to take part in a single shared universe. This article is about traditional role-playing games. ... A campaign setting is a fictional fantasy world which serves as a setting for a role-playing game or wargame, such as Dungeons & Dragons, Warhammer and various d20 System games. ... Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy role-playing game (RPG) currently published by Wizards of the Coast. ... Faerûn is a fictional subcontinent, the primary setting of the Dungeons & Dragons world of Forgotten Realms. ... The Eberron logo Eberron is a campaign setting created by author and game designer Keith Baker for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. ... Living Campaigns are part marketing tool, part volunteer campaign settings, which allow people all over the world to play role-playing games in a shared universe. ... RPGA – Role Playing Gamers Association // History The group was originally formed and founded by TSR, Inc. ... Living Greyhawk is a role playing game organization run by the RPGA that administers an on-going living campaign based on the World of Greyhawk campaign setting for Dungeons & Dragons. ... This is about the games publisher. ...

The influence of the Internet on collaborative and interactive fiction has also resulted in the creation of a large number of amateur shared universe settings. Amateur authors created shared universes contributing to mailing lists, story archives or Usenet. Among the earliest of these, SFStory saw its spin-off setting Superguy cited as illustrative of the potential of the Internet.[22] Another example is the furry-themed Tales from the Blind Pig created at the Transformation Story Archive, which differs from many amateur settings both by having an organized effort to maintain consistent canon[23] and by having seen at least limited publication.[24][25] Other early examples include the Dargon Project[26] and Devilbunnies.[27] The term refers to collaboration on writing works of fiction. ... Zork I is one of the first interactive fiction games, as well as being one of the first commercially sold. ... A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. ... An archive refers to a collection of records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP network of the same name. ... SFStory, a parody of the science fiction genre, is one of the first and currently longest lasting shared universes on the Internet. ... Superguy was originally a creative fiction writing group on the now-defunct UMNEWS mailing list service, which began in 1988. ... Furry fandom is a subculture distinguished by its enjoyment of anthropomorphic animal characters. ... The Transformation Story Archive (TSA) is a website that archives stories that feature a personal physical transformation, or feature its aftermath. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Devilbunnies are the focus of a shared universe story-writing group based on the Usenet newsgroup . ...

At least one publisher has introduced a division specifically for encouraging and handling shared universe fiction.[28] A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ...


  1. ^ Smith, Harvey L. (Jan 1958). "Contingencies of Professional Differentiation". The American Journal of Sociology 63 (4). 
  2. ^ Tannen, Deborah (1987). "Repetition in Conversation: Toward a Poetics of Talk". Language (63). 
  3. ^ Blackmoor, Brandon. FAQ: What is a "shared universe"?. RPG Library. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  4. ^ a b Burt, Stephen (Winter 2005). ""Blown To Atoms or Reshaped At Will": Recent Books About Comics". College Literature. 
  5. ^ Tipton, Scott (2003-04-23). And Then There Was One. Movie Poop Shoot. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  6. ^ Tipton, Scott (2004-07-14). Strength in Numbers. Movie Poop Shoot. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  7. ^ (2004-11-24) Marvel Encyclopedia Volume 6: Fantastic Four. Marvel Comics. ISBN 978-0785114802. 
  8. ^ Fowler, Brant W. (2006-06-05). Myth Conceptions: 'Summer Blockbusters'. Silver Bullet Comics. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  9. ^ Smith, Andy (2006-07-10). The Valiant Comics F.A.Q.. Sequart. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  10. ^ Lander, Randy. Negation War #1. The 4th Rail. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  11. ^ What is considered Star Trek "canon"?. Retrieved on 2006-11-25.
  12. ^ Saxton, Curtis (2005-10-22). Star Wars: Planets. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  13. ^ Star Trek: The Animated Series. Retrieved on 2006-01-09.
  14. ^ Gary Russell two. BBC (2004-01-01). Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  15. ^ Smith, Robert F.W.. The Gallifrey Chronicles. Outpost Gallifrey. Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  16. ^ Scribner, Ted et al.. Novel Collaborations. Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  17. ^ Ladies and Gentlemen, Dr. Larry Niven. Slashdot (2003-03-10). Retrieved on 2007-01-13.
  18. ^ Tierney, Richard L. (2004-09-09). The Derleth Mythos. Nightscapes. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  19. ^ Cherryh, C.J.. C.J.Cherryh's Book Order Page. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  20. ^ Living Greyhawk. Wizards of the Coast. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  21. ^ Heroes of Rokugan. Retrieved on 2007-01-14.
  22. ^ Engst, Adam C. and William Dickson (1994-01-15). Internet Explorer Kit. Hayden Books. ISBN 978-1568300894. 
  23. ^ "About the TBP Setting". Anthro. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  24. ^ "Index". Anthro. Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  25. ^ (Apr/May 2002) "Stories". TSAT: Transformation Stories, Art, Talk (21). Retrieved on 2006-12-03. 
  26. ^ Carlson, Jeff, ed. (1995). The World's Best Online Fiction 1995 (pdf). eSCENE. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  27. ^ Miller, Steve (Jul 1994). "alt.pave.the.earth". Wired (2.07). Retrieved on 2007-05-13. 
  28. ^ The Shared Universe Project. Windstorm Creative (2006-12-27). Retrieved on 2007-01-14.

  Results from FactBites:
Shared universe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1386 words)
A Shared universe is a literary technique in which several different authors share settings and characters which appear in their respective works of fiction, often referring to events taking place in the other writers' stories.
Shared fictional universes tend to appear more frequently in fantasy and science fiction than in other genres.
From time to time, two comics publishers may jointly produce a "crossover" in which characters from their respective universes interact; these stories are commonly presented as "out of continuity" to avoid entangling the universes.
Marvel Universe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3598 words)
Though the concept of a shared universe was not new or unique to comics in 1961, writer/editor Stan Lee, together with several artists including Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko, created a series of titles where events in one book would have repercussions in another title and serialized stories would show characters grow and change.
The New Universe was intended to be a more realistic, self-contained superhero universe, but due to a combination of a lack of editorial support and a general disinterest on the part of the readers, the line was cancelled after three years.
This concept is fairly rare; another example of a fictional universe that seeks to use all types of fantastic elements is the DC Universe.
  More results at FactBites »



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