FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sharecropping" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sharecropping
Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. (1941)

Sharecropping is a system of agriculture or agricultural production in which a landowner allows a sharecropper to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have encompassed the system. Some are governed by tradition, others by law. Legal contract systems such as the Italian mezzadria, [1] the French métayage, and Spanish aparcería[2] occur widely. Islamic law contains a traditional “musaqat” sharecropping agreement[3] for the cultivation of orchards. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3500x2552, 711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sharecropping ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3500x2552, 711 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sharecropping ... Chopping cotton on rented land near White Plains, Greene County, Ga. ... The Metayage system (Fr. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... An orchard is an intentional planting of trees maintained for food production. ...

Contents

Overview

Sharecropping typically involves a relatively rich land owner and a less wealthy or poor agricultural worker or farmer; although the reverse relationship, in which a poor landlord leases out to a rich tenant[4] also exists. Sharecropping has benefits and costs for both the owners and the tenants(workers). It encourages the worker to remain on the land throughout the harvest season to work their land, solving the harvest rush problem. At the same time, since the tenant pays in shares of his harvest, owners are not insulated from the effects of bad harvest; this makes it markedly more risky to owners than currency-rent systems. Because tenants benefit from larger harvests, they have an incentive to work harder and invest in better methods than in a slave plantation system. However, by dividing the working force into many individual workers, large farms no longer benefit from economies of scale. On the whole, sharecropping is not as economically efficient as the gang agriculture of slave plantations. The advantages of sharecropping in other situations include enabling access for women[5] to arable land where ownership rights are vested only in men. The system occurred extensively in colonial Africa, Scotland, and Ireland, and came into wide use in the Southeastern United States, including Appalachia during the Reconstruction era (1865-1877). After the American Civil War many planters had ample land but little money for wages. At the same time most of the former slaves were uneducated and impoverished. The solution was the sharecropping system, which continued the workers in the routine of cotton cultivation under rigid supervision. Economic features of the system were gradually extended to poor white farmers.[6] Use of the sharecropper system has also been identified in England[6](as the practice of "farming to halves"). It is still used in many rural poor areas today, notably in Pakistan, and in India. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the country. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Although there is a perception that sharecropping was exploitative, “Evidence from around the world suggests that sharecropping is often a way for differently endowed enterprises to pool resources to mutual benefit, overcoming credit restraints and helping to manage risk.” [7]


It can have more than a passing similarity to serfdom or indenture, and it has therefore been seen as an issue of land reform in contexts such as the Mexican Revolution. However, Nyambara states that Eurocentric historiographical devices like ‘feudalism’ or ‘slavery’ often qualified by weak prefixes like ‘semi-’ or ‘quasi-’ are not helpful in understanding the antecedents and functions of sharecropping in Africa. [7] Serf redirects here. ... An indentured servant is a laborer under contract of an employer for some period of time, usually three to seven years, in exchange for their transportation, food, drink, clothing, lodging and other necessities. ... -1... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ...


Sharecropping agreements can however be made fairly, as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, paid in arrears. There are three different types of contracts. A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. ... share fucking is a system of farming in which share fuckers make use of agricultural assets they do not own in return for some percentage of the profits. ...

  1. Workers can rent plots of land from the owner for a certain sum and keep the whole crop.
  2. Workers work on the land and earn a fixed wage from the land owner but keep none of the crop.
  3. Workers can neither work for nor get paid from the land owner, so the worker and land owner each keep a share of the crop.

Sharecropping by region

Africa

In colonial Africa, sharecropping was a feature of the agricultural life. White farmers, who owned most of the land, were frequently unable to work the whole of their farm for lack of capital. They therefore allowed black farmers to work the excess on a sharecropping basis. The 1913 Natives Land Act outlawed the ownership of land by blacks in areas designated for white ownership and effectively reduced the status of most sharecroppers to tenant farmers and then to farm laborers. In the 1960s, generous subsidies to white farmers meant that most farmers could afford to work their entire farms, and sharecropping faded out. A tenant farmer is one who resides on and farms land owned by a landlord. ...


The arrangement has reappeared in other African countries in modern times, including Ghana[8] and Zimbabwe.[9]


United States

Although the sharecropping system is thought of as a post Civil War development, it existed in antebellum Mississippi, especially in the northeastern part of the state, an area with few slaves or plantations,[8] and most probably also existed in Tennessee. [9] This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ...


After the Civil War planters had to borrow money to produce crops. Interest rates on these loans were around 15%. The indebtedness of cotton planters increased through the early 1940s, and the average plantation fell into bankruptcy about every twenty years. It is against this backdrop that owners maintained their concentrated ownership of the land.[10] This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


In Reconstruction-era United States, sharecropping worked in collaboration with convict lease to re-employ former slaves in jobs similar to those performed prior to their emancipation. To avoid the worst situation of becoming convict laborers, farmers were forced to enter into extremely disadvantageous sharecrop agreements that generally left them permanently in debt to the landowner.[citation needed] This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Sharecrop farmers were loaned a plot of land to work, and in exchange owed the owner a share of the crop at the end of the season. Farmers planted land to corn and cotton. Those who had to borrow mule and plow from the landowner paid the landowner half of each crop and were regarded as 'sharecroppers', proper. Those who owned their own mule and plow (a significant economic investment given that the mule had to be fed year-round) were called 'tenant farmers', and paid the landowner 1/3 and 1/4 of each crop, respectively. A significant class distinction was made between the two, with both being fringed by 'white trash' (sharecroppers who often moved frequently and were considered unreliable) on the lower end and yeoman farmers (those who owned their own land) on the upper.


The sharecropper was required to purchase seed, tools and fertilizer, as well as food and clothing, on credit at the plantation store. When the harvest came, the sharecrop farmer would harvest the whole crop and sell his or her portion to the planter at a fixed price. By the time all the debts owed and proceeds made were tallied up the farmer was lucky to break even. The farmer did not typically sell his share of the crop directly to the landowner, but to the nearest cotton gin. Nevertheless most farmers were uneducated and were conscious of low social standing, making it easy for them to be cheated; many were actually innumerate. The poorest farmers subsisted on almost nothing but corn, a food which is deficient in niacin, and this accounted for the high incidence of pellagra in the South.


Historically, whites made up two thirds or more of the sharecroppers in Tennessee.[10] In Mississippi, by 1900, 36% of all white farmers were tenants or sharecroppers, while 85 percent of black farmers were. [11] Sharecropping continued to be a significant institution in Tennessee agriculture for more than sixty years after the Civil War, peaking in importance in the early 1930s, when sharecroppers operated approximately one-third of all farm units in the state. [12] At one point in the early 20th century, there were 5.5 million white tenant, sharecrop, and laborers in the United States, and 3 million blacks. [11]


The situation of landless farmers who challenged the system in the rural south as late as 1941 has been described thus: "he is at once a target subject of ridicule and vitriolic denunciation; he may even be waylaid by hooded or unhooded leaders of the community, some of whom may be public officials. If a white man persists in “causing trouble” , the night riders may pay him a visit, or the officials may haul him into court; if he is a Negro, a mob may hunt him down.” [12]


Effects of the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act of the New Deal virtually brought the institution of sharecropping to an end in the United States. [13][14] The Agricultural Adjustment Act (or AAA) (Pub. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ...


During this time there were sharecroppers' strikes in Arkansas and the Bootheel of Missouri in the 1930's. The documentary "Oh Freedom After While" further examines the 1939 Missouri Sharecroppers' Strike. [13]


Sharecropping agreements

Typically, a sharecropping agreement would specify which party was expected to cover certain expenses, like seed, fertilizer, weed control, irrigation district assessments, and fuel. Sometimes the sharecropper covers those costs, but they expect a larger share of the crop in return. The agreement should also indicate whether the sharecropper would use his own equipment to raise the crops, or use the landlord's equipment. The agreement should also indicate whether the landlord will pick up his or her share of the crop in the field, or whether the sharecropper will deliver it (and where it will be delivered.)


For example, A landowner may have a sharecropper farming an irrigated hayfield. The sharecropper uses his own equipment, and covers all the costs of fuel and fertilizer. The landowner pays the irrigation district assessments and does the irrigating himself. The sharecropper cuts and bales the hay, and delivers one-third of the baled hay to the landlord's feedlot, about ten miles round trip. The sharecropper might also leave the landlord's share of the baled hay in the field, where the landlord would fetch it when he wanted hay.


Another arrangement could have the sharecropper delivering the landlord's share of the product to market, in which case the landlord would get his share in the form of the sale proceeds. In that case, the agreement should indicate the timing of the delivery to market, which can have a significant effect on the ultimate price of some crops. The market timing decision should probably be decided shortly before harvest, so that the landlord has more complete information about the area's harvest, to determine whether the crop will earn more money immediately after harvest, or whether it should be stored until the price rises. Market timing can entail storage costs as well, for some crops.


When negotiating a crop sharing arrangement, you should consider:


1. What crop(s) will the sharecropper produce? 2. Who will pay for fuel? 3. Who will pay for seed? 4. Who owns the farming equipment the sharecropper will use? 5. Who will provide weed control, or other cultivation costs related to the crop? 6. How does the landlord want to receive her share, in kind or in cash? 7. If in cash, when will the crop be delivered to market (and to what market?) 7. If in kind, where will the crop be delivered to the landlord? 8. Who will provide the labor to irrigate? 9. Who will pay the irrigation district assessments? (and on a related note, who will vote the landowner's shares at irrigation district meetings?) 10. Are there other costs related to this particular farming operation that should be allocated in the agreement?


Farmer's cooperatives

Cooperative farming exists in many forms throughout the United States, Canada, and the rest of the world. Various arrangements can be made through collective bargaining or purchasing to get the best deals on seeds, supplies, and equipment. For example, members of a farmer's cooperative who cannot afford heavy equipment of their own can lease them for nominal fees from the cooperative. Farmers cooperatives can also allow groups of small farmers and dairymen to manage pricing and prevent undercutting by competitors. Cooperative farming is a system, in which farmers pool their resources for cooperation in certain areas, such as purchase of supplies (seeds, fertilizers, etc. ...


See also

share fucking is a system of farming in which share fuckers make use of agricultural assets they do not own in return for some percentage of the profits. ... Sharemilking is a style of form of sharefarming applied to the dairy industry. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ Sources include [3] accessed June 19, 2006
  4. ^ Bellemare, Marc F., Insecure Land Rights and Reverse Share Tenancy in Madagascar Working Paper, Duke University
  5. ^ Bruce, John W.- Country Profiles of Land Tenure: Africa, 1996 (Lesotho, page 221) Research Paper No. 130, December 1998, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison accessed at [4] June 19, 2006
  6. ^ Griffiths, L. Farming to Halves: A New Perspective on a Miserable System in Rural History Today, Issue 6:2004 p.5, accessed at British Agricultural History Society [5] June 14, 2006
  7. ^ (October 1998) in Ernst Lutz: Agriculture and the Environment: Perspectives on Sustainable Rural Development (PDF), Washington, DC: The World Bank, 32. ISBN 0-8213-4249-5. 
  8. ^ Leonard, R. and Longbottom, J., Land Tenure Lexicon: A glossary of terms from English and French speaking West Africa International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London, 2000
  9. ^ Pius S Nyambara (2003). Rural Landlords, Rural Tenants, and the Sharecropping Complex in Gokwe, Northwestern Zimbabwe, 1980s-2002. Retrieved on 2006-05-18., Centre for Applied Social Sciences, University of Zimbabwe and Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison, March 2003 (200Kb PDF)
  10. ^ Sharecroppers All. Arthur F Raper and Ira De A. Reid. Chapell Hill 1941. The University of North Carolina Press. Pages 35-36
  11. ^ The Rockabilly Legends; They Called It Rockabilly Long Before they Called It Rock and Roll by Jerry Naylor and Steve Halliday DVD
  12. ^ Sharecroppers All. Arthur F Raper and Ira De A. Reid. Chapell Hill 1941. The University of North Carolina Press.
  13. ^ http://www.newsreel.org/nav/title.asp?tc=CN0064
Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Logo of the World Bank The World Bank Group is a group of five international organizations responsible for providing finance to countries for purposes of development and poverty reduction, and for encouraging and safeguarding international investment. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
TN Encyclopedia: SHARECROPPING (464 words)
Technically defined, sharecropping is a land and labor arrangement whereby an individual or family receives a stipulated proportion of the crops produced on a particular plot of land in return for their labor on that same plot.
Sharecropping in postbellum tenancy, however, was far from an exclusively African American institution.
Sharecropping continued to be a significant institution in Tennessee agriculture for more than sixty years after the Civil War, peaking in importance in the early 1930s, when sharecroppers operated approximately one-third of all farm units in the state.
Sharecropping - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1549 words)
Sharecropping is a system of agricultural production where a landowner allows a sharecropper to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land.
Sharecropping agreements can however be made fairly, as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, paid in arrears.
Sharecropping became widespread as a response to economic upheaval caused by the emancipation of slaves and disenfranchisement of poor whites in the agricultural South during Reconstruction.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m