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Encyclopedia > Shardana

The Shardana or Sherden sea pirates are one of several groups of "Sea Peoples" who appear in fragmentary historical records (Egyptian inscriptions) for the Mediterranean region in the second millennium B.C.; little is known about them. The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramses III of the... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Ramesses II defeated them in his second year (1278 BCE), in a sea battle of the Mediterranean coast and subsequently incorporated many of these warriors for his personal guard. (N. Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, pp.250-253) Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya...


Connection with Sardinia

The Shardana were among the first of the peoples now categorized as "Sea Peoples" to appear in the historical record. They made their first appearance in the Amarna letters (mid 14th c. BCE), serving as part of an Egyptian garrison in Byblos, where they provided their services to the mayor, Rib Hadda (EA 81, EA 122, EA 123 in Moran 1992: 150-1, 201-2). They would appear next during the reign of Ramesses II (ruled 1279-1213 BCE), in the mid-13th century BCE. Ramesses tells us, in his Kadesh inscriptions, that he assimilated some of the Shardana into his own personal guard at the Battle of Kadesh. (Battle Inscriptions in Lichtheim 1976: 63ff). Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... Combatants New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli Strength ca. ...


The Shardana showed up in Egypt again during the reign of Merenptah (ruled 1213-1203 BCE), when they fought Egypt as part of a coalition of Sea Peoples (Redford 1992: 248-9), and again in the reign of Ramesses III, where they are featured prominently in the Medinet Habu reliefs as fighters alongside the Philistines. They are depicted both among the Sea Peoples and as allies of the Egyptians, distinguished by their horned helmets with a ball projecting from the middle, round shields, and large swords (Gardiner 1968: 196-7). That these were the same kind of horned helmets and shields of the warriors of the Nuragic culture in Sardinian is indicated by the finding of many little bronze Nuragic statues in the region, the so-called bronzetti sardi. Merneptah (occasionally: Merenptah) was pharaoh of Ancient Egypt (1213 – 1203 BC), the fourth ruler of the 19th Dynasty. ...


Adam Zertal (2001) proposes that the Sea Peoples, who have been connected by scholars with classical Sardinia (which is named after the Shardana), may have occupied certain sites of central Israel for a short period of time. This theory is based on a marginal similarity between unusual stone corridors and false domes built into the Iron Age I settlement at El-Ahwat and later architectural elements found on Sardinia. Zertal (2001: 228-230) theorizes that these sites may have been established for the Shardana by the Egyptians during the transitional period from the Late Bronze Age to the Iron Age. However, as Zertal points out, the resemblance between the Sardinian sites and El-Ahwat are marginal, and no Shardana pottery has turned up at the sites in Israel. The Israel sites are also far from the coast, which does not match the historical image of the Shardana as maritime people. Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: Sardegna; Sardinian: Sardigna or Sardinna) in the is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... el-Ahwat is the name of an archaeological site in the Manasseh region of Israel located 10 miles east of Caesarea. ... el-Ahwat is the name of an archaeological site in the Manasseh region of Israel located 10 miles east of Caesarea. ...


The Shardana ultimately derive from Ionia, in the central west coast of Anatolia, from which they migrated to Sardinia. Furthermore, recent studies by geneticists on the DNA of inhabitants of the inner areas of the island confirm the presence of elements which are in common with those of people from Anatolia, namely y-haplogroup G. Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (now in Turkey) on the Aegean Sea. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ...


These theoretical coincidences (enforced, as said, by linguistic considerations) could allow one to assume that a people of skilled sailors left the Eastern Mediterranean and established themselves in Sardinia. They very probably would have encountered some resistance on their way there. It is also possible that they were explorers. If so, it is likely that only a warrior people like the Shardana could have organised such an expedition.


See also

The Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramses III of the... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: Sardegna; Sardinian: Sardigna or Sardinna) in the is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... The History of Sardinia covers several millennia of civilization of this Mediterranean isle. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Shardana on the Web (840 words)
The Shardana were among the first of the peoples now categorized as "Sea Peoples" to appear in the historical record.
The Shardana showed up in Egypt again during the reign of Merenptah, when they fought Egypt as part of a coalition of Sea Peoples (Redford 1992: 248-9), and again in the reign of Ramesses III, where they are featured prominently in the Medinet Habu reliefs as fighters alongside the Philistines.
However, this idea is tied to the theory that the primary factor in the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age transition was massive pillaging and piracy on the part of certain groups in the Aegean (Redford 1992: 244).
Shardana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1190 words)
suggests that the Shardana were an important part of the bands of pirates that disrupted Aegean trade in the end of the 13th century, and that their raids contributed greatly to the collapse of the Mycenaean civilisation.
Guido suggests that the Shardana may ultimately derive from Ionia, in the central west coast of Anatolia, in the region of Hermos, east of the island of Chios.
If this is so, the Shardana, pushed by Hittite expansionism of the Late Bronze Age and prompted by the famine that affected this region of the Late Bronze Age may have been pushed to the Aegean islands where shortage of space led them to seek adventure and expansion overseas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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