FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Shapur I
A coin of Shapur I.
A coin of Shapur I.

Shapur I, son of Ardashir I (226–241), was King of Persia from 241 to 272. The Persian legend which makes him the son of an Arsacid princess is not historical. Image File history File links Shapur_i. ... Image File history File links Shapur_i. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... Events Roman emperor Aurelian reconquers the kingdom of Palmyra (Egypt and large parts of Asia Minor), forcing queen Zenobia to flee to Parthia. ... Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ...

Contents


Co-rulership

The first scene outside the arch, crowning ceremony of Ardashir I and his son Shapur I.
Enlarge
The first scene outside the arch, crowning ceremony of Ardashir I and his son Shapur I.

Shapur I was the son of Ardashir I and Lady Myrôd. He participated in his father's campaign against the Arsacids. Ardashir I "judged him the gentlest, wisest, bravest and ablest of all his children" and nominated him as his successor in an assembly of the magnates. He appears in Ardashir I's Sasanian Investiture reliefs at Naqš-e Rajab (q.v) and Firuzâbâd as the heir apparent (Hinz, 1969, pp 56ff and passim). He later shared rulership with his father. Bal'ami states that "Ardashir I placed with his own hand his own crown upon Shapur I's head." Mas'udi confirms this, adding that Ardashir I then retired to serve God and lived for a year or longer. The testimony of the Cologne Mani Codex that in Mani's twenty-fourth year, i.e. in 240, Ardashir I "subjugated the city of Hatra and King Shapur I, his son, placed on his head the great (royal) diadem." This codex also indicates a period of synarchy. In late 242, the Emperor Gordian III (238–244) sent a letter from Antioch in Syria to the senate claiming that he had removed the threat "of Persian Kings" (reges persarum) from the city. This means that in 242 Persia had two kings. Indeed, Ardashir I's later coins continues his usual reverse type of an elaborate fire altar and the legend: "Fire of Ardaxštar," but it portrays him facing a youthful prince. This symbolically represents Shapur I, and includes a new legend, "Divine Shapur King of Iran whose seed is from gods." Shapur I's own coins show him wearing his famous mural crown and a fire altar flanked by two attendants. Clearly, Ardashir I issued that series when he appointed Shapur co-regent. A rock-relief at Salmâs in Atropatekan (today known as Azarbaijan) province depicting two horsemen both wearing Ardashir I's lower-type crown also dates from this period of synarchy. Another relief at Dârâbgerd represents a victory of Shapur I over the Romans, but the King wears Ardashir I's crown, thereby symbolizing the shared victory of both father and son. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (378x642, 588 KB) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (378x642, 588 KB) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Investiture, from the Latin (preposition in and verb vestire, dress from vestis robe) is a rather general term for the formal installation of an incumbent (heir, elect of nominee) in public office, especially by taking possession of its insignia. ... Mani may refer to: Mani Peninsula in Greece Maní, Yucatán, a small city in Yucatán, Mexico Mani, Evros, a town in the northeastern part of the Evros Prefecture in Greece Mani (prophet), a third-century Persian prophet, the founder of the dualistic Manichaean religion, which borrowed eclectically from... Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ... Gordian III Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225-244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman emperor from 238 to 244. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια ή επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia of Pieria (Suedia, now Samanda... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ...


Accession

This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and it is believed to depict either Shapur I or his father, Ardashir I.
This Sassanid relief is located near Salmas, and it is believed to depict either Shapur I or his father, Ardashir I.

The date of Shapur I's coronation has been debated. The testimony of his courtier Âbnun that the Romans marched against Persia "in the 3rd year of Shapur I, King of Kings," proves that Shapur I's accession was in 241. This supports Henning's calculation from the evidence of Bišâpur's inscription that separates Ardashir I's royal fire from that of his son by 17 years. He further interpreted from the Manichean report that the day of Shapur I's coronation "was Sunday, the first of Nisan, when the sun was in Aries" with reference to Sunday 12 April, 241. A magnificently executed rock-relief at Naqš-e Rajab symbolically commemorates Shapur I's investiture: Ohrmazd, on horseback, offers the diademed ring of royalty to Shapur I, who is likewise mounted, but his figure has since been mutilated. Image File history File links Salmas_relief. ... Image File history File links Salmas_relief. ... Salamas is the district were the Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East, Mar Benyamin Shimon was massacered by the Kurdish leader Simko. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ...


War against the Roman Empire

Ardashir I had, towards the end of his reign, renewed the war against the Roman Empire. Shapur I conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and Carrhae and advanced into Syria. Timesitheus, father-in-law of the young emperor, Gordian III, drove him back and defeated him at the battle of Resaena in 243. Timesitheus died shortly afterward, and Philip the Arab (244–249) murdered Gordian III. Philip then concluded an ignominious peace with the Persians in 244. When the invasion of the Goths and the continuous elevation of new emperors after the death of Trajan Decius (251) brought the Roman Empire to dissolution, Shapur I resumed his attacks. For other senses of this name, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The newly excavated Church of Saint Jacob in Nisibis. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is an archeological site in present day southeastern Turkey, 24 miles (39 kilometers) southeast of Sanli Urfa. ... Gordian III Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225-244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman emperor from 238 to 244. ... The Battle of Resaena was fought in 243 between the forces of Gordian III and Persia. ... Events Gordian III defeats Shapur I of Persia at Resaena Births Deaths Categories: 243 ... This coin struck under Philip to celebrate Saeculum Novum bears, on the reverse, a temple devoted to Roma goddess. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Events Roman Emperor Gordian III dies under unclear circumstances while in war against Shapur I of Persia. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius (201-251), Roman emperor (249 - 251), the first of the long succession of distinguished men from the Illyrian provinces, was born at Budalia near Sirmium in lower Pannonia. ... Events July 1 – In the Battle of Abrittus, the Goths defeat the Romans; emperors Decius and Herennius Etruscus are killed. ...


Shapur I conquered Armenia, invaded Syria, and plundered Antioch. Eventually, Emperor Valerian (253–260) marched against him, but was taken prisoner in the Roman-controlled province of Edessa when he attempted to meet for negotiations in 260. Shapur I advanced into Asia Minor, but Ballista beat him back. Septimius Odenathus, prince of Palmyra, rose in his rear, defeated the Persian army, reconquered Carrhae and Nisibis, captured the royal harem, and twice invested Ctesiphon (263265) in Khvarvaran province (in present-day Iraq). Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistÄ“s, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient weapon, similar to a giant crossbow, which ejected heavy darts or spherical stone projectiles of various sizes. ... Septimius Odaenathus, or Odenatus (Greek: (Hodainathos), Palmyrene אחינל = little ear), the Latinized form of Odainath, was a famous prince of Palmyra, in the second half of the 3rd century AD, who succeeded in recovering the Roman East from the Persians and restoring it to the Empire. ... Palmyra was the name of an ancient city in Syria, now called Tadmor. ... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... Events Wei Yuandi abdicates, end of the China. ... Khvārvarān, (Modern Iraq)From the Fall of Sasanian Dynasty to the Arab Occupations and Umayyads In CE 600 the country which in our modern time known as Iraq was a province of the Iranian Empire, to which it had belonged to Iran since Cyrus the Great. ...

Shapur I receives the homage of Valerian (Standing, his hand is hidden in his sleeve as the sign of submission) and Philip the Arab(on his kneels), the Roman Emperors he defeated and took prisoner.
Shapur I receives the homage of Valerian (Standing, his hand is hidden in his sleeve as the sign of submission) and Philip the Arab(on his kneels), the Roman Emperors he defeated and took prisoner.

Shapur I was unable to resume the offensive and lost Armenia again. According to Persian tradition, he conquered the great fortress of Hatra in the Mesopotamian desert. Roman emperor Valerian prisoner kneels in front of the Persian king Shapur I. Relief in Naqš-i Rustam. ... Roman emperor Valerian prisoner kneels in front of the Persian king Shapur I. Relief in Naqš-i Rustam. ... This coin struck under Philip to celebrate Saeculum Novum bears, on the reverse, a temple devoted to Roma goddess. ... Hatra (al-aar الحضر) is an ancient ruined city in the former Iranian province of Khvarvaran, today part of Iraq, located at 35°34′ N 42°42′ E. It was an important fortified city of the Iranian Parthian Empire, and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire. ...


Capture of Valerian

One of the great achievements of Shapur I's reign was the capture of the Roman Emperor Valerian. In the valley of Istakhr (near Persepolis), under the tombs of the Achaemenids at Naqsh-e Rustam, Shapur I is represented on horseback wearing royal armour and crown. Before him kneels Philip the Arab, in Roman dress, asking for grace. In his right hand the king grasps the uplifted arms of the Emperor Valerian (by mistake many think that the man on his kneels is Valerian); one his hands is hidden in his sleeve as the sign of submission. The same scene is represented on the rocks near the ruins of the towns Darabjird and Shapur in Persia. Shapur I is said to have publicly shamed Valerian by using the Roman Emperor as a footstool when mounting his horse. After Valerian's execution, his skin was removed, filled with dung, and displayed publicly as a symbol of Shapur I's triumph. Istakhr(Ǐ-stáxǜr), also known as Stakhr, is a city located in southern Iran close to Persepolis and Zohak. ... After 2500 years, the ruins of Persepolis still inspire visitors from far and near. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Næqš-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ... This coin struck under Philip to celebrate Saeculum Novum bears, on the reverse, a temple devoted to Roma goddess. ... Valerian on a coin celebrating goddess Fortuna, associated with health and wealth. ...


Others say that Shapur sent Valerian and some of his army to the city of Bishapur where they lived in relatively good condition. Shapur used the remaining soldiers in engineering and development plans. Also, in all stone carvings, Valerian is respected and never on his kneels. City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ...


Builder of cities

Shapur I left other reliefs and rock inscriptions. A relief at Nakshi-Rajab near Persepolis, is accompanied by a Greek translation. Here Shapur I calls himself "the Mazdayasnian (worshipper of Ahuramazda), the God Sapores, King of Kings of the Aryans, Iranians, and non-Aryans, of divine descent, son of the Mazdayasnian, the god Artaxares, King of Kings of the Aryans, grandson of the God-King Papak." Another long inscription at Hajjiabad (Istakhr) mentions the King's exploits in archery in the presence of his nobles. Ahura Mazda (Persian هرمز (Hormoz) also transcripted as Ormazad, Ormuzd, Hormuz, Ormus, Ohrmizd) - The Wise Lord - is the god of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. ... Aryan is an English language word derived from the Indian Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- and aryan. ...


From his titles we learn that Shapur I claimed the sovereignty over the whole Earth, although in reality his domain extended little farther than that of Ardashir I. Earth (often referred to as The Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth in order of size. ...


Shapur I built the great town Gundishapur near the old Achaemenian capital of Susa, and increased the fertility of this rich district by a barrage built by the Roman prisoners through the Karun river near Shushter. It is still called Band-i-Kaisar, "the mole of the Caesar." He is also responsible for building the city of Bishapur, also built by Roman soldiers captured after the defeat of Valerian in 260. Under his reign, the prophet Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, began his preaching in Persia, and the King himself seems to have favoured his ideas. The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Mani (in Persian مانی) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parantage in Babylon, Mesopotamia which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...


Friend to the Jews

Shmuel, one of the most famous of the Amoraim of "Bavel" (Babylonia), was occasionally referred to as Shvor Malka, which is the Aramaic form of the name of the Persian King, by Shapur I, with whom Shmuel was quite friendly. Because of this friendship, many advantages were gained for the Jewish community. In the Old Testament, Samuel or Shmuel (שְׁמוּאֵל Name/Heard of God, Standard Hebrew Šəmuʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Šəmûʾēl) is a leader of ancient Israel. ... Amora, plural Amoraim, (from the Hebrew root amar to say or tell over), were renowned Jewish scholars who said or told over the teachings of the Oral law, from about 200 to 500 CE in Babylonia and Palestine. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


See also

City of Bishapur Another view of Bishapur Bishapur (or Bishâpûr) is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. ... Location of Neyshapur Tomb of Omar Khayyám, Neishabur Tomb of Kamal-ol-Molk, Neishabur. ...

References

Preceded by:
Ardashir I
Sassanid Ruler
241272
Succeeded by:
Hormizd I

  Results from FactBites:
 
SHAPUR - LoveToKnow Article on SHAPUR (903 words)
SHAPUR I. 241-272), son of Ardashir I. The Persian legend which makes him the son of an Arsacid princess is not historical.
Shapur advanced into Asia Minor, but was beaten by Ballista; and now Odaenathus (Odainath), prince of Palmyra, rose in his rear, defeated the Persian army, reconquered Carrhae and Nisibis, captured the royal harem, and twice invested Ctesiphon (263-265).
Shapur had conducted great hosts of captives from the Roman territory into his dominions, most of whom were settled in Susiana.
Station Information - Shapur I of Persia (329 words)
Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272.
Shapur advanced into Asia Minor, but was beaten by Ballista ; and now Septimius Odenathus, prince of Palmyra, rose in his rear, defeated the Persian army, reconquered Carrhae and Nisibis, captured the royal harem, and twice invested Ctesiphon (263 - 265).
In the valley of Istakhr (near Persepolis), under the tombs of the Achaemenids at Nakshi Rustam, Shapur is represented on horseback, in the royal armour, with the crown on his head; before him kneels Valerian, in Roman dress, asking for grace.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m