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Encyclopedia > Shapsugs

Shapsugs (Russian: Шапсуги; self-designation: шапсыг, or Shapsyg) are a people of the Adyghe branch, who live in Tuapsinsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Lazarevsky City District of Sochi, and in the Republic of Adygea in Russia. They speak a dialect of the Adyghe language. According to some indirect data, there were over four thousand Shapsugs in Russia in 1926 but the Shapsug people were not enumerated as a separate group in Russian Censuses until 2002 when the population was recorded as 3,231. The Shapsugs are Sunni Muslims. The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkes). Shapsug National District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ... Sochi Coat of Arms, adopted on 15 June 1967 Sochi (Russian: Со́чи) is the most popular Russian resort, situated in the Krasnodar Krai, near the Russian border with Abkhazia, Georgia. ... The Republic of Adygea (Russian: ; Adyghe: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. ... Adyghe (адыгэбзэ adygebze, adÉ™găbză) is one of the two official languages of the Federal Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Russian Census may refer to: Russian Empire Census (1897), the only complete population census conducted in Imperial Russia Russian Census (1920) Russian Census (2002), the only population census conducted in the post-Soviet Russia Russian Census (2010), Russian population census scheduled to start in October 2010 Soviet Census Category: ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


The Shapsugs used to make up one of the biggest groups of the Black Sea Adyghe (причерноморские адыги; today's Adyghe people). They inhabited the region between the Dzhugba and Shakhe Rivers (the so called Maly Shapsug, or Little Shapsug) and high-altitude mountainous areas of the northern slopes of the Caucasus Range along the Antkhir, Abin, Afips, Bakan, Ships and other rivers (Bolshoy Shapsug, or Greater Shapsug). NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Contents

History

The Shapsyghs/Shapsighs/Shapsyghs are known to have supported the Adyghe in their struggle against the Crimean Khanate. During the Caucasian War, they were one of the most stubborn enemies of Imperial Russia, joining Shamil's alliance (which would last until 1859). In late 1860, a Majlis was assembled, which would unite the Shapsyghs, Ubykhs, and Natukhais. In 1864, a major part of the Shapsugs and other Adyghes moved to Turkey due to the coming of the Russian army into the region (see Muhajir), where it would be partially assimilated or blended into the Cherkess community. Some 2,000 Shapsyghs remained in the Caucasus. The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Imam Shamil of Chechnya Imam Shamil (1797 - March 1871) was a Daghestani Avar political and religious leader of the Muslims of the Northern Caucasus. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The Ubykh people are a group who spoke the Northwest Caucasian Ubykh language, up until 1992. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Muhajirism was the emigration of Muslim indigenous peoples of the Caucasus into the Ottoman Empire and Middle East following the Caucasian War. ... The Circassians (English equivalent of the ) are peoples of the Northwest Caucasus region. ...


In 1924, the Bolsheviks established the Shapsygh National Raion/Region with Tuapse as its administrative center (eventually moved to settlements of Krasnoaleksandrovskoye and then Lazarevskoye). In 1945, the Shapsygh National Rayon was transformed into the Lazarevsky Rayon of the Krasnodar Krai. In 1990, the first congress of the Shapsug people took place, where they would adopt a declaration on the reinstatement of the Shapsygh National Rayon. On June 12, 1992, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation passed a resolution on the establishment of the Shapsygh National Rayon. Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tuapse (Russian: , Adyghe: ТIуапсэ) is a town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the northeast shores of the Black Sea. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


Culture

The traditional Shapsug culture had much in common with the Adyghe culture. The Shapsugs were engaged in agriculture, cattle- and horse breeding, gardening, viticulture and bee keeping. In pre-Islamic times, the Shapsugs worshiped gods common among all the Adyghe peoples – Shible (god of thunder and lightning), Sozeresh (god of fertility), Yemish, Akhin and Khakustash (protectors of cattle breeding), Tlepsh (god of blacksmithing) etc. The Shapsugs used to perform the Khantseguashe ceremony of rain calling during droughts by carrying a dressed doll through the aul and then drowning it in the river. wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) refers to the cultivation of grapes, often for use in the production of wine. ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ... A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban or environmental water needs. ... An aoul is a type of fortified village found throughout the Caucasus mountains, especially in Dagestan. ...


Notable people

  • Karzeg Sait Bey (1887-1920) [1]

External link

  • Official site (Russian/Adyghe)

 
 

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