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Encyclopedia > Shapeshifting
Tsarevna Frog by Viktor Vasnetsov: a frog metamorphoses into a princess
Tsarevna Frog by Viktor Vasnetsov: a frog metamorphoses into a princess

Shapeshifting is a common theme in folklore, as well as in science fiction and fantasy. In its broadest sense, it is a change in the physical form or shape of a person or animal. Other terms include metamorphosis, morphing, transformation, or transmogrification. Shapeshifting refers to a change in the shape or form of a person or creature. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2220x1640, 1325 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2220x1640, 1325 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Viktor Vasnetsov The Frog Tsarevna 1918 The Frog Princess is a fairy tale that exists in many versions from several countries. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...


There is no settled agreement on the terminology. Still, the most common usages are:

  • shapeshifting indicates changes that are temporary[1]
  • metamorphosis indicates changes that are lasting[2]
  • transformation indicates changes that are externally imposed[3]
  • Transmogrification suggests either a internally physical, mental, and or somewhat spiritual transformation as makie from Wicked City went through or a horrific (and somewhat asymmetrical) physical transformation as most of makie's fellow demons underwent.

Shapeshifting is distinguished from natural processes such as aging or metamorphosis (despite shared use of the term), the body contortions of animals such as the Mimic Octopus, and illusory changes. Instead, shapeshifting involves physical changes such as alterations of age, gender, race, or general appearance or changes between human form and that of an animal, plant, or inanimate object. Antonym of psychical. ... Look up mental in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up spiritual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wicked City can refer to; Animation; Wicked City or Yoju Toshi (1987) a Japanese animated film by Ninja Scroll director Yoshiaki Kawajiri Wicked City (1926) a black and white silent animation released in 1926. ... Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... A cicada in the process of shedding. ... Binomial name Thaumoctopus mimicus Norman & Hochberg, 2005 The Indonesian Mimic Octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) is a species of octopus that has the uncanny ability to mimic several other sea creatures. ... For other uses, see illusion (disambiguation). ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Themes in shapeshifting

"Circe" by John William Waterhouse, with men she has trapped in animal form

The most important aspect of shape-shifting, thematically, is whether the transformation is voluntary. Circe transforms intruders to her island into swine, and Ged, in A Wizard of Earthsea, becomes a hawk to escape an evil wizard's stronghold. A werewolf's transformation, driven by internal forces, is as hideous as that which Circe enforces, and when Minerva transforms Cornix into a crow, Ovid put into Cornix's mouth that "the virgin goddess feels pity for a virgin and she helped me" because her new form enabled her to escape rape at Neptune's hands. When a form is taken on involuntarily, the thematic effect is one of confinement and restraint; the person is bound to the new form. In extreme cases, such as petrifaction, the character is entirely disabled. Voluntary forms, on the other hand, are means of escape and liberation; even when the form is not undertaken to effect a literal escape, the abilities specific to the form, or the disguise afforded by it, allow the character to act in a manner previously impossible. Image File history File links John_William_Waterhouse_-_Circe_(The_Sorceress). ... Image File history File links John_William_Waterhouse_-_Circe_(The_Sorceress). ... John William Waterhouse. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... Ged is the main protagonist in Ursula Le Guins Earthsea book series. ... A Wizard of Earthsea, first published in 1968, is the first of a series of books written by Ursula K. Le Guin and set in her fantasy archipelago of Earthsea. ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... Cornix is a character in Ovids Metamorphoses. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Neptune is usually depicted with a trident, as seen here in this statue by Jean de Boulogne in Bologna, Italy. ... Petrified wood In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone or a similar substance. ...


Hence, in fairy tales, a prince who is forced into a bear's shape (as in East of the Sun and West of the Moon) is prisoner, but a princess who takes on a bear's shape to flee (as in The She-Bear) escapes with her new shape.[4] A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... East of the Sun and West of the Moon is a Norwegian fairy tale, collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. ... The She-Bear is an Italian literary fairy tale, written by Giambattista Basile in The Pentamerone. ...


Shapeshifting may be used as a plot device, as when Puss In Boots tricks the ogre into changing into a mouse so he may eat him; it may also include a symbolic significance, as when the Beast's transformation at the end of Beauty and the Beast indicates Beauty's ability to accept him despite his appearance.[5] A plot device is a person or an object introduced to a story to affect or advance the plot. ... Gustave Dor s 19th century engraving of le chat bott Puss in Boots is a European folktale collected by Charles Perrault in his Contes de ma m re lOye (Mother Goose Tales), and earlier in 1634, by Giambattista Basile as Gagliuso. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ...


In modern fantasy, more than in folklore, the extent to which the change affects the mind can be important. Poul Anderson, in Operation Chaos, has the werewolf observe that taking on wolf-form can simplify his thoughts. This can be more dangerous in other writers' works; J.K. Rowling observed that a wizard who became a rat had a rat's brain (although the Animagus talent bypasses this problem), and in her Earthsea books, Ursula K. Le Guin depicts an animal form as slowly transforming the wizard's mind, so that the dolphin, or bear, or other creature forgets it was human and can not change back, a voluntary shapeshifting becoming an imprisoning metamorphosis.[6] Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... For the CIA intelligence project, see Operation CHAOS. Operation Chaos is a 1971 science fiction/fantasy fixup novel by Poul Anderson. ... Cover to 1991 Bantam Books paperback edition of A Wizard of Earthsea, illustrated by John Jude Palencar Earthsea is a fictional realm created by Ursula K. Le Guin for her short story The Word of Unbinding, published in 1964, but that became more famous in her novel A Wizard of... Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [ˌɜɹsələ ˌkɹobɜɹ ləˈgWɪn] (born October 21, 1929) is an American author. ...


Beyond this, the uses of shape-shifting, transformation, and metamorphosis in fiction are as protean as the forms the characters take on. Some are rare — Italo Calvino's "The Canary Prince" is a Rapunzel variant in which shape-shifting is used to gain access to the tower — but others are common motifs. Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ... The Canary Prince is an Italian fairy tale, the 18th tale in Italian Folktales by Italo Calvino. ...


Forms of Shapeshifting

There are many different styles of shapeshifting to be seen. One is the literal bodily alteration where the body physically changes. Depending on what the subject is changing into, the different parts of the body will shift, stretch, compress, and expand. This type of shapeshifting is often against the subject's will and can be a slow and painful process; articles of clothing are usually lost or destroyed, as in the case of the werewolf or the transformation of Eustace into a dragon in The Voyage of the Dawn Treader.


A second style is what can be called the 'fold over'. In this transformation, the subject new flesh forms overtop of their original. In a sense, it is almost as if they are wearing a body over another, and their old form is underneath. In Margaret Weis's Mistress of Dragons, an evil dragon called Marista steals human hearts and uses them to acquire a human form which she changes into in this way. This form of shapeshifting is most commonly painless but can be traumatic if the change was unintentional, as in the case of Link in the video game The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, where the hero is transformed into a wolf. Clothing is rarely lost in this process. In retransformation, the form will fold back and the subject will 'crawl' back out.


The third is the fastest and most convenient type of shapeshifting. In this style the subject in a sense has two separate bodies that they can freely switch between. Such being can be found in the Harry Potter series, in which they are known as Animagus. This change is always intentional and won't harm clothing, or any other article on the body. Injuries sustained on either of the bodies usually don't carry onto each other, although death of one of the forms usually results in the death of both forms and the individual in question. During the shapeshift, there sometimes is a moment when the subject seems to disappear.


Between the sexes

A particularly noteworthy aspect is where the person changes sex, from female to male, or vice versa. Fiction that makes use of such shape-shifting tends to invoke themes not normally found in other shapeshifting fiction.

Vertumnus, in the form of an old woman, wooing Pomona, by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout
Vertumnus, in the form of an old woman, wooing Pomona, by Gerbrand van den Eeckhout

It may be merely used as means of disguise: appearing as a woman allows a man to enter situations from which men are forbidden, and vice versa. Zeus disguised himself as Artemis in order to get close enough to Callisto that she could not escape when he turned himself into male form again, and raped her. More innocently, Vertumnus could not woo Pomona on his own; in the form of an old woman, he gained access to her orchard, where he persuaded her to marry him. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 1949 pixel, file size: 278 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shapeshifting ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 1949 pixel, file size: 278 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Shapeshifting ... Scholar with His Books Gerbrand van den Eeckhout (August 19, 1621 - October 22, 1674), was a Dutch painter of the Dutch Golden Age and a student of Rembrandt. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... In Jupiter and Callisto by François Boucher, Jupiter/Zeus takes the form of Diana/Artemis (Pushkin Museum, Moscow) This article is about the mythological figure. ... In Roman mythology, Vertumnus (Vortumnus, Vertimnus) was the god of seasons, change and plant growth, as well as gardens and fruit trees. ... Pomona, Nicolas Fouché, c. ...


In Norse mythology, however, both Odin and Loki taunt each other with having taken the form of females in the Lokasenna. The ultimate proof of this was that they had given birth and had nursed their offspring. It is not known what myths, if any, lie behind the charges against Odin, but Loki had taken the form of a mare and was the mother of Sleipnir. For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ... Lokasenna (Lokis flyting, Lokis wrangling, Lokis quarrel) is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ...


L. Frank Baum concluded The Marvelous Land of Oz with the revelation that the princess, Ozma, that the characters had been looking for had been turned into a boy while a baby and raised the boy Tip. Tip, one of the characters looking for Ozma, agreed to let himself be changed back into a girl but wished that he could be changed back into a boy if he did not like being a girl; Glinda decreed that he could be changed only into his proper form and, because as a sorceress, she disapproves of and does not perform shapeshifting magic, had it done by the evil witch Mombi, who knew how to do it.[7] Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 – May 6, 1919) was an American author, actor, and independent filmmaker best known as the creator, along with illustrator W. W. Denslow, of one of the most popular books ever written in American childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, better known today... The Marvelous Land of Oz, commonly shortened to The Land of Oz, published in 1904, is the second of L. Frank Baums books set in the Land of Oz, and the sequel to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... Ozma has several meanings: Ozma is the name invented by L. Frank Baum for Princess Ozma, ruler of his fictional land of Oz, and later given to his own granddaughter. ... Glinda depicted on the cover of Glinda of Oz Glinda (or Glinda the Good Witch) is a fictional character in the Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. ... Mombi is a character from the L Frank Baum Oz Books series, and appears in the book The Marvelous Land of Oz. ...


In Greek mythology, Tiresias, who became the blind prophet who helps Jason and the Argonauts, was walking through a forest when he found two snakes in the act of love. He prodded them with a stick and he instantly changes into a woman. He lives as one for many years, marries, has children. Years later, he is walking through the same forest, and sees the same snakes doing the same thing. Again he pokes them with a stick, and he turns back into a man. Later in his life, he is asked by Zeus which of the two sexes enjoys sex more. Tiresias, speaking from experience, replies that it is woman, and Hera blinds him for telling her husband of the greatest secret of women. Zeus, unable to undo what his wife has done, gives the now blind Tiresias the gift of foresight. Other versions say that it was Zeus who was angered by Tiresias for saying that men did not get the most out of sex and that it was Hera who gave him the gift of foresight to comfort him. Everes redirects here. ...


Rumiko Takahashi's manga Ranma 1/2 features at least two characters that transform from male to female. One is the title character, Ranma Saotome, and another is a powerful antagonist, Herb, from late in the series. Takahashi's work seems to be a parody of several things including overdramatic teenage romances and martial arts films, but it is most definitely a satire of Japanese gender roles. The two characters cursed with changing gender are both chauvinistic and macho in many ways, and both have little to no understanding of sex or sexuality. Many of the main female characters, while not physically transforming, have personality traits that are more traditionally male than female. Similarly, several male characters have female outlooks or behavior patterns. It is likely that Ranma's physical transformation in this case is used to soften the expectations of the reader for the gender bending nature of the characters, Ranma being the most extreme case. Takahashi is one of the wealthiest women in Japan. ... Ranma ½ Graphic Novel, Volume 1 English version, Second Edition Ranma ½ (らんま½, Japanese pronunciation: Ranma Nibun no Ichi) is a comedy anime and manga by Rumiko Takahashi (高橋 留美子) about a boy named Ranma Saotome (早乙女 乱馬) who was trained from early childhood... Ranma Saotome (早乙女 乱馬 Saotome Ranma) is the fictional protagonist and title character in Rumiko Takahashis anime and manga series Ranma ½. Ranma can mean chaotic or reckless horse. Saotome means fast maiden. // Ranma, the only son of Genma and Nodoka Saotome, was taken from his home by his father when approximately...


Punitive changes

In many cases, imposed forms are punitive in nature. This may be a just punishment, the nature of the transformation matching the crime for which it occurs; in other cases, the form is unjustly imposed by an angry and powerful person.

"Svipdag transformed" by John Bauer
"Svipdag transformed" by John Bauer

This motif is used in tales from myths to modern fantasy: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 505 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (736 × 873 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Svipdag transformed illustrated by John Bauer in 1911 for Our Fathers Godsaga by Viktor Rydberg Svipdag förvandlad illustrerad av John Bauer 1911 för Viktor... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 505 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (736 × 873 pixel, file size: 141 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Svipdag transformed illustrated by John Bauer in 1911 for Our Fathers Godsaga by Viktor Rydberg Svipdag förvandlad illustrerad av John Bauer 1911 för Viktor... Tyr and Fenrir, by John Bauer (1911) The Changeling, by John Bauer (1913) Trolls with an abducted princess, by John Bauer (1915) John Bauer (1882–1918) was a Swedish illustrator best known for Bland Tomtar och Troll (Among Elves and Trolls), an annual Christmas book for children published in Sweden. ...

  • Athena transformed Arachne into a spider for challenging her as a weaver.
  • Artemis transformed Actaeon into a stag for spying on her in her bath.
  • Odin transformed Svipdag into a dragon because he had angered him.
  • In Child ballad 35, Allison Gross, the title witch turned a man into a dragon for refusing to be her lover; this is a motif found in many legends and folktales, of a thwarted lover punishing the refusal with a transformation.[8]
  • In some variants of the fairy tales, both The Frog Prince and Beast, of Beauty and the Beast, were transformed as a form of punishment for some transgression.
  • In Eglė the Queen of Serpents, Eglė transforms her children and herself into trees as a punishment for betrayal.
  • In East of the Sun and West of the Moon, the hero was transformed into a bear by his wicked stepmother, who wished to force him to marry her daughter.[9]
  • Circe transformed all intruders into her home. Generally, this is for merely intruding, but in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tanglewood Tales, "she changes every human being into the brute, beast, or fowl whom he happens most to resemble."
  • In George MacDonald's The Princess and Curdie, Curdie is informed that many human beings, by their acts, are slowly turning into beasts; he is given the power to detect the transformation before it is visible, and is assisted by beasts that had been transformed and are working their way back to humanity.[10]
  • In The Chronicles of Narnia, Eustace is transformed into a dragon,[11] and the war-monger Rabadash into a donkey,[12] as punishments. Eustace's transformation is reversed after he learns a lesson. Rabadash is given an opportunity to return to human form providing he does so in a public place, so that his former followers will know that he had spent some time as a donkey. He is also warned that, if he ever leaves his capital city again, he will once more become a donkey and this time the transformation will be permanent. After following the instructions to regain his human form, Rabadash never again leads a military campaign ... as to do so would require him to leave his capital city.
  • On codemonkeys Black steve once threatened to transform a D&D player into a corpse.

In mythology, the punishment is often a metamorphosis, and may be origin myths. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arachne (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Actaeon, sculpture group in the cascade at Caserta In Greek mythology, Actaeon (or Aktaion), son of Aristaeus and Autonoe in Boeotia, was a famous Theban hero, trained by the centaur Cheiron, who suffered the fatal wrath of Artemis (or her Roman counterpart Diana). ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Svipdag is the hero of the two Old Norse poems, Grogaldr and Fjolsvinnsmal, which are contained within the body of one work, Svipdagsmál. ... The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, collected by Francis James Child. ... Allison Gross is a traditional ballad, catalogued as Child Ballad #35. ... The Frog Asks To Be Allowed To Enter The Castle - Illustration For The Frog Prince by Walter Crane 1874 The Frog King (German: Der Froschkönig), also known as The Frog Prince, is a fairy tale, best known through the Brothers Grimms written version. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... Sculpture of EglÄ— and the Serpent Prince in Palanga Botanical Park EglÄ— the Queen of Serpents, alternatively EglÄ— the Queen of Grass Snakes, (Lithuanian: ) is a Lithuanian folk tale. ... East of the Sun and West of the Moon is a Norwegian fairy tale, collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. ... Wicked Stepmother is the title of a 1989 film by writer/director/producer Larry Cohen. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Tanglewood Tales for Boys and Girls (1853) is a book by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne. ... George MacDonald George MacDonald (December 10, 1824 – September 18, 1905) was a Scottish author, poet, and Christian minister. ... “Narnia” redirects here. ... Eustace Clarence Scrubb (1933 - 1949) is a character in C. S. Lewis Chronicles of Narnia. ... Prince Rabadash is a human character from C. S. Lewiss fantasy series The Chronicles of Narnia. ...


In most works of fiction, the changes are usually a temporary transformation. If the punishment was just, the character can often re-gain his form on learning the lesson it instructed him in; if unjust, the restoration is merely dependent on discovering the trick of it.


Transformation chase

In many fairy tales and ballads, as in Child Ballad #44, The Two Magicians or Farmer Weathersky, a magical chase occurs where the pursued endlessly takes on forms in an effort to shake off the pursuer, and the pursuer answers with other shape-shifting, as, a dove is answered with a hawk, and a hare with a greyhound. The pursued may finally succeed in escape or the pursuer in capturing. This appears in legends around the world, from the fable The Sorcerer's Apprentice to the Chinese legend Journey to the West. In Dapplegrim, this was set as a challenge; if the youth found the transformed princess twice, and hid from her twice, they would marry. The Grimm Brothers fairy tales Foundling-Bird contains this as the bulk of the plot.[13] In Greek mythology, Zeus frequently transformed himself and his love to escape Hera's wrath, or that of the women's fathers, but generally in a simplified form, with only one transformation.[14] A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... Illustration by Arthur Rackham of the ballad The Twa Corbies A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, collected by Francis James Child. ... The Twa Magicians or The Two Magicians is Child ballad number 44. ... Farmer Weathersky is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Chr. ... For the childrens T.V series, see The Sorcerers Apprentice (TV series). ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: Sūn Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, Zhū Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ... Dapplegrim is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. ... Foundling-Bird is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 51. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


In other variants, the pursued may transform various objects into obstacles, as in the fairy tale "The Master Maid", where the Master Maid transforms a wooden comb into a forest, a lump of salt into a mountain, and a flask of water into a sea. In these tales, the pursued normally escapes after the three obstacles.[15] This obstacle chase is literally found world-wide, in many variants in every region.[16] The Master Maid is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. ... The rule of three is a principle in writing that suggests that things that come in threes are inherently funnier, more satisfying, or more effective than other numbers of things. ...


In fairy tales of the Aarne-Thompson type 313A, the girl helps the hero flee, one such chase is an integral part of the tale. It can be either a transformation chase (as in The Grateful Prince, King Kojata, Foundling-Bird, Jean, the Soldier, and Eulalie, the Devil's Daughter, or The Two Kings' Children) or an obstacle chase (as in The Battle of the Birds, The White Dove, or The Master Maid).[17] Antti Amatus Aarne (1867 - 1925) was a Finnish folklorist, who developed the initial version of what became the Aarne-Thompson classification system of classifying folktales, first published in 1910. ... The Grateful Prince is an Estonian fairy tale, collected by Dr. Friedrich Kreutzwald in Eestirahwa Ennemuistesed jutud. ... King Kojata or The Unlooked for Prince or Prince Unexpected is a Slavonic fairy tale. ... Foundling-Bird is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 51. ... Jean, the Soldier, and Eulalie, the Devils Daughter is a French fairy tale collected by Achille Millien. ... The Two Kings Children is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm in Grimms Fairy Tales, tale number 113. ... The Battle of the Birds is a Scottish fairy tale collected by John Francis Campbell in his Popular Tales of the West Highlands. ... The White Dove is a Danish fairy tale. ... The Master Maid is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. ...


In a similar effect, a captive may shape-shift in order to break a hold on him. Proteus's shape-shifting was to prevent heroes from forcing information from him.[18] Tam Lin, once seized by Janet, was transformed in her arms by the faeries to keep Janet from taking him, but as he had advised her, she did not let go, and so freed him.[19] The motif of capturing a person by holding him through all forms of transformation is found throughout Europe in folktales.[20] This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... Tam Lin is the hero of a Borders legend about fairies and mortal men. ... by Sophie Anderson A fairy, or faery, is a creature from stories and mythology, often portrayed in art and literature as a minuscule humanoid with wings. ...


Patricia A. McKillip made use of this motif at one point in the The Riddle-Master of Hed trilogy: a shapeshifting Earthmaster finally wins its freedom by startling the man holding it. Patricia A. McKillip (February 29, 1948—) is an American author of fantasy and science fiction novels. ... The Riddle-Master of Hed is a fantasy novel by Patricia A. McKillip. ...


Another variant was used by T. H. White in The Sword in the Stone, where Merlin and Madam Mim fought a wizards' duel, in which the duelists would endlessly transform until one was in a form that could destroy the other.[21] Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 – January 17, 1964) was an English writer, born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: The Sword in the Stone This article is about the novel. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... Madam Mim, or Mad Madam Mim as she is sometimes referred to, is a fictional witch, best known from the Disney movie based on The Sword in the Stone by T. H. White, where she was voiced by Martha Wentworth. ...


Powers

One motif is a shape change in order to obtain abilities in the new form. Berserkers were held to change into wolves and bears in order to fight more effectively. In many cultures, evil magicians could transform into animal shapes and thus skulk about. For other uses, see Berserker (disambiguation). ...


In many fairy tales, the hero's talking animal helper proves to be a shapeshifted human being, able to help him in its animal form. In one variation, featured in The Three Enchanted Princes and The Death of Koschei the Deathless, the hero's three sisters have been married to animals. These prove to be shape-shifted men, who aid their brother-in-law in a variant of tale types.[22] WPA poster by Kenneth Whitley, 1939 The talking animal or speaking animal term, in general, refers to any form of animal which can talk or conduct speech. ... A talking wolf helps Prince Ivan in Tsarevitch Ivan, the Fire Bird and the Gray Wolf In fairy tales, a donor is a character in fairy tales that tests the hero (and sometimes other characters as well) and provides magical assistances to the hero while he succeeds. ... The Three Enchanted Princes is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, The Pentamerone. ... The Death of Koschei the Deathless is a Russian fairy tale included by Andrew Lang in The Red Fairy Book. ... Tsarevna Frog by Viktor Vasnetsov: a frog metamorphoses into a princess Shapeshifting is a common theme in mythology and folklore, as well as in science fiction and fantasy. ...


This use, though rare in older fiction, is perhaps the most common in modern fiction. Several superheroes — Beast Boy, Chameleon Boy/Chameleon, Morph, Ben 10, Mystique — have it as their sole power. The Harry Potter series contains both Animagi who can change to a single form and Metamorphmagi who can alter their appearance. Even one episode of the television show " Supernatural " featured a shape-shifter, and a reference that the main characters had hunted shape-shifters before, or at least knew how to. Both the Earthmasters and their opponents in The Riddle-Master of Hed trilogy make extensive use of their shape-shifting abilities for the powers of their new forms.[23] Beast Boy (real name Garfield Mark Gar Logan) is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe, a shapeshifting superhero who is a former member of the Doom Patrol and member of the Teen Titans. ... Chameleon Boy (Reep Daggle) is a DC Comics superhero, a member of the Legion of Super-Heroes in the thirtieth century. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Changeling (Marvel Comics). ... Ben 10 is an American animated television series created by Man of Action (a group consisting of Duncan Rouleau, Joe Casey, Joe Kelly, and Steven T. Seagle), and produced by Cartoon Network Studios. ... Mystique (Raven Darkholme) is a Marvel Comics character associated with the X-Men franchise. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Registered Animagus Minerva McGonagall mid transformation In the Harry Potter books, an Animagus is a wizard or witch capable of turning into a particular animal and back at will. ... In the fictional universe of J. K. Rowlings Harry Potter series, a metamorphmagus (meta-MORF-ma-gus) is a wizard born with the ability to change their shape at will. ... The Riddle-Master of Hed is a fantasy novel by Patricia A. McKillip. ...


Even creatures from folklore may regard their other forms as abilities. The werewolf in Poul Anderson's Operation Chaos uses his wolf form to track and to fight, and never suffers from the desire to attack humans so common in legend.[24] For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... For the CIA intelligence project, see Operation CHAOS. Operation Chaos is a 1971 science fiction/fantasy fixup novel by Poul Anderson. ...


Bildungsroman

A young character may learn of his shape-shifting abilities, and exploring them becomes part of a Bildungsroman. Mavin Manyshaped and her son Peter in Sheri S. Tepper's True Game novels are both shifters, being a subspecies of humans having this power, and in both, the learning of their abilities is a large portion of their growing up. A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Mavin Manyshaped is a shapeshifter within a series of nine novels written by Sheri S. Tepper that are collectively known as The True Game. ... Sheri Stewart Tepper (born July 16, 1929) is a prolific American author of science fiction, horror and mystery novels; she is particularly known as a feminist science fiction writer, often with an ecofeminist slant. ... The True Game is the collective name for a series of nine fiction stories written by Sheri S. Tepper. ...


For a very different effect, T. H. White had Merlin transform Arthur into various animals in The Sword in the Stone, as an educational experience.[25] Although the lessons are very different, the Bildungsroman element is in common. Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 – January 17, 1964) was an English writer, born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: The Sword in the Stone This article is about the novel. ...


Needed items

Valkyries as swan maidens: having shed their swan skins

Some shape-shifters are able to change form only if they have some item, usually an article of clothing. Most of these are innocuous creatures — even if they are werewolves. In Bisclavret by Marie de France, a werewolf cannot regain human form without his clothing, but in wolf form does no harm to anyone. Image File history File links The three valkyries of Völundarkviða. ... Image File history File links The three valkyries of Völundarkviða. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marie de France from an illuminated manuscript Marie de France (Mary of France) was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. ...


Another such creature is the selkie, which needs its sealskin to regain its form. In "The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry" the (male) selkie seduces a human woman but does no further harm. A Faroese stamp depicting the capture of a seal woman Selkies (also known as silkies or selchies) are mythological creatures in Irish, Icelandic, and Scottish mythology. ... The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry or The Grey Selkie of Suleskerry is Child ballad number 113, from the Orkneys. ...


The commonest use of this motif, however, is in tales where a man steals the article and forces the shape-shifter, trapped in human form, to become his bride. This lasts until she discovers where he has hidden the article, and she can flee. Selkies feature in these tales. Others include swan maidens and the Japanese Tennin. The Swan May or Swan Maiden is a legend in which a young, unmarried man steals a magic robe made of swan feathers from a swan maiden so that she will not fly away and winds up marrying her. ... Tennin (天人) including the female tennyo (天女) (Sanskrit: apsara) are spirits found in Japanese Buddhism that are similar to Western angels or fairies. ...


Various forms of fairytale fantasy have taken up these creatures and incorporated them into modern day works. Jane Yolen took up the notion of selkie in Greyling and transformed it into a foundling tale. Fairytale fantasy is a diverse subgenre of fantasy fiction, starting perhaps with Charles Perrault and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms. ... Jane Yolens Wizards Hall Jane Yolen (born February 11, 1939 in New York City) is an American author and editor of almost 300 books. ... Child abandonment or the practice of abandoning ones offspring outside of legal adoption is a long standing social ill. ...


Usurpation

Some transformations are performed to remove the victim from his place, so that the transformer can usurp it. Bisclaveret's wife steals his clothing and traps him in wolf form because she has a lover. A witch, in The Wonderful Birch, changed a mother into a sheep to take her place, and had the mother slaughtered; when her stepdaughter, with her dead mother's aid, married the king, the witch transformed her into a reindeer so as to put her daughter in the queen's place. In the Korean "Transformation of the Kumiho", a kumiho, a fox with magical powers, transformed itself into an image of the bride, only being detected when her clothing is removed. In Terminator 2: Judgment Day, the T-1000 took the form of John Connor's foster mom to gather information regarding his whereabouts, and later as his biological mother to gain his trust. Changelings take the place of the infant the elves have stolen, and usually resemble it, at least initially; sometimes, this is temporary, so that the child will appear to die, and sometimes the changeling grows up in the child's family. Bisclavret (The Werewolf) Written by Marie de France in the 12th century. ... The Wonderful Birch is a Russian fairy tale. ... The kumiho (literally nine-tailed fox) is a creature that appears in the oral tales and legends of Korea. ... Terminator 2: Judgment Day (commonly abbreviated T2) is a 1991 movie directed by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Robert Patrick. ... T-1000 in police disguise The T-1000 (Advanced Prototype Terminator Infiltrator Series 1 Model 1A Type 1000) is a fictional android assassin, featured as the main antagonist in Terminator 2: Judgment Day. ... For other persons named John Connor, see John Connor (disambiguation). ... Trolls with the changeling they have raised, John Bauer, 1913. ... For other uses, see Elf (disambiguation). ...

Sister Alenushka Weeping about Brother Ivanushka by Viktor Vasnetsov, Russian variant of Brother and Sister: Alenushka laments her brother's transformation into a deer
Sister Alenushka Weeping about Brother Ivanushka by Viktor Vasnetsov, Russian variant of Brother and Sister: Alenushka laments her brother's transformation into a deer

This may not be so much desire to usurp a specific place as to remove possible rivals, but the intended effect of the removal is much the same. In Brother and Sister, when two children flee their cruel stepmother, she enchants the streams along the way to transform them. While the brother refrains from the first two, which threaten to turn them into tigers and wolves, he is too thirsty at the third, which turns him into a deer. The Six Swans are transformed into swans by their stepmother,[26] as are the Children of Lir in Irish mythology. In The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh, Princess Margaret is transformed into a dragon by her stepmother; her motive sprung, like Snow White's stepmother's, from the comparison of their beauty.[27] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1253x1792, 769 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1253x1792, 769 KB) Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... Sister Alenushka Weeping about Brother Ivanushka (painting by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1881), Russian variant collected by Alexander Afanasyev in Narodnye russkie skazki. ... The Six Swans is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. ... A stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent marries someone new. ... Kemp Owyne is Child ballad number 34. ... This article is about the Snow White character. ...


Modern fiction also includes this motif: Mary Stewart's A Walk in Wolf Wood revolves about revealing that one man is an imposter, taking the form of a man who is living as a wolf in the woods, and Patricia A. McKillip has her shapeshifters, in the Riddle-master trilogy, use their forms to take the place of others. The Harry Potter series included both a usurpation by a shape-shifter, and considerable precautions being taken by wizards and witches to attempt to identify such shape-shifters as they arose. In science fiction, "Who Goes There?" by John W. Campbell included a shape-shifting alien that could devour and replace terrestrial life. For the Canadian freestyle swimmer, see Mary Stewart (swimmer). ... Patricia A. McKillip (February 29, 1948—) is an American author of fantasy and science fiction novels. ... Patricia A. McKillip (February 29, 1948—) is an American author of fantasy and science fiction novels. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ...


While Doppelgängers in folklore were a kind of portent that resembled a person, with no shapeshifting required, in modern fiction and roleplaying games, they are usually depicted as shape-shifters out to usurp someone's place. For other uses, see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... Doppleganger (sic) is episode Five, of the First season, of Alias (TV series), created by J. J. Abrams, and starring Jennifer Garner as Sydney Bristow, a CIA double agent. ...


This motif can also be used in a similar manner to the Monstrous Bride/Bridegroom theme. A character who falls in love with a usurper (given a justifiable motive for the replacement) can discover the unimportance of appearances beside character. In the Legion of Super-Heroes comics, Colossal Boy fell in love with a shapeshifter who had been duped into taking the form of a woman he had been attracted to. The revelation of this made him realize that he had fallen in love with the shapeshifter herself and not with the woman he had thought her to be. Similarly, the Human Torch fell in love with a Skrull imposter; although in the Marvel Universe they eventually broke up, in the MC2 alternate universe, they remarried, are now members of the Fantastic Five, and have a son. The Legion of Super-Heroes is a DC Comics superhero team created by writer Otto Binder and artist Al Plastino. ... Colossal Boy is a fictional character in the 30th century of the DC Comics universe. ... This article is about the Silver/Modern Age Human Torch, Johnny Storm. ... Lyja is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe. ... This article is about the shared universe setting used by many Marvel Comics titles. ... Characters from the MC2 universe. ... Fantastic Five is the name of superhero team that exist in the MC2 universe, an alternate future to the Marvel Universe. ...


Ill-advised wishes

Many fairy-tale characters have expressed inadvised wishes to have any child at all, even one that has another form, and had such children born to them.[28] At the end of the fairy tale, normally after marriage, such children metamorphize into human form. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


"Hans My Hedgehog" was born when his father wished for a child, even a hedgehog. Even stranger forms are possible: Giambattista Basile included in his Pentamerone the tale of a girl born as a sprig of myrtle, and Italo Calvino, in his Italian Folktales, a girl born as an apple. Hans My Hedgehog is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. ... Giambattista Basile (1566 or 1575–February 23, 1632) was an Italian poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. ... The Myrtle is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giambattista Basile in his 1634 work, the Pentamerone. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ...


Sometimes, the parent who wishes for a child is told how to gain one, but does not obey the directions perfectly, resulting in the transformed birth. In Prince Lindworm, the woman eats two onions, but does not peel one, resulting in her first child being a lindworm. In Tatterhood, a woman magically produces two flowers, but disobeys the directions to eat only the beautiful one, resulting her having a beautiful and sweet daughter, but only after a disgusting and hideous one. A lindworm (called lindorm in Scandinavia and Lindwurm in Germany; the name consists of two Germanic roots meaning roughly ensnaring serpent) is a large serpent-like dragon from European mythology and folklore. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Less commonly, ill-advised wishes can transform a person after birth. The Seven Ravens are transformed when their father thinks his sons are playing instead of fetching water to christen their newborn and sickly sister, and curses them.[29] In Puddocky, when three princes start to quarrel over the beautiful heroine, a witch curses her because of the noise. The Seven Ravens is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm. ... Puddocky is a German fairy tale. ...


Monstrous bride/bridegroom

Such wished-for children may be become monstrous brides or bridegrooms. Other such characters have no explanation for their forms, because their tales focus on the person who must marry them. Bride Bride in formal dress North America. ... A groom waits for his bride. ...


These tales often lean heavily on the promise of the father that his child should marry, or on the financial advantages to her family that she should do so -- factors clearly present in arranged marriages. These tales have often been intrepreted as symbolically representing arranged marriages; the bride's (in particular) revulsion to marrying a stranger being symbolized by his bestial form.[30]


These tales form, broadly, three subclasses.

"Beauty and the Beast" by Warwick Goble
"Beauty and the Beast" by Warwick Goble

The heroine must fall in love with the transformed groom. Beauty and the Beast falls under this. This has been interpreted as a young woman's coming-of-age, in which she changes from being repulsed by sexual activity and regarding a husband therefore bestial, to a mature woman who can marry. [31] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (901x633, 131 KB) Summary An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (901x633, 131 KB) Summary An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... An illustration by Warwick Goble for Beauty and the Beast, 1913. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ...


The hero or heroine must marry, as promised, and the monstrous form is removed by the wedding. Sir Gawain thus transformed the Loathly lady; although he was told that this was half-way, she could at his choice be beautiful by day and hideous by night, or vice versa, he told her that he would chose what she preferred, which broke the spell entirely.[32] In Tatterhood, Tatterhood is transformed by her asking her bridegroom why he didn't ask her why she rode a goat, why she carried a spoon, and why she was so ugly, and when he asked her, denying it and therefore transforming her goat into a horse, her spoon into a fan, and herself into a beauty. Puddocky is transformed when her prince, after she had helped him with two other tasks, tells him that his father has sent him for a bride. A similar effect is found in Child ballad 34, Kemp Owyne, where the hero can transform a dragon back into a maiden by kissing her three times.[33] In Arthurian legend, Sir Gawain (Gawan, Gawein) features as a knight of the Round Table. ... The loathly lady is a common literary device used in medieval literature, most famously in Geoffrey Chaucers The Wife of Baths Tale. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Puddocky is a German fairy tale. ... The Child Ballads are a collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, collected by Francis James Child. ... Kemp Owyne is Child Ballad number 34. ...


Sometimes the bridegroom removes his animal skin for the wedding night, whereupon it can be burned. Hans My Hedgehog, The Donkey and The Pig King fall under this grouping. At an extreme, in Prince Lindworm, the bride who avoids being eaten by the lindworm bridegroom arrives at her wedding wearing every gown she owns, and she tells the bridegroom she will remove one of hers if he removes one of his; only when her last gown comes off has he removed his last skin, and become a white shape that she can form into a man.[34] The Donkey is a German fairy tale collected by Brothers Grimm by Grimms Fairy Tales. ... The Pig King is an Italian literary fairy tale written by Giovanni Francesco Straparola in his The Facetious Nights of Straparola. ... A lindworm (called lindorm in Scandinavia and Lindwurm in Germany; the name consists of two Germanic roots meaning roughly ensnaring serpent) is a large serpent-like dragon from European mythology and folklore. ...


The lindworm's bride was the last of a number of brides. Some other tales using this theme also have one or two who fail the task of the marriage.


In other tales, such as The Brown Bear of Norway, The Golden Crab, The Enchanted Snake and some variants of The Frog Princess, burning the skin is a catastrophe, putting the transformed bride or bridegroom in danger; this is an example of the third grouping. The Brown Bear of Norway is a Scottish fairy tale. ... The Golden Crab is a Greek fairy tale collected as Prinz Krebs by Bernhard Schmidt in his Griechische Märchen, Sagen and Volkslieder. ... The Enchanted Snake or The Snake is an Italian fairy tale. ... Viktor Vasnetsov The Frog Tsarevna 1918 The Frog Princess is a fairy tale that exists in many versions from several countries. ...


In the third grouping, the hero or heroine must obey a prohibition; the bride must spend a period of time not seeing the transformed groom in human shape (as in East of the Sun and West of the Moon), or the bridegroom must not burn the animals skins. In these tales, the prohibition is broken, invariably. The hero or heroine must therefore find his bride, or her bridegroom again.[35] East of the Sun and West of the Moon is a Norwegian fairy tale, collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. ...


This motif is found in modern fiction mostly in the form of fairytale fantasy. Robin McKinley retold Beauty and the Beast twice, in Beauty and Rose Daughter. Fairytale fantasy is a diverse subgenre of fantasy fiction, starting perhaps with Charles Perrault and other writers who took up the folktales of their time and developed them into literary forms. ... Robin McKinley (born November 16, 1952 as Jennifer Carolyn Robin Turrell McKinley) is a fantasy author especially known for her Newbery Medal-winning novel The Hero and the Crown. ... A second retelling of the tale of Beauty and the Beast by Robin McKinley. ...


Death

Ghosts sometimes appear in animal form. In The Famous Flower of Serving-Men, the heroine's murdered husband appears to the king as a white dove, lamenting her fate over his own grave. In The White and the Black Bride and The Three Little Men in the Wood, the murdered — drowned — true bride reappears as a white duck. In The Rose Tree and The Juniper Tree, the murdered children become birds who avenge their own deaths. The Famous Flower of Serving-Men or The Lady turned Serving-Man is Child ballad number 106. ... The White and the Black Bride is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 135. ... The Three Little Men in the Wood or The Three Dwarfs is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, number 13. ... The Rose-Tree is an English fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs in English Fairy Tales. ... The Juniper Tree is a 1987 Icelandic film starring Björk, Bryndis Petra Bragadóttir and Guðrún S. Gísladóttir. ...


In some fairy tales, the character can reveal himself in every new form, and so a usurper repeatedly kills the victim in every new form, as in Beauty and Pock Face, A String of Pearls Twined with Golden Flowers, and The Boys with the Golden Stars. This eventually leads to a form into which the character (or characters) can reveal the truth to someone able to stop the villain. Beauty and Pock Face is a Chinese fairy tale collected by Wolfram Eberhard in Chinese Fairy Tales and Folk Tales. ... A String of Pearls Twined with Golden Flowers or The Golden Twins is a Romanian fairy tale collected by Petre Ispirescu in Legende sau basmele românilor. ... The Boys with the Golden Stars is a Romanian fairy tale collected in Rumanische Märchen. ...


Similarly, the transformation back may be acts that would be fatal. In The Wounded Lion, the prescription for turning the lion back into a prince was to kill him, chop him to pieces, burn the pieces, and throw the ash into water. Less drastic but no less apparently fatal, the fox in The Golden Bird, the foals in The Seven Foals, and the cats in Lord Peter and The White Cat tell the heroes of those stories to cut off their heads; this restores them to human shape.[36] The Wounded Lion is a Spanish fairy tale collected by D. Francisco de S. Maspous y Labros, in Cuentos Populars Catalans. ... The Golden Bird is a Brothers Grimm fairy tale about the troubled pursuit of a golden bird by a kings three sons. ... The Seven Foals is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. ... Lord Peter or Squire Per is a Norwegian fairy tale collected by Asbjørnsen and Moe. ... Puddocky is a German fairy tale. ...


Shapeshifting in folklore

1722 German woodcut of a werewolf transforming
1722 German woodcut of a werewolf transforming

Popular shapeshifting creatures in folklore are werewolves and vampires (mostly of European, Canadian, and Native American/early American origin), the fox spirits East Asia (including the Japanese kitsune), and the gods, goddesses, and demons of numerous mythologies, such as the Norse Loki or the Greek Proteus. It was also common for deities to transform mortals into animals and plants. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. ... For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...


Although shapeshifting to the form of a wolf is specifically known as lycanthropy, and such creatures who undergo such change are called lycanthropes, those terms have also been used to describe any human-animal transformations and the creatures who undergo them. Therianthropy is the more general term for human-animal shifts, but it is rarely used in that capacity. “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... In folklore, lycanthropy is the ability or power of a human being to undergo transformation into a wolf. ... Therianthropy (from n. ...


Other terms for shapeshifters include metamorph, skin-walker, mimic, and therianthrope. The prefix "were-," coming from the Old English word for "man" (masculine rather than generic), is also used to designate shapeshifters; despite its root, it is used to indicate female shapeshifters as well. For other uses, see Skin-walker (disambiguation). ... Therianthropy is a generic term for any transformation of a human into an animal form, either as a part of mythology or as a spiritual concept. ...


Almost every culture around the world has some type of transformation myth, and almost every commonly found animal (and some not-so-common ones) probably has a shapeshifting myth attached to them. Usually, the animal involved in the transformation is indigenous to or prevalent in the area from which the story derives. It is worthy to note that while the popular idea of a shapeshifter is of a human being who turns into something else, there are numerous stories about animals that can transform themselves as well.[37] For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...


Greco-Roman

Shapeshifting, transformations and metamorphoses serve a wide variety of purposes in classical mythology.


Examples of shapeshifting in classical literature include many examples in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Circe's transforming of Odysseus' men to pigs in Homer's The Odyssey, and Apuleius's Lucius becoming a donkey in The Golden Ass. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... For other meanings, see Odysseus crater, 1143 Odysseus “Ulysses” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St. ...


Proteus among the gods was particularly noted for his shape-shifting; both Menelaus and Aristaeus seized him to win information from him, and succeeded only because they held on during his manifold shape changes. This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus or Aristaios was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, who despised spinning and other womanly arts but spent her days hunting. ...

While the Greek gods could use transformation punitively — as for Arachne, turned to a spider for her pride in her weaving, and Medusa, turned to a monster for having sexual intercourse with Poseidon in Athena's temple — even more frequently, the tales using it are of amorous adventure. Zeus repeatedly transformed himself to approach mortal women, both as a means of gaining access: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (782x1093, 90 KB)Gianlorenzo Bernini. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (782x1093, 90 KB)Gianlorenzo Bernini. ... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Daphne - From the painting by Deverial. ... For other uses, see Arachne (disambiguation). ... Medusa, by Arnold Böcklin (1878) In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα, guardian, protectress[1]) was a monstrous chthonic female character, essentially an extension of an apotropaic mask, gazing upon whom could turn onlookers to stone. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...

or to attempt to conceal his affair from Hera Titians Danaë, inspired by Ovids Metamorphoses, represents the girl at the moment of her impregnation by a golden rain. ... Europa and Zeus, on the Greek €2 coin A commemorative Italian euro coin depicts Europa holding a pen over the text of the Constitution of Europe. ... Leda and the Swan, 16th-century copy after the lost painting by Michelangelo Leda with the Swan, by Correggio In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius, and wife of the king Tyndareus, of Sparta. ... In Greek mythology Alcmene, or Alkmênê (might of the moon) was the mother of Heracles. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ...

  • Io, as a cloud, and Io herself as a white heifer.

More innocently, Vertumnus transformed himself into an old woman in order to gain entry to Pomona's orchard; there, he persuaded her to marry him. Hermes, Io (as cow) and Argus, black-figure amphora, 540–530 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. ... In Roman mythology, Vertumnus (Vortumnus, Vertimnus) was the god of seasons, change and plant growth, as well as gardens and fruit trees. ... Pomona, Nicolas Fouché, c. ...


In other tales, the woman appealed to other gods to protect her from rape, and was transformed (Daphne into laurel, Cornix into a crow). Unlike Zeus and other god's shape-shifting, these women were permanently metamorphosed. Daphne - From the painting by Deverial. ... Cornix is a character in Ovids Metamorphoses. ...


In one tale, Demeter transformed herself into a mare to escape Poseidon, but Poseidon counter-transformed himself into a stallion to pursue her, and succeeded in the rape. This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...

"Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's Teeth" by Maxfield Parrish
"Cadmus Sowing the Dragon's Teeth" by Maxfield Parrish

Humans were also transformed, for many reasons. Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth, 1908 Source: http://mcduffskeep. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons Teeth, 1908 Source: http://mcduffskeep. ... The Dinky Bird, by Maxfield Parrish, an illustration from Poems of Childhood by Eugene Field, 1904. ...


Tiresias once saw two snakes mating and struck the female with his staff; this transformed him into a woman, and he lived as such for many years. At the end, he saw the snakes again, and this time was careful to hit the male, which restored him to male form. Everes redirects here. ...


Caenis, having been raped by Poseidon, demanded of him that she be changed to a man. He agreed, and she became Caeneus, a form he never lost, except, in some versions, upon death. In Greek mythology, Caeneus was originally a Thessalonian woman, Caenis, the daughter of Elatus. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Poseidon and Caenis, woodcut illustration of Ovid by Virgil Solis, 1563 In Greek mythology, Caeneus (Ancient Greek Καινεύς or Kaineus) was a Lapith hero and originally a Thessalonian woman, Caenis. ...


As a final reward from the gods for their hospitality, Baucis and Philemon were transformed, at their deaths, into a pair of trees. Jupiter and Mercury in the house of Philemon and Baucis, Adam Elsheimer, c1608, Dresden. ...


Pygmalion having fallen in love with a statue he had made, Venus had pity on him and transformed the stone to a living woman. Étienne Maurice Falconet: Pygmalion & Galatee (1763) Pygmalion is a legendary figure found in Ovids Metamorphoses. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ...


In some variants of the tale of Narcissus, he is turned into a flower. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After Tereus raped Philomela and cut out her tongue to silence her, she wove her story into a tapestry for her sister, Tereus's wife Procne, and the sisters murdered his son and fed him to his father. When he discovered this, he tried to kill them, but the gods changed them all into birds. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Itys, Philomela and Procne (Discuss) In Greek mythology, Tereus was a son of Ares and husband of Procne. ... Philomela is the name of two figures of Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Procne or Prokne was a daughter of Pandion and Zeuxippe. ...


Sometimes metamorphoses transformed objects into humans. In the myths of both Jason and Cadmus, one task set to the hero was to sow dragon's teeth; on being sown, they would metamorphosize into belligerent warriors, and both heroes had to trick them into fighting each other to survive. Deucalion and Pyrrha repopulated the world after a flood by throwing stones behind them; they were transformed into people. This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Cadmus Sowing the Dragons teeth, by Maxfield Parrish, 1908 Caddmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Modern day Lebanon) and brother of Europa. ... In Greek myth, dragons teeth feature prominently in the legends of the Phoenician prince Cadmus and Jasons quest for the Golden Fleece. ... Deucalion In Greek mythology, Deucalion, or Deukálion (new-wine sailor) was the name of at least two figures: a son of Prometheus, and a son of Minos. ... Deucalion and Pyrrha throwing rocks that become babies. ...


British and Irish

Celtic mythology

Though much of Welsh mythology has been lost, shapeshifting magic features several times in what remains. Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ...


Pwyll was transformed by Arawn into Arawn's own shape, and Arawn transformed himself into Pwyll's, so that they could trade places for a year and a day. This article is about the Welsh hero; for the impact crater on Europa, see Pwyll (crater). ... In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the Lord of the Underworld, which was called Annwn. ...

The Children of Lir, transformed into swans in Irish tales
The Children of Lir, transformed into swans in Irish tales

Llwyd ap Cil Coed transformed his wife and attendants into mice to attack a crop in revenge; when his wife is captured, he turned himself into three clergymen in succession to try to pay a ransom. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 381 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 629 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration of Ler and the swans by H.R.Millar, published in Celtic Myth and Legend by Charles Squire (1905), and scanned and made available online... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 381 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 629 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Illustration of Ler and the swans by H.R.Millar, published in Celtic Myth and Legend by Charles Squire (1905), and scanned and made available online... Llwyd of Cil Coed is a character in Welsh mythology, specifically in the story of Manawydan ap Llŷr. Spoiler warning: Llwyd, a lord in Annwfn, is an ally of Gwawl ap Clud. ...


Math and Gwydion transform flowers into a woman named Blodeuwedd, and when she betrays her husband Lleu, who is transformed into an eagle, they transform her again, into an owl - Blodeuwedd. In Welsh mythology, Math ap Mathonwy was a king who needed to rest his feet in the lap of a virgin unless he was at war, or wanted to be. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwydion is a magician appearing prominently in the Fourth branch of the Mabinogi and the ancient poem Cad Goddeu. ... In Welsh mythology Blodeuedd, meaning flower face or blossoms, was created by Math and Gwydion (from flowers) as a wife for Lleu Llaw Gyffes, but also took Gronw Pebyr as a lover. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ...


Gilfaethwy having committed rape, and Gwydion his brother having helped him, they were transformed into animals, for one year each, Gwydion into a stag, sow and wolf, and Gilfaethwy into a hind, boar and she-wolf. Each year, they had a child. Math turned the three young animals into boys. In Welsh mythology, Gilfaethwy was a son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwydion is a magician appearing prominently in the Fourth branch of the Mabinogi and the ancient poem Cad Goddeu. ...


Gwion, having accidentally taken some of wisdom potion that Ceridwen was brewing for her son, fled her through a succession of changes that she answered with changes of her own, ending with his being eaten, a grain of corn, by her as a hen. She became pregnant, and he was reborn in a new form, as Taliesin. Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... In Welsh mythology, Ceridwen was a magician, mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter. ...


Irish mythology also features shapeshifting. Perhaps the best known myth is that of Aoife who turned her stepchildren, the Children of Lir, into swans to be rid of them. Likewise in the Wooing of Etain Fuamnach jealously turns Étaín into a butterfly. The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... (IPA: ) (pronounced EE-fa) is an Irish female given name. ... The Children of Lir (or Children of Lear) is an Irish legend. ... Tochmarc Étaín (Irish for The Wooing Of Étaín) is an Early Irish myth in the Mythological Cycle of Early Irish literature. ... In Irish mythology Fuamnach was Midirs first wife and a witch goddess. ... In early Irish mythology, Étaín was a sun goddess. ...


Sadbh, the wife of the famous hero Fionn mac Cumhaill was changed into a deer by the druid Fer Doirich. In Irish mythology, Sadbh (Sadb, Shahv) was the Sidhe mother of Oisin by Fionn mac Cumhail. ... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fʲiːn̪ˠ mˠak kuwaːlʲ/ in Irish or /fɪn mɘ kuːl/ in English) (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a mythical hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, occurring also in the mythologies of Scotland...


The most dramatic example of shapeshifting in Irish myth is that of Tuan mac Cairill, the only survivor of Partholón's settlement of Ireland. In his centuries long life he became successively a stag, a wild boar, a hawk and finally a salmon prior to being eaten and (as in the Wooing of Étaín) reborn as a human. In Irish mythology Tuan mac Cairill was a follower of Partholon who alone survived the plague that killed the rest of his people. ...


British folklore

"The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the duke's daughter into a white hind." by Arthur Rackham
"The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the duke's daughter into a white hind." by Arthur Rackham

Fairies, witches, and wizards were all noted for their shapeshifting ability. Not all fairies could shapeshift, and some were limited to changing their size, as with the spriggans, and others to a few forms, such as the each uisge, which appears only as a horse and a young man.[38] Other fairies might have only the appearance of shape-shifting, through their power, called glamour, to create illusions.[39] But others, such as the Hedley Kow, could change to many forms, and both human and supernatural wizards were capable of both such changes, and inflicting them on others.[40] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x800, 139 KB) Summary Galligantus - Project Gutenberg eText 17034 The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the dukes daughter into a white hind. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (656x800, 139 KB) Summary Galligantus - Project Gutenberg eText 17034 The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the dukes daughter into a white hind. ... The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the dukes daughter into a white hind. ... An illustration from Alices Adventures in Wonderland Arthur Rackham (September 19, 1867 – September 6, 1939) was a prolific English book illustrator. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... Look up wizard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Spriggans are diminutive members of the faerie kingdom, more closely related to sprites and boggles than goblins and dwarves. ... In Celtic Mythology, a Each uisge is a water spirit, in Ireland called the Aughisky, and is analogous with the Kelpie, but far more dangerous. ... For the magazine, see Glamour (magazine). ...


Witches could turn into hares and in that form steal milk and butter.[41]


Many British fairy tales, such as Jack the Giant Killer and The Black Bull of Norroway, feature shapeshifting. Jack the Giant Killer is a fairy tale. ... The Black Bull of Norroway is a fairy tale collected by Joseph Jacobs. ...


Norse

Loge feigns fear as Alberich turns into a giant snake. Wotan stands in the background; illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Das Rheingold
Loge feigns fear as Alberich turns into a giant snake. Wotan stands in the background; illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagner's Das Rheingold

Both Odin and Loki are shape-shifters in Norse myth. Unusually, both take on female forms, and Loki in the form of a mare bore Sleipnir. The Lokasenna depicts the two of them taunting each other with it, as having been women through and through, having borne children. (Any myths that depict Odin in female form have been lost, but the Lokasenna does contain references to many myths that are known to be believed. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (598 × 860 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Loge feigns fear as Alberich turns into a giant snake. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 417 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (598 × 860 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Loge feigns fear as Alberich turns into a giant snake. ... An illustration from Alices Adventures in Wonderland Arthur Rackham (September 19, 1867 – September 6, 1939) was a prolific English book illustrator. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... For the famous train, see Rheingold Express. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ... The Tängvide image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ... Lokasenna (Lokis flyting, Lokis wrangling, Lokis quarrel) is one of the mythological poems of the Poetic Edda. ...


In the Hyndluljóð, the goddess Freyja transformed her protégé Óttar into a boar to conceal him. She also possessed a cloak of robin feathers that allowed her to transform into any kind of bird. Hyndluljóð or Lay of Hyndla is an Old Norse poem often considered a part of the Poetic Edda. ... A statue of Freyja at DjurgÃ¥rden, Stockholm, Sweden. ... Óttar, also known as Óttar the Simple, was a protégé of Freya, and the subject of the Lay of Hyndla (Hyndluljóð). In this tale, she concealed him by transforming him into the boar named Hildisvín the Battle-Swine, which she rode into battle. ...


The Volsunga saga contains many shapeshifting characters. Siggeir's mother changed to a wolf to help torture his defeated brothers-in-law with slow and igmonious deaths. When one, Sigmund, survived, he and his nephew and son Sinfjötli killed men wearing wolfskins; when they donned the skins themselves, they were cursed to become werewolves. The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... Siggeir is the king of Gautland (i. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Odin taking the dead Sinfjötli to Valhalla Sinfjötli (Old Norse) or Fitela (Anglo-Saxon) was born out of the incestuous relationship between Sigmund and his sister Signy. ... For other uses, see Werewolf (disambiguation). ...


Fafnir was originally a dwarf or a giant, depending on the exact myth, but in all variants, he became a dragon guarding his hoard. Fáfnir guards the gold hoard in this illustration by Arthur Rackham to Richard Wagners Siegfried. ...


Slavic

In Slavic mythology, werewolves and other human-to-animal shapeshifters are fairly common, usually created as a course of Leszi. Slavic mythology and Slavic paganism evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lechies. ...


Hinduism

Hindu folklore tells of nāga, snakes that can sometimes assume human form. One nāga took on a man's shape in order to be ordained a monk; the Buddha refused it, but gave it directions on how to ensure it could be reborn as a man after death, in which form it could be ordained. It has been suggested that Phaya Naga be merged into this article or section. ...


Far East

"Madame White Snake" Picture on long veranda in the Summer Palace,Beijing,China.
"Madame White Snake" Picture on long veranda in the Summer Palace,Beijing,China.

Chinese, Japanese, and Korean folklore all tell of animals able to assume human shape. Though they have other traits in common -- such animals are often old, they grow additional tails along with their abilities, and they frequently still have some animal traits to betray them -- there are distinctions between the folklore in the various countries. Image File history File links Legend_white_snake1. ... Image File history File links Legend_white_snake1. ... The Summer Palace in Beijing. ...


Chinese

Chinese folklore contains many tales of animal shapeshifters, capable of taking on human form. The commonest such shapeshifter is the huli jing, a fox spirit which usually appears as a beautiful young woman; most are dangerous, but some feature as the heroines of love stories. nine-tailed fox, from the Qing edition of the Shan Hai Jing Huli jing (狐狸精 hǔlijīng) in Chinese mythology are fox spirits that are akin to European faeries or to the Japanese yōkai known as kitsune. ...


Madame White Snake is one such legend; a snake falls in love with a man, and the story recounts the trials that she and her husband faced. Picture on long veranda in the Summer Palace, Beijing, China, depicting the legend Madame White Snake (白蛇傳) (or Lady White Snake) is a Chinese legend, which existed as oral traditions before any written compilation. ...


Japanese

Kuzunoha the fox woman, casting a fox shadow
Kuzunoha the fox woman, casting a fox shadow

Many Japanese yōkai are animals with the ability to shapeshift. The fox, or kitsune is among the most common, but other such creatures include: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x698, 120 KB) Kuniyoshi Ichiyusai, ukiyo-e color print of Kuzunoha the fox woman. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x698, 120 KB) Kuniyoshi Ichiyusai, ukiyo-e color print of Kuzunoha the fox woman. ... kitsune of folklore. ... ukiyo-e print of yōkai, by Aotoshi Matsui Yōkai apparitions, spirits, or demons, also romanized youkai, or yokai) are a class of obake, creatures in Japanese folklore (many with Chinese origins) ranging from the evil oni to the mischievous kitsune or snow woman Yuki-onna. ... Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. ...

Mujina ) is an old Japanese term for a tanuki (Raccoon dog). ... Nekomata walking on its hind legs, illustrated by Toriyama Sekien. ... A nekomata is a Japanese mythological creature, believed to metamorphose from domesticated cats. ... Pottery statue of tanuki Wild Tanuki Mt. ...

Korean

Korean folklore also contains a fox with the ability to shape-shift. Unlike its Chinese and Japanese counterparts, the kumiho is always malevolent. Usually its form is of a beautiful young woman; one tale recounts a man, a would-be seducer, revealed as a kumiho.[42] It has to been said that she has nine tails and as this creature desires to be a full human, she decides to use her beauty to seduce men and eat their hearts. The kumiho (literally nine-tailed fox) is a creature that appears in the oral tales and legends of Korea. ...


Tatar

Tatar folklore includes Yuxa, a hundred-year-old snake that can transform itself into a beautiful young woman, and seeks to marry men in order to have children. Yuxa yılan, or Sly Snake (IPA: //, Cyrillic: Юха елан), is a legendary creature that figures in Tatar folklore. ...


Shapeshifting in popular culture

Shapeshifting can be a rich symbolical and narrative tool. Today, the theme appears in many fantasy, science fiction and horror stories; some would even recognize a distinct subgenre of shapeshifting or transformation fiction, with its own genre conventions. Fantasy and science fiction occasionally feature races or species of shapeshifters, and both magic and technology can be used to impose a change in form. Some of the more popular themes include werewolves, vampires, and age regression. In a broader sense, the term includes stories about characters who shrink or grow in size without changing their form. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Many fantasy stories and worlds call their main sapient humanoid species races rather than species. ... A werewolf in folklore and mythology is a person who changes into a wolf, either by purposefully using magic in some manner or by being placed under a curse. ... Further reading Christopher Frayling - Vampyres: Lord Byron to Count Dracula 1992. ... Age regression is a popular theme in transformation fiction involving the physical reduction in age by a character. ...


Transformation in this regard is physical, as opposed to the character development common to many stories, even with no fantastic element, which typically involves characters changing mentally, psychologically or spiritually. Alice, a fictional character based on a real character from the work of Lewis Carroll. ...


Two episodes of the television show Supernatural (Episode 6, Season 1 "Skin" & Episode 12, Season 2 "Nightshifter") deal with the shapeshifter lore. This article is about the US TV series. ...


Shapeshifting in comics

Main article: Calvin and Hobbes
Calvin created a transmogrification machine that allowed him to transform into anything he wished.

In the Japanese manga Ranma 1/2, by Rumiko Takahashi, the main characters shapeshift when are touched by cold water and recover their original form with a little splash of hot water. The hero, Ranma, changes into a beautiful maiden, and his father Genma into a Giant Panda. There are others characters cursed like they are, too. Comic book fiction traditionally features characters with superhuman, supernatural, or paranormal abilities, often referred to as superpowers (also spelled super-powers). Below is a list of many of those that have been known to be used. ... Listen to this article (3 parts) (info) Part 1 â€¢ Part 2 â€¢ Part 3 This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-01-29, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... A transmogrifier is a fictional device used for transforming one object into another object. ... Ranma ½ Graphic Novel, Volume 1 English version, Second Edition Ranma ½ (らんま½, Japanese pronunciation: Ranma Nibun no Ichi) is a comedy anime and manga by Rumiko Takahashi (高橋 留美子) about a boy named Ranma Saotome (早乙女 乱馬) who was trained from early childhood... Takahashi is one of the wealthiest women in Japan. ...


In the Japanese manga and anime series Fullmetal Alchemist by Hiromu Arakawa, the Homunculus Envy is able to turn into any person or animal, and occasionally turns his limbs into blades. “Fullmetal” redirects here. ... Arakawas Self-portrait from Fullmetal Alchemist Volume 6. ...


The Zoanoids from the Guyver manga and anime series are also notoriously known for their abilities to change from humans into monsters. Bio-Booster Armor Guyver or Guyver: The Bio-Boosted Armor ) is a long-running (over 140 chapters) manga series written by Yoshiki Takaya. ... This article is about monsters as a kind of legendary creature. ...


In the Japanese manga and anime series Fruits Basket, people who are members of The Zodiac transform into their respective zodiac animals when hugged. Over time, they gain the ability to change back into their human forms. This article is about the manga and anime franchise. ...


Psychology of transformation fiction

Science fictional transformation fiction tends to feed a sense of discovery and suggest the unlocking of potential. This may be an analogy for the idealization of the experience of a teenager who discovers that puberty has changed his body, including increased strength and physical ability. Jack L. Chalker's Wellworld series is an example of this sort. The eponymous planet is populated by hundreds of different species, each in its own territory, and visitors become residents by being forcibly transformed at the polar immigration entry points into a member of a randomly selected resident species. Jack Laurence Chalker (December 17, 1944 - February 11, 2005) was an American science fiction author. ...


Fantasy transformation fiction is often mystical or dynamic, focusing on the change of the person's identity when transformed. This may be an analogy for learning to take a different perspective. Patricia A. McKillip's Riddlemaster of Hed series includes transformations of wizards into mountain sheep, ancient trees, ravens, and even the wind; each change leaves its mark on the essence of the wizard who transforms. In T.H. White's The Sword in the Stone, the wizard Merlyn transforms young Arthur into a variety of animals so he can learn from the animals the lessons he will need to be a good king. Patricia A. McKillip (February 29, 1948—) is an American author of fantasy and science fiction novels. ... Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 - January 17, 1964) was a writer. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: The Sword in the Stone This article is about the novel. ...


Horror transformation fiction captures a feeling of fear, of people suddenly becoming monsters, of yourself becoming a monster, of things prowling in the night that used to be human. This is possibly an analogy for emotions that are so strong, they rip away one's rationality and leave one a beast. An American Werewolf in London is a perfect example; a young man is bitten, and without his permission or desire, becomes a creature of darkness that exists to kill. An American Werewolf in London is a comedy/horror film released in 1981, written and directed by John Landis. ...


Transformation can also be viewed as a metaphor for puberty and budding sexuality, such as in the Disney film The Shaggy Dog. In the story, the teenage protagonist Wilby Daniels finds himself under the curse of a ring reputed to having belonged to Lucrezia Borgia that causes him to randomly transform into a sheepdog. This happens concurrently with the arrival of a beautiful and exotic neighbor that Wilby has a crush on; throughout the film he finds himself helplessly transforming into a dog, frequently in her presence. Most tellingly, this happens at a dance where he is slow-dancing with her — an activity that might cause the average adolescent male to find himself getting an erection; though this gets filtered into him growing shaggy hair and becoming a beast, essentially his animal instincts take control of him and he rushes away from the social activity humiliated. Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... The Shaggy Dog is a 1959 Walt Disney movie about a teenager who is transformed into a sheep dog by a magic ring. ... This article is about the historical person. ... A Sheep dog is a type of domestic dog whose original purpose was to herd or guard sheep. ...


In some stories, an unexpected but welcome transformation (especially various forms of lycanthropy) plays a thematic role similar to the plot device of the protagonist being a commoner who finds out they are actually royal, or have unsuspected magical talent, or have some other wonderful unsuspected destiny. In others, a transformation imposed from without by a hostile entity is a challenge to be overcome; the protagonist seeks a way to reverse the transformation and regain their original form. In many such stories, the final resolution involves the unwillingly transformed protagonist coming to terms with their new shape and turning it to their advantage rather than finding a way to return to "normal". In folklore, lycanthropy is the ability or power of a human being to undergo transformation into a wolf. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ...


Shapeshifting in real life

Some animals, particularly octopi, are able to change their body shape and color to mimic other creatures and objects, for camouflage or to hide in narrow spaces. The Mimic Octopus is noted for its ability to impersonate sea snakes, widely different fish species, and rock formations. For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ... Countershaded Ibex are almost invisible in the Israeli desert. ... Binomial name Thaumoctopus mimicus Norman & Hochberg, 2005 The Indonesian Mimic Octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) is a species of octopus that has the uncanny ability to mimic several other sea creatures. ... For sea snakes in mythology and cryptozoology, see Sea serpent. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Insects often undergo metamorphosis, in a transformation between their larval and adult stages. While fictional metamorphoses are almost always permanent, these changes are always so. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... A Pieris rapae larva An older Pieris rapae larva A Pieris rapae pupa A Pieris rapae adult Metamorphosis is a process in biology by which an individual physically develops after birth or hatching, and involves significant change in form as well as growth and differentiation. ...


Transformation enthusiasts

Many children have animal transformation fantasies and shapeshifting is a well-known feature of fairy tales, such as the story of the Frog Prince. Interest in transformation isn't limited just to them, though; the concept captures some imaginations of all ages. The subject is rather obscure and there's no established term for those who like transformations; the general expression is just "TF fans". Note that having an interest in shapeshifting is distinct from belonging to therians, otherkin or any other group that actually identifies with or wishes to become something else. A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... The Frog Asks To Be Allowed To Enter The Castle - Illustration For The Frog Prince by Walter Crane 1874 The Frog King (German: Der Froschkönig), also known as The Frog Prince, is a fairy tale, best known through the Brothers Grimms written version. ... It has been suggested that Otherkin be merged into this article or section. ... Otherkin is the term for a group of people who consider themselves non-human or having a connection to a mythical archetype in some way, usually believing to be mythological or legendary creatures. ...


It is possible for this interest to be sexually charged, or to accentuate other fetishes; for instance, forced shapeshifting can lend itself well to themes of dominance. The result is a transformation fetish. For the meaning of the word dominance in genetics, please see Dominance relationship Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals. ... Drawing of a transformation scene. ...


Websites and online communities about transformation exist, both clean and otherwise, although for someone who e.g. just likes coming across shapechanges on TV, a site dedicated for appreciating them might be entirely too much. The Transformation Story Archive is a prominent example of its kind. The Transformation Story Archive (TSA) is a website that archives stories that feature a personal physical transformation, or feature its aftermath. ...


Two currently prominent webcomics feature transformations for their own sake: El Goonish Shive is technology- and magic-based and more character-driven, while The Wotch is somewhat younger, magic-based and considerably more madcap. Webcomics, also known as online comics and internet comics, are comics that are available to read on the Internet. ... El Goonish Shive (EGS) is a contemporary fantasy webcomic, written and drawn by Dan Shive. ... The Wotch is a webcomic by Anne Onymous and Robin Ericson. The first daily page appeared on November 21, 2002. ...


See also

This is a list of shapeshifters from mythology and modern fiction. ... Resizing (including size-changing, miniaturization, magnification, shrinking, and enlargement, is a theme in fiction, especially science fiction. ... Self-reconfiguration is a term used in the fields of robotics and nanotechnology. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Animal transformation fantasies are a common theme in fantasy and erotica. ... Comic book fiction traditionally features characters with superhuman, supernatural, or paranormal abilities, often referred to as superpowers (also spelled super-powers). Below is a list of many of those that have been known to be used. ... A soul eater is a folklore figure in the traditional belief systems of some African peoples, notably the Hausa people of Nigeria and Niger. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Shapeshifting", p 858 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  2. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Metamorphosis", p 641 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  3. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Transformation", p 960 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  4. ^ Marina Warner, From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales And Their Tellers, p 353 ISBN 0-374-15901-7
  5. ^ Anne Wilson, Traditional Romance and Tale, p 84, D.S. Brewer, Rowman & Littlefield, Ipswitch, 1976, ISBN 0-87471-905-4
  6. ^ David Colbert, The Magical Worlds of Harry Potter, p 28-9, ISBN 0-9708442-0-4
  7. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, p 176-7 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
  8. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, p 313-4, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  9. ^ Maria Tatar, p 193, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN 0-393-05163-3
  10. ^ Stephen Prickett, Victorian Fantasy p 86 ISBN 0-253-17461-9
  11. ^ Erik J. Wielenberg, "Aslan the Terrible" p 226-7 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  12. ^ James F. Sennett, "Worthy of a Better God" p 243 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  13. ^ Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p 57, ISBN 0-292-78376-0
  14. ^ Richard M. Dorson, "Foreword", p xxiv, Georgias A. Megas, Folktales of Greece, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1970
  15. ^ Vladimir Propp, Morphology of the Folk Tale, p 57, ISBN 0-292-78376-0
  16. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 56, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  17. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 89, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  18. ^ David Colbert, The Magical Worlds of Harry Potter, p 23, ISBN 0-9708442-0-4
  19. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Transformation", p 960 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  20. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, p 336-7, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  21. ^ L. Sprague de Camp, Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy, p 266 ISBN 0-87054-076-9
  22. ^ Stith Thompson, The Folktale, p 55-6, University of California Press, Berkeley Los Angeles London, 1977
  23. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Shapeshifting", p 858 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  24. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Shapeshifting", p 858 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  25. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Transformation", p 960 ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  26. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 226 W. W. Norton & company, London, New York, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  27. ^ Joseph Jacobs, English Fairy Tales, "The Laidly Worm of Spindleston Heugh"
  28. ^ Maria Tatar, Off with Their Heads! p. 60 ISBN 0-691-06943-3
  29. ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 136 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
  30. ^ Maria Tatar, Off with Their Heads! p. 140-1 ISBN 0-691-06943-3
  31. ^ Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination, Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, ISBN 0-8057-0950-9, p84
  32. ^ Anne Wilson, Traditional Romance and Tale, p 89, D.S. Brewer, Rowman & Littlefield, Ipswitch, 1976, ISBN 0-87471-905-4
  33. ^ Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 1, p 306, Dover Publications, New York 1965
  34. ^ Terri Windling, "Married to Magic: Animal Brides and Bridegrooms in Folklore and Fantasy"
  35. ^ Terri Windling, "Married to Magic: Animal Brides and Bridegrooms in Folklore and Fantasy"
  36. ^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p174-5, ISBN 0-691-06722-8
  37. ^ Terri Windling, "Married to Magic: Animal Brides and Bridegrooms in Folklore and Fantasy"
  38. ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Shape-shifting", p360. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  39. ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Glamour", p191. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  40. ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Shape-shifting", p360. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  41. ^ Eddie Lenihan and Carolyn Eve Green, Meeting The Other Crowd: The Fairy Stories of Hidden Ireland, p 80 ISBN 1-58542-206-1
  42. ^ Heinz Insu Fenkl, "A Fox Woman Tale of Korea"
  • Hall, Jamie, Half Human, Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures (AuthorHouse, 2003 ISBN 1-4107-5809-5)

Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Marina Warner (born 21st November 1946) is a British writer, known as a novelist and short story writer, and also for many non-fiction books relating in various ways to feminism and myth. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers by L. Sprague de Camp, Arkham House, 1976 Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: the Makers of Heroic Fantasy is a 1976 work of collective biography on the formative authors of the heroic fantasy genre by L. Sprague de Camp, published by Arkham House. ... Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Cover art The Encyclopedia of Fantasy is a reference work on fantasy, edited by John Clute and John Grant. ... Joseph Jacobs (1854, Australia - 1916) was a British literary historian. ... Francis James Child (February 1, 1825 - September 11, 1896), was an American scholar and educationist, and collector of what came to be known as the Child Ballads. ... Terri Windling is an influential fantasy editor, artist, essayist, and author of the novel The Wood Wife (1996), winner of the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for best novel. ... Terri Windling is an influential fantasy editor, artist, essayist, and author of the novel The Wood Wife (1996), winner of the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for best novel. ... Terri Windling is an influential fantasy editor, artist, essayist, and author of the novel The Wood Wife (1996), winner of the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for best novel. ... Katharine Mary Briggs (November 8, 1898 – 1980) is the author of The Anatomy of Puck, the definitive 4-volume Dictionary of British Folk-Tales, and various other books on fairies and folklore. ... Katharine Mary Briggs (November 8, 1898 – 1980) is the author of The Anatomy of Puck, the definitive 4-volume Dictionary of British Folk-Tales, and various other books on fairies and folklore. ... Katharine Mary Briggs (November 8, 1898 – 1980) is the author of The Anatomy of Puck, the definitive 4-volume Dictionary of British Folk-Tales, and various other books on fairies and folklore. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Amberway II Character Generation - Shapeshifting (506 words)
Shapeshifting is associated with the element of Earth.
Shapeshifting is different and strange to most of Corwin's generation - there may even be some prejudice against it.
It's easier for an Amberite shapeshifter to turn herself into a big wolf than to simply grow a wolf's pelt on her existing frame.
Learn Shapeshifting with Deep Trance Hypnosis (1160 words)
Shapeshifting is the ability to change the shape of a specific energy field which may pertain to a physical object or something that is intangible.
The purpose of shapeshifting is, of course, not restricted to physical combat.
Shapeshifting is not restricted to animal forms, not to any creatures existing in the physical realm.
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