FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Please expand this article.
This template may be found on the article's talk page, where there may be further information. Alternatively, more information might be found at Requests for expansion.
Please remove this message once the article has been expanded.
上海合作组织
Шанхайская организация сотрудничества
Crest of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Crest of the SCO

██ Member states Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SCO_logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

██ Observer states

Membership 6 member states
4 observer states
Headquarters
Secretariat
RATS

- Beijing
- Tashkent
Working languages Chinese, Russian
Secretary General Zhang Deguang
Formation 14 June 2001
Official website http://www.sectsco.org/

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental organization which was founded on June 14, 2001 by leaders of the People's Republic of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Except for Uzbekistan, the other countries had been members of the Shanghai Five; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organization. Beijing (Chinese: 北京; Pinyin: Běijīng; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Tashkent Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташкент in Russian; its name translates from Uzbek to Stone City in English) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supra-national company, society, state or other body or organization as its primal mean of communication. ... Zhang Deguang is the secretary general of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...

Contents


Official names

The official working languages of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization are Chinese and Russian. Here are the official names of the organization in the two languages, abbreviations in parentheses. A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supra-national company, society, state or other body or organization as its primal mean of communication. ...


Chinese:

Russian: Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiǎntǐzì; also called 简化字/簡化字, jiǎnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Image File history File links Chinese-Shanghai_Cooperation_Organization. ... Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn), also known as scheme of the Chinese phonetic alphabet (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音方案; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音方案; Pinyin: Hànyǔ Pīnyīn fāngàn), while pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)), is a system of romanization (phonemic notation... Cyrillization of Chinese from Pinyin It is known as the Palladiy system and is the official Cyrillization of Chinese language in Russia. ...

The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ...

Origins

The Shanghai Five grouping was originally created in 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai by the heads of states of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. In 1997 the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow. Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ...


Subsequent annual summits of the Shanghai Five group occurred in Almaty (Kazakhstan) in 1998, in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) in 1999, and in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) in 2000. Almaty Former Pioneers palace Russian Orthodox Cathedral Night city. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (Бишкек) is the capital of Kyrgyzstan. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Dushanbe (Душанбе), population 562,000 people (2000 census), is the capital of Tajikistan. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


In 2001, the annual summit returned to Shanghai, China. There the five member nations first admitted Uzbekistan in the Shanghai Five mechanism (thus transforming it into the Shanghai Six). Then all six heads of state signed on June 15, 2001, the Declaration of Shanghai Cooperation Organization, praising the role played thus far by the Shanghai Five mechanism and aiming to transform it to a higher level of cooperation. In July 2001, Russia and the PRC, the organization's two leading nations, signed the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths: July 3 - Mordecai Richler July 23 - Eudora Welty July 31 - Poul Anderson Films: July 4 - Cats and Dogs July 6 - Kiss of the Dragon starring Jet Li July 18 - Jurassic Park III July 27 - Planet of... The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the Peoples Republic of China and the Russian Federation (FCT) is a twenty-year strategic treaty which was signed by the leaders of the two powers, Jiang Zemin and Vladimir Putin, on July 16, 2001. ...


In June 2002, the heads of the SCO member states met in St. Petersburg, Russia. There they signed the SCO Charter which expounded on the organization's purposes, principles, structures and form of operation, and established it officially from the point of view of international law. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


Activities

Cooperation on security

The SCO is primarily centered around its member nations' Central Asian security-related concerns, often describing the main threats it confronts as being terrorism, separatism and extremism. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Terrorism, as defined by the United States Department of Defense, is the calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. ... Separatism involves setting oneself or others apart. ... Extremism is a term used to describe either ideas or actions thought by critics to be unwarranted or at least beyond what is acceptable in a civilised society. ...


Starting in 2003, there was a joint counter-terrorism center built in Shanghai, China. In the June 16 - June 17, 2004 SCO summit, held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the SCO agreed to form the Regional Antiterrorism Structure (RATS). On 21 April 2006, the SCO also decided to establish a new institute to fight cross-border drug crimes. [1] Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tashkent Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташкент in Russian; its name translates from Uzbek to Stone City in English) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grigory Logninov claimed on April 2006 that the SCO has no plans to become a military bloc; nonetheless he argued that the increased threats of "terrorism, extremism and separatism" make necessary a full-scale involvement of armed forces. [2]


There have been a number of SCO joint military exercises: The first of these was held in 2003, with the first phase taking place in Kazakhstan and the second in China. [3] 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On a larger scale but outside the SCO framework, the first ever joint military exercise between China and Russia, called Peace Mission 2005 started on August 19, 2005. Following the successful completion of the Sino-Russian military exercises, Russian officials have begun speaking of the SCO taking on a military role and of India also joining these exercises in the future. Peace Mission 2005 was the first ever joint military exercise between Russia and China. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The next joint military exercises are planned for 2007 in Russia, near the Ural Mountains and close to Central Asia, as was agreed upon on April 2006 at a meeting of SCO Defense Ministers. Air forces and precision-guided weapons are likely to be used. Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov said that the exercises will be transparent and open to media and the public. [3] [4] 2007 (MMVII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: Уральские горы = Урал) also known simply as the Urals and as the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, is a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... Sergei Borisovich Ivanov (Сергей Борисович Иванов in Russian) (born January 31, 1953, Leningrad) is the Defense Minister of the Russian Federation. ...


The next meeting of Defense Ministers is planned for 2007 in Kyrgyzstan.


Economic cooperation

A Framework Agreement to enhance economic cooperation was signed by the SCO member states on 23 September 2003. At the same meeting the Premier of the PRC, Wen Jiabao proposed a long-term objective to establish a free trade area in the SCO, while other more immediate measures would be taken to improve the flow of goods in the region. A follow up plan with 100 specific actions was signed one year later, on September 23, 2004. [5] [6] September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Premier ( Chinese: 总理 pinyin: zŏnglĭ), sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister, is the Chairman of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China and head of Central Peoples Government. ... Wen Jiabao (Simplified Chinese: 温家宝; Traditional Chinese: 溫家寶; Pinyin: WÄ“n JiābÇŽo; Wade-Giles: Wen Chia-pao) (born September 1942) is the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A free trade area is a designated group of countries that have agreed to eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most (if not all) goods between them. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 26 October 2005 Moscow Summit of the SCO, the Secretary General of the Organization said that the SCO will prioritize joint energy projects: such will include the oil and gas sector, the exploration of new hydrocarbon reserves, and joint use of water resources. The creation of an Inter-bank SCO Council was also agreed upon in that summit in order to fund future joint projects. The first meeting of the SCO Interbank Association was held in Beijing in 21-22 February 2006. [7] [8] October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuri Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... (Redirected from 21 February) February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cultural Cooperation

Cultural cooperation also occurs in the SCO framework. Culture ministers of the SCO met for the first time in Beijing on 12 April 2002, signing at the same time a joint statement for continued cooperation. The third meeting of the Culture Ministers took place in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on 27-28 April 2006 [9] [10] April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Tashkent Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташкент in Russian; its name translates from Uzbek to Stone City in English) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... (Redirected from 27 April) April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A SCO Arts Festival and Exhibition was held for the first time during the Astana Summit of 2005. A second Arts Festival and Exhibition is expected to take place in Shanghai on June 2006. Kazakhstan has also suggested a SCO festival of folk dance to take place in Astana, in 2008. [11] Astanas flag Astanas coat-of-arms Map showing Astanas location in Kazakhstan New buldings in Astana Astana climate Astana (Kazakh, Russian: Астана), estimated population of 600,000 (2004 and growing fast), has been the capital of Kazakhstan since 1998. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ... Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is dominated by an inherited tradition rather than by... Astanas flag Astanas coat-of-arms Map showing Astanas location in Kazakhstan New buldings in Astana Astana climate Astana (Kazakh, Russian: Астана), estimated population of 600,000 (2004 and growing fast), has been the capital of Kazakhstan since 1998. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Future membership possibilities

Among other nations of the wider region, Mongolia became the first country to receive observer status in the 2004 Tashkent Summit. Pakistan, India and Iran received observer status at the 2005 SCO summit in Astana of Kazakhstan on July 5, 2005. All four nations may soon become full members of the organization. Astanas flag Astanas coat-of-arms Map showing Astanas location in Kazakhstan New buldings in Astana Astana climate Astana (Kazakh, Russian: Астана), estimated population of 600,000 (2004 and growing fast), has been the capital of Kazakhstan since 1998. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chinese Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui once said that the SCO will not take in new members before its six members make serious studies. Russia's permanent representative in the SCO Secretariat Grigory Logninov has also claimed that the enlargement of the SCO is impeded by "an immature mechanism of admission of new members", while Secretary General Zhang Deguang argued that an overexpansion might hinder the intensification of the cooperation. [12] The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Zhang Deguang is the secretary general of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. ...


In a series of meetings in February 2006 with Chinese officials and media, the President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf argued in favour of Pakistan's qualification to join the organization as a full member. China said that it would convey Pakistan’s desire to all SCO member states. In turn Musharraf was formally invited the sixth summit of the SCO to take place in Shanghai, in June 2006. [13] [14] February 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 1 February 2006 (Wednesday) Governor of West Virginia Joe Manchin asks for a halt in coal mining following two more coal mining deaths in the state that saw fourteen people die in coal mining disasters in... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ; born August 11, 1943 in Delhi, British India) is the current Military ruler of Pakistan. ... Shanghai (Chinese: 上海; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is Chinas largest city by population. ... June 1 - 2006 Atlantic hurricane season begins. ...


The SCO has also encouraged India to join the organization, saying that they would properly consider a membership application should it decide to join the group. [15] Indeed, Russia has been said to support Pakistan's membership only if India joins at the same time [16] -- given the disputes between the two nations this scenario parallels the simultaneous entry into NATO of Greece and Turkey. So far India has not made an official membership application, but has unofficially made its interest in joining known. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


Belarus has also applied for observer status in the organization and been promised Kazakhstan's support towards that goal. However Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov voiced doubt on the probability of Belarus' membership saying that Belarus was a purely European country. [16] [17] Sergei Borisovich Ivanov (Сергей Борисович Иванов in Russian) (born January 31, 1953, Leningrad) is the Defense Minister of the Russian Federation. ...


Relations with the West

Though the declaration on the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization contained a statement that it "is not an alliance directed against other states and regions and it adheres to the principle of openness", most observers believe that one of the original purposes of the SCO was to serve as a counterbalance to the United States and in particular to avoid conflicts that would allow the United States to intervene in areas near both Russia and China. Many observers also believe that the organization was formed as a direct response to the threat of missile defense systems by the United States, after the United States reversed course in its nuclear policy and began promoting National Missile Defense. Missile Defense is a term referring to systems, weapon programs, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on Dec. ...


China and Russia's conflicting interests have limited the group's ability to act in a coordinated manner. Immediately after the September 11, 2001 attacks, the SCO was unable to develop a coordinated policy against terrorism and was also unable to deal as a collective body with the United States. The United States was able to significantly increase its influence by offering aid and convincing many of its Central Asian members to allow the United States to use their territory as military bases. [citation needed] The explosion resulting from the crashing of United Airlines Flight 175 into the South Tower. ...


In July 2005, after the war in Afghanistan and Iraq saw a semi-permanent troop presence of U.S. forces in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the SCO meeting at its summit in Astana, Kazakhstan, urged them to set a timetable for withdrawing their troops from member states. Since then, Uzbekistan has asked the U.S. to leave the K-2 air base. [18] The Astana summit also saw the induction of India, Pakistan and Iran as observers.


In 2006, Iran is expected to be inducted as a full member of the SCO and will likely be included in joint military and economic activities, thus nearly eradicating its 20-year isolation. Belarus, which has applied for observer status in the organization, is another nation which has faced international isolation by the West due to alleged undemocratic practices.


On April 15 2006, China’s Xinhua news agency announced that Iran had been invited to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.[1] Xinhua (Chinese:新华通讯社/新華通訊社, pinyin:xīnhuá tōngxùnshè) is also the short for Xinhua News Agency Xinhua (Chinese:新化县/新化縣, pinyin:xīnhuà xiàn) is a county in Hunan,China, See Xinhua County. ...


See also

NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... The Community of Democratic Choice is an international organization established on December 2, 2005 by nine states of Eastern Europe, and mainly the wide area between the Baltic and Black Seas. ... Sino-Russian Relations refers to the relations between Russia and China. ...

External links

  • Official Website
  • Declaration on the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
  • Official People's Republic of China pages on the SCO: from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs [2] and from Xinhua News [3]
  • Yom, Sean L. (2002). "Power Politics in Central Asia: The Future of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization". Harvard Asia Quarterly 6 (4) 48-54.
  • Stakelbeck, Frederick W., Jr. (8 August 2005). "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization". FrontPageMagazine.com.
  • Navrozov, Lev. (17 February 2006). "The Sino-Russian 'Shanghai Cooperation Organization'". NewsMax.com.
  • Daly, John. (19 July 2001). "'Shanghai Five' expands to combat Islamic radicals". Jane's Terrorism & Security Monitor.
  • Colson, Charles. (5 August 2003). "Central Asia: Shanghai Cooperation Organization Makes Military Debut". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty.
  • Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (18 July 2001). "The Russia-China Friendship and Cooperation Treaty: A Strategic Shift in Eurasia?". The Heritage Foundation.
  • Cohen, Dr. Ariel. (24 October 2005). "Competition over Eurasia: Are the U.S. and Russia on a Collision Course?". The Heritage Foundation.
  • "The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Drug War"

References

  1. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-04/22/content_4459199.htm
  2. ^ http://www.interfax.ru/e/B/politics/28.html?menu=1&id_issue=11499715
  3. ^ a b http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-04/26/content_4476403.htm
  4. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-04/27/content_4479247.htm
  5. ^ http://www.ictsd.org/weekly/03-10-01/story3.htm
  6. ^ http://www.shaps.hawaii.edu/fp/russia/2004/20040923_sco_jc.html
  7. ^ http://www.jamestown.org/edm/article.php?article_id=2370411
  8. ^ http://eng.nbu.com/news/read.php?id=392
  9. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/200204/13/eng20020413_93954.shtml
  10. ^ http://eng.gazeta.kz/art.asp?aid=74059
  11. ^ http://www.inform.kz/txt/showarticle.php?lang=eng&id=141605
  12. ^ http://news.uzreport.com/mir.cgi?lan=e&id=9086
  13. ^ http://pakistantimes.net/latest02240601.htm
  14. ^ http://www.dawn.com/2006/03/13/top16.htm
  15. ^ http://news.newkerala.com/india-news/?action=fullnews&id=70979
  16. ^ a b http://www.kommersant.com/page.asp?idr=527&id=670100
  17. ^ http://www.inform.kz/txt/showarticle.php?lang=eng&id=139008
  18. ^ http://svaradarajan.blogspot.com/2005/07/china-russia-get-central-asians-to-say.html
Power in international relations
Power Statuses Middle power | Regional power | Great power | Superpower | Hyperpower
Emerging Superpowers People's Republic of China | India | European Union
Types of power Soft power | Hard power | Political power | Power (sociology) | Bases of power
Other Second superpower | SCO | BRIC

  Results from FactBites:
 
International organization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (609 words)
Thus international organizations in a legal sense are distinguished from mere groupings of states, such as the G-8 and the G-77, neither of which have been founded by treaty, though in non-legal contexts these are sometimes referred to as international organizations as well.
International organizations must also be distinguished from treaties; while all international organizations are founded on a treaty, many treaties (e.g., the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)) do not establish an international organization and rely purely on the parties for their administration.
In the nineteenth century, France was the fons et origo of many international organizations: This means that much of the driving force to form such bodies (such as those which maintain the SI (metric system)) came from the French, and that their headquarters is in France, often in Paris.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Declaration, June 7, 2002 (1588 words)
The SCO is the successor to the Shanghai Five, which arose on the basis of two innovative agreements for the Asian continent on confidence building measures in the military field and on the reduction of arms.
The SCO is based on the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders, noninterference in internal affairs, the non-use of force or the threat of force, and the equality of all the member states.
The SCO member states build their relations within the framework of an emerging multipolar system of international relations and believe that world order in the 21st century should be based on mechanisms for the collective solution of key problems, on the supremacy of law and on a consistent democratization of international relations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m