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Encyclopedia > Shang Dynasty
Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley.
Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley.
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
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(on Taiwan) 1945-present The central region of Shang civilisation was central Henan, where its seven successive capitals were located. ... The central region of Shang civilisation was central Henan, where its seven successive capitals were located. ... Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... 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Timeline of Chinese history
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The Shang Dynasty (Chinese: 商朝) or Yin Dynasty (代) (ca. 1600 BC - ca. 1046 BC) is the second historic Chinese dynasty and ruled in the northeastern region of the area known as "China proper", in the Yellow River valley. The Shāng Dynasty followed the quasi-legendary Xià Dynasty and preceded the Zhōu Dynasty. Information about the Shang Dynasty comes from historical records of the later Zhou Dynasty, the Han Dynasty Shiji by Sima Qian and from Shang inscriptions on bronze artifacts and oracle bones—turtle shells, cattle scapula or other bones on which were written the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters. The oracle bone inscriptions, which date to the latter half of the dynasty, typically recorded the date in the Sexagenary cycle of the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches, followed by the name of the diviner and the topic being divined about. An interpretation of the answer (prognostication) and whether the divination later proved correct were sometimes also added. The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... The origin of the current law of the Peoples Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... (Redirected from 1600 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of... (Redirected from 1046 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC - 1040s BC - 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC 1000s BC 990s BC Events and Trends 1048 BC - Medon, King of Athens, dies after a reign... The following is a timeline of the history of China: For a summary table of the dynasties in Chinese history and their dates, check here. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Replica of an oracle bone -- ox scapula Oracle bones (甲骨片 pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination in the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... The Chinese sexagenary cycle (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a cyclic numeral system of 60 combinations of the two basic cycles, the ten Heavenly Stems (天干; tiāngān) and the twelve Earthly Branches (地支; dìzhÄ«). These have been traditionally used as a means of numbering days and years, not only in China... The ten heavenly stems (Chinese: 天干; pinyin: ) or ten stems (Chinese: 十干; pinyin: ) are an ancient Chinese cyclic numeral system. ... The Earthly Branches (Chinese: ; pinyin: dìzhÄ«; or Chinese: ; pinyin: shíèrzhÄ«; literally twelve branches) provide one Chinese system for reckoning time. ...


These divinations can be gleaned for information on the politics, economy, culture, religion, geography, astronomy, calendar, art and medicine of the period, and as such provide critical insight into the early stages of the Chinese civilization. One site of the Shang capitals, later historically called the Ruins of Yin (殷墟), is near modern day Anyang (安陽). Archaeological work there uncovered 11 major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of palace and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and human as well as animal sacrifices. Tens of thousands of bronze, jade, stone, bone and ceramic artifacts have been obtained; the workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization. In terms of inscribed oracle bones alone, more than 20,000 were discovered in the initial scientific excavations in the 1920s to 1930s, and many more have since been found. Yinxu, the ruins of Yin, the capital (1350 - 1046 BC) of the Shang (Yin) Dynasty. ... Anyang (Simplified Chinese: 安阳, Traditional Chinese: 安陽; pinyin: Ä€nyáng) is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...

Contents

Archeological discovery

Bronze vessel Beast Face Flat Footed Ding (兽面扁足鼎) dated early Shang Dynasty, 1600 - 1350 BC.

During the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD), scholar-bureaucrats and the Chinese gentry became avid antiquarians and collectors of ancient artwork, some claiming to have found Shang Dynasty era bronze vessels with written inscriptions.[1] Despite this, archeologists of the 19th century knew only of written records and historical documentations spanning as far back as the Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC–256 BC), but no earlier.[1] In 1899, it was found that Chinese pharmacists in late Qing Dynasty China were selling "dragon bones" marked with curious and archaic characters.[1] By 1928, these "dragon bones" were finally traced back to their origin at a site near Anyang in the Yellow River valley, modern Henan province, where the National Government's Academia Sinica began an archeological excavation.[1] Work at the site was halted during the Japanese invasion beginning in 1937, but by 1950 another Shang capital had been discovered near Zhengzhou.[1] Image File history File links Shang-ding1. ... Image File history File links Shang-ding1. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ... In imperial China, gentry were the class of landowners who were retired mandarins or their descendents. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... Vessel can refer to any of the following: Objects Vessel (French vaissel, from a rare Latin vascellum, diminuitive of vas, vase, or urn), a word of somewhat wide application for many objects, the meaning common to them being capacity to hold or contain something. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Anyang (Simplified Chinese: 安阳, Traditional Chinese: 安陽; pinyin: Ä€nyáng) is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... The Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese: 中国科学院; pinyin: Zhōngguó KÄ“xuéyuàn), formerly known as Academia Sinica (not to be confused with Taiwans Academia Sinica currently headquartered in Taipei which shares the same root), is the national academy for the natural sciences of the Peoples Republic of... Zhengzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), formerly called Zhengxian (traditional form: Chengchow) , is a prefecture-level city and the capital of Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


At the excavated royal palace of Yinxu, there were large stone pillar bases found along with rammed earth foundations and platforms "as hard as cement," which originally supported 53 buildings of wooden post-and-beam construction.[1] In close proximity to the main palatial complex, there were subterranean pits used for storage, service quarters, and housing quarters.[1] The remnants of the rammed earth walls at Zhengzhou are determined to have risen 27 feet in height, and formed a roughly rectangular wall 4 miles around the ancient city.[2] Construction of these rammed earth walls was actually an inherited tradition by the Shang civilization, since much older rammed earth fortifications were found at Chinese Neolithic sites of the Longshan culture (c. 3000 BC–2000 BC).[2] In 1959, the site of the Erlitou culture was found in Yanshi, south of the Yellow River near Luoyang; their culture is often associated with the legendary Xia Dynasty that preceded the Shang.[3] They also had large palaces that also suggested the existence of a dynastic kingdom preceding the Shang.[3] Radiocarbon dating suggests that the Erlitou culture flourished ca. 2100 BC to 1800 BC.[4] Yinxu, the ruins of Yin, the capital (1350 - 1046 BC) of the Shang (Yin) Dynasty. ... Rammed earth walls form part of the entrance building for the Eden Project in Cornwall, England. ... Braubach (Germany) Timber framing is the modern term for the traditional half-timbered construction in which timber provides a visible skeletal frame that supports the whole building. ... Subterranean can also refer to something below the Earths surface Subterranean was an album released by Swedish heavy metal band In Flames in 1995. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ... The Erlitou culture (二里頭文化) (1900 BC to 1500 BC) is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age society that existed in China. ... Cao Mao, ch. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ...


Cowry shells obtained from the seacoast were also excavated from Anyang, evidence that suggests the Shang were somewhat of a maritime people.[4] Neolithic sites one hundred miles off of mainland China's southern coasts of Fujian — on the island of Taiwan — are dated as far back as 4000 BC.[4] However, there was very limited sea trade in ancient China, since China was isolated from other large civilizations during the Shang period.[4] Trade relations and diplomatic ties via the Silk Road and Chinese maritime ventures to the Indian Ocean to reach other formidable empires did not exist until the reign of Emperor Wu during the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD).[5][6] Species See text. ... From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till China. ... Maritime history is a broad thematic element of global history. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220...


History

Shang/Zhou sculpture, 14-10th century BC.
Shang/Zhou sculpture, 14-10th century BC.

The Shang dynasty is believed to have been founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler. Its civilization was based on agriculture, augmented by hunting and animal husbandry. The Records of the Grand Historian states that the Shang dynasty moved its capital six times. The final and most important move to Yin in 1350 BC led to the golden age of the dynasty. The term Yin dynasty has been synonymous with the Shang dynasty in history, and indeed was the more popular term, although it is now often used specifically in reference to the latter half of the Shang Dynasty. The Japanese and Korean still refer to the Shang dynasty exclusively as the Yin (In) dynasty. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (923 × 1205 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (923 × 1205 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... Yin is said to be the last capital of the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BC). ...


A line of hereditary Shang kings ruled over much of northern China, and Shang troops fought frequent wars with neighboring settlements and nomadic herdsmen from the inner Asian steppes. The capitals, particularly that in Yin, were centers of glittering court life. Court rituals to propitiate spirits developed. In addition to his secular position, the king was the head of the ancestor- and spirit-worship cult. The king often performed oracle bone divinations himself, especially near the end of the dynasty. Evidence from the royal tombs indicates that royal personages were buried with articles of value, presumably for use in the afterlife. Perhaps for the same reason, hundreds of commoners, who may have been slaves, were buried alive with the royal corpse. This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... Slave redirects here. ...

A bronze zun vessel ornamented with designs of dragons and tigers.
A bronze zun vessel ornamented with designs of dragons and tigers.

The Shang dynasty had a fully developed system of writing; its complexity and state of development indicates an earlier period of development, which is still unattested. Bronze casting and pottery also advanced in Shang culture. The bronze was commonly used for art rather than weapons. In astronomy, the Shang astronomers saw Mars and various comets. Many musical instruments were also invented at that time. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1604 × 2200 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 437 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1604 × 2200 pixels, file size: 2. ...


Shang influence, though not political control, extended as far northeast as modern Beijing, where early pre-Yan culture shows evidence of Shang material culture.[7] At least one burial in this region during the Early Shang period contained both Shang-style bronzes and local-style gold jewelry.[7] This Shang influence likely made possible the integration of Yan into the later Zhou Dynasty.[7] Peking redirects here. ... Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ...


The Shang king, in his oracular divinations, repeatedly shows concern about the fang groups, which represented barbarians outside of the civilized tu regions that made up the Shang center. In particular, the tufang group of the Yan Shan region is regularly mentioned as hostile to the Shang[7]. The discovery of a Chenggu-style ge dagger-axe at Xiaohenan demonstrates that even at this early stage of Chinese history, there was some level of connection between the distant areas of north China.[7]


Shang Zhou, the last Yin king, committed suicide after his army was defeated by the Zhou people. Legends say that his army betrayed him by joining the Zhou rebels in a decisive battle. Dì Xīn (帝辛) was the last king of the Shang Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...

This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.
This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.

A classical novel Fengshen Yanyi is about the war between the Yin and Zhou, in which each was favored and supported by one group of gods. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1334x1838, 1624 KB) This bronze ritual wine vessel was made in the 13th century BC, in the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1334x1838, 1624 KB) This bronze ritual wine vessel was made in the 13th century BC, in the Shang Dynasty of China. ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Entrance to the Sackler Gallery. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Fengshen Yanyi (Traditional Chinese: 封神演義; Simplified Chinese: 封神演义) (translated as The Investiture of the Gods or The Creation of the Gods), also known as Fengshen Bang (Traditional Chinese: 封神榜; Simplified Chinese: 封神榜), is one of the major works of classical Chinese literature created in Ming dynasty. ...


After the Yin's collapse, the surviving Yin ruling family collectively changed their surname from their royal Zi (子) (pinyin: zi; Wade-Giles: tzu) to the name of their fallen dynasty, Yin (殷). The family remained aristocratic and often provided needed administrative services to the succeeding Zhou Dynasty. The King Cheng of Zhou (周成王) through the Regent, his uncle the Duke Dan of Zhou (周公旦), enfeoffed the former Shang King Zhou's brother the ruler of Wei, WeiZi (微子) in the former Shang capital at Shang (商) with the territory becoming the state of Song (宋). The State of Song and the royal Shang descendants maintained rites to the dead Shang kings which lasted until 286 BC. (Source: Records of the Grand Historian.) Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Shangqiu (Chinese: 商丘; pinyin: ShāngqiÅ«) is a prefecture-level city within Henan province of the Peoples Republic of China . ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical...


Both Korean and Chinese legends state that a disgruntled Yin prince named Jizi (箕子), who had refused to cede power to the Zhou, left China with his garrison and founded Gija Joseon near modern day Liaoning to what would become one of the early Korean states (Go-, Gija-, and Wiman-Joseon). Jizi (Gija in Korean) or Viscount of Ji was a semi-legendary Chinese sage who is said to have ruled Korea in the 9th century BC. His family name was Zi (子) and given name was Xuyu (胥餘/서여 xÅ«yú/seoyeo, or 須臾/수유 xÅ«yú/suyu). ... Gija Joseon (around 1126 BC - 194 BC) describes the period after the alleged arrival of Gija in northern Korean peninsula. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Many Shang clans migrated northeast and were integrated into Yan culture during the Western Zhou period. These clans maintained an elite status, continuing their sacrificial and burial traditions.[7] Yan State knife money Yan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods in China. ...


Late and Early Shang

Written records found at Anyang confirm the existence of the Shang dynasty. However, Western scholars are hesitant to associate some settlements contemporaneous with the Anyang settlement with the Shang dynasty.[8] For example, archaeological findings at Sanxingdui suggest a technologically advanced civilization culturally unlike Anyang but lacking writing. The extent of Shang control is difficult to determine, given the lack of archaeological exploration. It is accepted among historians that Yin, ruled by the same Shang of official history, coexisted and traded with other culturally diverse settlements in North China. Sanxingdui (三星堆 san1 xing1 dui1) is an archaeological site, about 40 kilometres from Chengdu in Sichuan Province, China. ...

The site of Yin, the capital (1350 - 1046 BC) of the Shang Dynasty, also called Yin Dynasty.
The site of Yin, the capital (1350 - 1046 BC) of the Shang Dynasty, also called Yin Dynasty.

Chinese historians living in later periods were accustomed to the notion of one dynasty succeeding another, but the actual political situation in early China may have been more complicated. The Xia and the Shang can possibly refer to political entities that existed concurrently, just as the early Zhou (successor state of the Shang), is known to have existed at the same time as the Shang.[7] This approach to the Sandai (Or Three Dynasties) system was promoted by noted archaeologist Kwang-chih Chang. Image File history File links Yinxu. ... Image File history File links Yinxu. ... Yin is said to be the last capital of the Chinese Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Kwang-chih Chang (張光直) (1931-2001), also known as K.C. Chang, was a Chinese/Taiwanese archaeologist and sinologist. ...


Furthermore, though the ruins of Yinxu confirms the existence of the Late Shang dynasty, no evidence has been unearthed proving the existence of the Shang dynasty before its move to its last capital. This is seen in research by the reference to Yin-era Shang as Late Shang and pre-jiaguwen Shang as Early Shang. The difficulty is less one of conspirators trying to legitimize the Shang Dynasty and more the problem of historians and archaeologists sorting out historical societies and pre-historic (That is, pre-writing) archeological cultures. Oracle bone script (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally shell bone writing) refers to incised (or, rarely, brush-written) ancient Chinese characters found on oracle bones, which are animal bones or turtle shells used in divination in ancient China. ...


At the Shang Dynasty site of Ao, large walls were erected in the 15th century BC that had dimensions of 20 meters / 65 feet in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2100 yards squared.[9] In similar dimensions, the ancient Chinese capital for the State of Zhao, Handan (founded in 386 BC), had walls that were again 20 meters / 65 feet wide at the base, a height of 15 meters / 50 feet tall, with two separate sides of its rectangular enclosure measured at a length of 1530 yards.[9] State of Zhao (small seal script, 220 BC) Zhao (pinyin: zhao4, simplified Chinese: 赵, traditional Chinese: 趙) was a Chinese state during the Warring States Period. ... Handan (Simplified: 邯郸; Traditional: 邯鄲; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city located in the southwestern part of Hebei Province of China. ...


Economy

A Shang Dynasty bronze-ware pot with lid and handle.
A Shang Dynasty bronze-ware pot with lid and handle.

As far back as c. 1500 BC, the early Shang Dynasty engaged in large-scale production of bronze-ware vessels and weapons.[10] This production necessitated large labor force that would handle the mining, refining, and transportation of copper, tin, and lead ores.[10] The Shang Dynasty royal court and aristocrats required a vast amount of different bronze vessels for various ceremonial purposes and events of religious divination, hence the need for official managers that could provide oversight and employment of hard-laborers and skilled artisans and craftsmen.[10] With the increased amount of bronze available, the army could become better equipped with an assortment of bronze weaponry, and bronze was also able to furnish the fittings of spoke-wheeled chariots that came into widespread use by 1200 BC.[11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the metal. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ...


Apart from their role as the head military commanders, Shang kings also asserted their social supremacy by acting as the high priest of society and leader of divination ceremonies.[11] As the oracle bone texts reveal, the Shang kings were viewed as the best qualified members of society to offer sacrifices to their royal ancestors, to the high god Di, who in their beliefs was responsible for the rain, wind, and thunder.[11]


Shang Military

This bronze axe was used in hand-to-hand combat, and was also a ritual object symbolizing power and military authority.
This bronze axe was used in hand-to-hand combat, and was also a ritual object symbolizing power and military authority.

Shang infantry were armed with a variety of stone or bronze weaponry, including máo spears, yuè pole-axes, ge pole-based dagger-axes, the compound bow, and bronze or leather helmets (Wang Hongyuan 1993).[12] Their western military frontier was at the Taihang Mountains, where they fought the ma or "horse" barbarians, who might have used chariots. The Shang themselves likely only used chariots as mobile command vehicles or elite symbols.[13] Although the Shang depended upon the military skills of their nobility, the masses of town dwelling and rural commoners provided the Shang rulers with conscript labor as well as military obligation when mobilized for ventures of defense or conquest.[14] The subservient lords of noble lineage and other state rulers were obligated to furnish their locally-kept forces with all the necessary equipment, armor, and armaments, while the Shang king maintained a force of about a thousand troops at his capital, and personally led this force into battle.[15] A rudimentary military bureaucracy was needed in order to muster troops of three to five thousand troops in border campaigns, while it was recorded that up to thirteen thousand troops were mustered in order to suppress uprisings of insolent states to Shang authority.[15] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 665 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,844 × 2,564 pixels, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 665 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,844 × 2,564 pixels, file size: 4. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ...


The army was divided into three sections - left, right, and middle.[12] There were largely two types of army units in these sections, those being the loosely organized infantry that were conscripted from the privileged populace and played a supporting role, while the core of the army was the warrior nobility who rode in chariots.[12] Chariot-based warfare continued as a prime means of conducting battle well into the Warring States (481 BC-221 BC) period, although this was slowly phased out by massive infantry, and then large cavalry-based forces by the 3rd century BC.[16] However, even after the Shang integrated the chariot into their military forces, the nobility were still largely amassed in infantry form, as the chariot was mostly associated with transportation, ceremonies, and large-scale royal hunting expeditions.[16] Chariots in the Shang period generally carried three men, the driver placed at the center, an archer on the left, and a warrior armed with a dagger-ax on the right.[16] It had a rectangular frame, with two large spoked wheels, and was driven by two horses,[16] although some of the chariots had teams of four horses.[11] Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 486 BC 485 BC 484 BC 483 BC 482 BC _ 481 BC _ 480 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface. ...


Shang artwork from the Shanghai Museum

Sovereigns of the Shang Dynasty

Posthumous names
Convention: posthumous name or King + posthumous name
Order Reign Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Notes
01 29 Tāng a Sage king; overthrew tyrant Jié (桀) of Xià (夏)
02 02 太丁 Tài Dīng
03 32 外丙 Wài Bǐng
04 04 仲壬 Zhòng Rén
05 12 太甲 Tài Jiǎ
06 29 沃丁 Wò Dǐng
07 25 太庚 Tài Gēng
08 17 小甲 Xiǎo Jiǎ
09 12 雍己 Yōng Jǐ
10 75 太戊 Tài Wù
11 11 仲丁 Zhòng Dīng
12 15 外壬 Wai Ren
13 09 河亶甲 Hé Dǎn Jiǎ
14 19 祖乙 Zǔ Yǐ
15 16 祖辛 Zǔ Xīn
16 20 沃甲 Wò Jiǎ
17 32 祖丁 Zǔ Dīng
18 29 南庚 Nán Gēng
19 07 陽甲 Yáng Jiǎ
20 28 盤庚 Pán Gēng Shang finally settled down at Yīn (殷). The period starting from Pán Gēng is also called the Yīn Dynasty, beginning the golden age of the Shāng dynasty. Oracle bone inscriptions are thought to date at least to Pán Gēng's era.
21 29 小辛 Xiǎo Xīn
22 21 小乙 Xiǎo Yǐ
23 59 武丁 Wǔ Dīng married to consort Fu Hao, who was a renowned warrior. Most of the oracle bones studied are believed to have came from his reign.
24 12 祖庚 Zǔ Gēng
25 20 祖甲 Zǔ Jiǎ
26 06 廩辛 Lǐn Xīn
27 06 庚丁 Gēng Dīng or Kang Ding (康丁 Kāng Dīng)
28 35 武乙 Wǔ Yǐ
29 11 文丁 Wén Dīng
30 26 帝乙 Dì Yǐ
31 30 帝辛 Dì Xīn aka Zhòu (紂), Zhòu Xīn (紂辛) or Zhòu Wáng (紂王). Also referred to by adding "Shāng" (商) in front of any of these names.
Note:
  1. All dates are approximate up to 841 BC. Refer to Zhou dynasty for more info.
  2. Personal names of most of the Shang sovereigns were unknown. The following names were most likely posthumous owing to worse appearances of the Heavenly Stems.

A posthumous name (Traditional Chinese: 諡號/謚號 Simplified Chinese: 谥号; Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... King Tang of Shang of China, in chinese:湯, born Zi Lu, in chinese:子履,(1617 BC - 1588 BC). ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Da Ding 大丁 (Da1 Ding1) – Great IV also known as Tai Ding 太丁 (Tai4 Ding1) is the 太子 – Crown Prince and eldest son of 商湯 (Shang1 Tang1). ... King Bu Bing of Shang of China, in chinese:卜丙, born Zi Sheng, in chinese:子勝,(1600 BC - 1046 BC). ... Zhong Ren (仲壬) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Tai Jia (太甲) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Wo Ding (沃丁) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Tai Geng (太庚) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Xiao Jia (小甲) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Yong Ji (雍己) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Tai Wu (太戊) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Zhong Ding (仲丁) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Wai Ren (外壬) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... He Dan Jia (河亶甲) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Zu Yi (祖乙) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Zu Xin (祖辛) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Wo Jia (沃甲) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Zu Ding (祖丁) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Nan Geng (南庚) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Yang Jia (陽甲) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Pan Geng (盤庚) moved the capital of the Shang Dynasty to Yinxu, which today is at Anyang; in Henan Province, China. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Replica of an oracle bone -- ox scapula Oracle bones (甲骨片 pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination in the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what... Xiao Xin (小辛) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Xiao Yi (小乙) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Wǔ Dīng 武丁, ruled around 1200 BC, 22nd ruler of the Shang Dynasty. ... Fù HÇŽo (婦好), posthumously Mu Xin (母辛), was a consort of King Wu Ding of the Shang Dynasty. ... It has been suggested that King Zu Geng of Shang be merged into this article or section. ... Zu Jia (祖甲) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Lin Xin (廩辛) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China. ... Gen Ding (庚丁) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China from 1170BC to 1147BC. His given name is Xiao(嚣). He got his throne in the year of Jiawu(甲午). His capital is at Yin(æ®·) Categories: | ... Wu Yi (武乙) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China from 1147BC to 1112BC. His given name is Qu(çž¿). According to Bamboo Annals, His capial was at Yin(æ®·). One of the vassal Fen(é‚ ) moved to Qizhou(岐周). He rewarded the vassal Zhou named Koufu(□父) a city called Qiyi(岐邑). On the 15th... Wen Ding (文丁) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China from 1112BC to 1102BC. Another name Da Ding(大丁), and his given name is Tuo(托). According to Bamboo Annals, His capial was at Yin(æ®·) or Zimou(自沬). On the second year of his regime, his vassal (诸侯) of Zhou, led by Jili(季历), attacked... Di Yi (帝乙) was king of the Shang Dynasty of China from 1101BC to 1076BC. Nothing else is known regarding his reign. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC Events and Trends 845 BC - Pherecles, King of Athens dies after a reign of 19 years and... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The ten heavenly stems (Chinese: 天干; pinyin: ) or ten stems (Chinese: 十干; pinyin: ) are an ancient Chinese cyclic numeral system. ...

Further reading

  • Timperley, Harold J. The Awakening of China in Archaeology; Further Discoveries in Ho-Nan Province, Royal Tombs of the Shang Dynasty, Dated Traditionally from 1766 to 1122 B.C.. 1936.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Shang Dynasty

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... Chinese mythology is a collection of cultural history, folktales, and religions that have been passed down in oral or written form. ... The Erligang culture (二里岡文化) (1600 - 1400 BC) is the term used by archaeologists to refer to a Bronze Age archaeological culture in China. ... The Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a multi-discipline project commissioned by the Peoples Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Fairbank 33.
  2. ^ a b Fairbank, 34.
  3. ^ a b Fairbank, 34–35.
  4. ^ a b c d Fairbank, 35.
  5. ^ Sun 1989, 161-167.
  6. ^ Chen 2002, 67-71.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Sun, Yan (June 2006). "Colonizing China's Northern Frontier: Yan and Her Neighbors During the Early Western Zhou Period". International Journal of Historical Archaeology 10 (2): 159-177(19). doi:10.1007/s10761-006-0005-3. 
  8. ^ (1999) The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge University Press, 124-125. ISBN ISBN 0521470307. 
  9. ^ a b Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 43.
  10. ^ a b c Ebrey, 17.
  11. ^ a b c d Ebrey, 14.
  12. ^ a b c Sawyer, 35.
  13. ^ Shaughnessy, Edward L. Historical Perspectives on The Introduction of The Chariot Into China. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Jun., 1988), pp. 189-237
  14. ^ Sawyer, 33.
  15. ^ a b Sawyer, 34.
  16. ^ a b c d Sawyer, 36.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

References

  • Chen, Yan (2002). Maritime Silk Route and Chinese-Foreign Cultural Exchanges. Beijing: Peking University Press. ISBN 7-301-03029-0.
  • Fairbank, John King and Merle Goldman (1992). China: A New History; Second Enlarged Edition (2006). Cambridge: MA; London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01828-1
  • Keightley, David N. (1978). Sources of Shang History: The Oracle-Bone Inscriptions of Bronze Age China. University of California Press, Berkeley. Large format hardcover, ISBN 0-520-02969-0 (out of print); A 1985 paperback 2nd edition is still in print, ISBN 0-520-05455-5.
  • Keightley, David N. (2000). The Ancestral Landscape: Time, Space, and Community in Late Shang China (ca. 1200 – 1045 B.C.). China Research Monograph 53, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California – Berkeley. ISBN 1-55729-070-9, ppbk.
  • Lee, Yuan-Yuan and Shen, Sin-yan. (1999). Chinese Musical Instruments (Chinese Music Monograph Series). Chinese Music Society of North America Press. ISBN 1-880464039
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Sawyer, Ralph D. and Mei-chün Lee Sawyer (1994). Sun Tzu's The Art of War. New York: Barnes and Noble Inc. ISBN 1566192978
  • Shen, Sinyan (1987), Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells, Scientific American, 256, 94.
  • Sun, Guangqi (1989). History of Navigation in Ancient China. Beijing: Ocean Press. ISBN 7-5027-0532-5.
  • Sun, Yan. 2006. "Colonizing China's Northern Frontier:Yan and Her Neighbors During the Early Western Zhou Period." International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 10, no. 2: 159-177.
  • Wang, Hongyuan 王宏源 (1993). The Origins of Chinese Characters 漢字字源入門. Sinolingua, Beijing, ISBN 7-80052-243-1, ppbk.
Preceded by
Xia Dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
ca. 1600 BC - ca. 1046 BC
Succeeded by
Zhou Dynasty

For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... The following is a table of the Dynasties in Chinese history. ... (Redirected from 1600 BC) Centuries: 18th century BC - 17th century BC - 16th century BC Decades: 1650s BC 1640s BC 1630s BC 1620s BC 1610s BC - 1600s BC - 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC Events and trends Egypt: End of Fourteenth Dynasty The creation of one of... (Redirected from 1046 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC - 1040s BC - 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC 1000s BC 990s BC Events and Trends 1048 BC - Medon, King of Athens, dies after a reign... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


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Di Xin or Zhou, the king of Shang, is known in history as a cruel and debauched tyrant.
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The dynasty ruled what is now north and central China: the Yellow River plain and the area of the modern provinces of Henan, Hebei, and Shandong.
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