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Encyclopedia > Shampoo

Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make hair unmanageable. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the film, see Hair (film). ...


Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant, which, while cleaning the hair and scalp, can remove the natural oils (sebum) which lubricate the hair shaft. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ...


Shampooing is frequently followed by conditioners which increase the ease of combing and styling. Hair conditioners, sometimes called cream rinse, are often used in hair care alongside shampoo, to improve the texture and appearance of human hair. ...

Contents

History

The word shampoo in English usage dates back to 1762, with the meaning "to massage". The word was a loan from Anglo-Indian shampoo, in turn from Hindi chāmpo (चाँपो /tʃãːpoː/), imperative of chāmpnā (चाँपना /tʃãːpnaː/), "to smear, knead the muscles, massage". It itself comes from Sanskrit/Hindi word "champā" (चम्पा /tʃəmpaː/), the flowers of the plant Michelia champaca which have traditionally been used to make fragrant hair-oil. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Massager Jacuzzi in the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Binomial name Michelia champaca L. The Champak, which is also known Champac, or Sampige (Michelia champaca) is a tree found primarily in South Asia and a member of the Magnolia family. ...


The term and service was introduced by a Sake Dean Mahomed, who opened a shampooing bath known as Mahomed's Indian Vapour Baths in Brighton, England in 1759. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received an Indian treatment of champi (shampooing) or therapeutic massage. His service was appreciated; he received the high accolade of being appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV. Sake Dean Mahomet (or Mahomed; Shaykh Din Muhammad in Arabic ) (1759-1851) is thought to have been the first native East Indian to have written a book in the English language. ... Brighton is located on the south coast of England, and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton and Hove. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A Turkish bath is a method of cleansing the body and relaxation that was particularly popular during the Victorian era. ... George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Hanover from 29 January 1820 until his death. ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. ...


During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him. A hairdresser is someone whose occupation is to cut or style hair. ... It has been suggested that Handmade soap be merged into this article or section. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ...


Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first synthetic (non-soap) shampoo.[1] Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


From ancient times to this day, Indians have been using different formulations of shampoos using herbs like neem, shikakai or soapnut, henna, bael, brahmi, fenugreek, buttermilk, amla, aloe, and almond in combination with some aromatic components like sandalwood, jasmine, turmeric, rose, and musk. Binomial name Azadirachta indica A.Juss. ... Shikakai is a popular traditional powder shampoo used in India. ... Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. ... Binomial name Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri) is a perennial, creeping herb, also known as brahmi (note. ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Binomial name Phyllanthus emblica Gaertn. ... Species See Species For other uses, see Aloe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Mill. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Jasminum. ... Binomial name Curcuma longa Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a member of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. ... Floribunda Rose redirects here. ... Musk is the name originally given to a perfume obtained originally from the strong-smelling substance secreted by a gland in the abdomen of the male musk deer, and hence applied to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odor. ...


How shampoo works

Shampoo cleans by stripping sebum from the hair. Sebum is an oil secreted by hair follicles that is readily absorbed by the strands of hair, and forms a protective layer. Sebum protects the protein structure of hair from damage, but this protection comes at a cost. It tends to collect dirt, styling products and scalp flakes. Surfactants strip the sebum from the hair shafts and thereby remove the dirt attached to it. The sebaceous glands are glands found in the skin of mammals. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ...


While both soaps and shampoos contain surfactants, soap bonds to oils with such affinity that it removes too much if used on hair. Shampoo uses a different class of surfactants balanced to avoid removing too much oil from the hair. Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ...


The chemical mechanisms that underlie hair cleansing are similar to that of traditional soap. Undamaged hair has a hydrophobic surface to which skin lipids such as sebum stick, but water is initially repelled. The lipids do not come off easily when the hair is rinsed with plain water. Shampoo applied to wet hair is absorbed into the oil/hair interfaces. The anionic surfactants substantially reduce the interfacial surface tension and allow for the removal of the sebum from the hair shaft. The non-polar oily materials on the hair shaft are solubilised into the surfactant micelle structures of the shampoo and are removed during rinsing. There is also considerable removal through a surfactant and oil "roll up" effect. The foamy effect achieved by massaging shampoo into the hair is purely aesthetic. The foam itself does nothing to clean the hair and is a byproduct of the ingredients. In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... In chemistry, an anionic species is one that contains a full negative charge. ... Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... Schematic of a micelle. ...


Composition

Shampoo formulations seek to maximize the following qualities:

Many shampoos are pearlescent. This effect is achieved by addition of tiny flakes of suitable materials, eg. glycol distearate, chemically derived from stearic acid, which may have either animal or vegetable origins. Glycol distearate is a wax. In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... A human eye. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by other living organisms. ... Acidity redirects here. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... Microscopy of keratin filaments inside cells. ... Goniochromism is the property of certain surfaces to change their colour depending on the angle under which they are viewed. ... Stearic acid, also called octadecanoic acid, is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ...


Surfactants

Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and the interfacial tension between two liquids. The term surfactant is a contraction of "Surface active agent". Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... In physics, surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes the layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ...


The major types of surfactants used in shampoos include:

In chemistry, an anionic species is one that contains a full negative charge. ... In chemistry, a cationic species is one that contains a full positive charge. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ... In chemistry, an amphoteric substance is one that can react with either an acid or base (more generally, the word describes something made of, or acting like, two components). ...

Ingredient claims

In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandates that shampoo containers accurately list ingredients. The government further regulates what shampoo manufacturers can and cannot claim as any associated benefit. Shampoo producers often use these regulations to challenge marketing claims made by competitors, helping to enforce these regulations. While the claims may be substantiated however, the testing methods and details of such claims are not as straightforward. For example, many products are purported to protect hair from damage due to ultraviolet radiation. While the ingredient responsible for this protection does block UV, it is not present in a high enough concentration to be effective. Shampoos made for treating medical conditions such as dandruff are regulated as OTC drugs.[2] FDA logo The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, biological medical products, blood products, medical devices, radiation-emitting devices, veterinary products, and cosmetics in the United States. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The abbreviation OTC may refer to: an Office of Technology Commercialization, the intellectual property managing office of many American research universities (sometimes referred to as an Office of Technology Transfer or OTT). ...


Vitamins and Amino Acids

The effectiveness of vitamins, amino acids and "pro-vitamins" to shampoo is also largely debatable. Vitamins and amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and enzymes within the body. While vitamins may be able to penetrate cells through the skin, amino acids and proteins are too large to enter a cell outside the bloodstream, and they can have no effect on dead tissue. Proteins are constructed from amino acids following an RNA blueprint inside the cell. A strand of hair is a long protein chain continually being added to at the root. The only way for an amino acid to be of any use is to be intentionally bound to other amino acids in a specific fashion by a living cell. Hair is not alive, and there is no possibility for an amino acid or protein to have any permanent effect on the health of the strand. Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ...


The case for vitamins is not as well understood. Some have demonstrated a moderate effectiveness in improving the health of skin,[3] but most likely the benefit is derived from the effect of vitamins on living cells below the epidermis. Extending this benefit to hair, the vitamins and minerals could improve the health of new hair growth, but the benefit to existing hair is unsubstantiated. However, the physical properties of some vitamins (like vitamin E oil or panthenol) would have a temporary cosmetic effect on the hair shaft while not having any bioactivity. Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Panthenol is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), and is thus the provitamin of B5. ...


Specialized shampoos

Dandruff

Cosmetic companies have developed shampoos specifically for those who have dandruff. These contain fungicides such as zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. Coal tar and salicylate derivatives are often used as well. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... Zinc pyrithione (abbreviated ZnP and also known as pyrithione zinc) is a fungicide, best known for its use in treating dandruff. ... Selenium sulfide is an antifungal agent often used in shampoos for the treatment of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. ... Malassezia furfur (formerly known as Pityrosporum ovale) is one species of a group of related fungi (yeasts) naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals and humans, and primarily known as the most common cause of dandruff. ... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... Salicylic acid is the chemical compound with the formula C6H4(OH)CO2H, where the OH group is adjacent to the carboxyl group. ...


All-natural

Some companies use "all-natural", "organic", "botanical", or "plant-derived" ingredients (such as plant extracts or oils), combining these additions with one or more typical surfactants. The effectiveness of these organic ingredients is disputed. Rosemary rocks


Alternative

Alternative shampoos, sometimes labeled SLS-free, have fewer harsh chemicals - typically none from the sulfate family. They are claimed to be gentler on human hair. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or NaDS) (CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na) (FW 288. ...


Infant

Shampoo for infants is formulated so that it is the same pH level as the eye, thus less irritating if it were to get into the eyes. Most contain sodium lauryl sulfate and/or sodium laureth sulfate, the mildest surfactant of the sulfate family. Alternatively, infant shampoos may be formulated using other classes of surfactants, most notably non-ionics which are much milder than any charged anionics used. (http://www.happi.com/formulary/2004/12/#Baby%20Shampoo) A human infant In basic English usage, an infant is defined as a human child at the youngest stage of life, especially before they can walk or simply a child before the age of one. ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or NaDS) (CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na) (FW 288. ... Sodium laureth sulfate, or sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), is a detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc. ...


Animal

Shampoo for animals (such as for dogs or cats) should be formulated especially for them, as their skin has fewer cell layers than human skin. Cats' skin is 2-3 cell layers thick, while dogs' skin is 3-5 layers. Human skin, by contrast, is 10-15 cell layers thick. This is a clear example of why one should never use even something as mild as baby shampoo on a cat, dog, or other pet. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. These must never be used on humans! It is equally important to note that while some human shampoos may be harmless when used on animals, any haircare products that contain active ingredients/drugs (such as zinc in antidandruff shampoos) are potentially toxic when ingested by animals. Special care must be taken not to use those products on pets. Cats are at particular risk due to their instinctive method of grooming their fur with their tongues. An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Families Tungidae â€“ sticktight and chigoe fleas (chiggers) Pulicidae â€“ common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae â€“ carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae â€“ marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae â€“ rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae â€“ mouse and rat fleas Ischnopsyllidae â€“ bat fleas Ceratophyllidae:-fleas mainly associated with rodents Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae â€“ rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name... Mange is an parasitic infestation of the skin of animals. ...


Traditional Shampoos

Indonesia

Early shampoos used in Indonesia were made from the husk and straw (merang) of rice. The husks and straws were burned into ash, and the ashes (which have alkaline properties) are mixed with water to form lather. The ashes and lather were scrubbed into the hair and rinsed out, leaving the hair clean, but very dry. After shampooing, Indonesians applied coconut oil to remoisten the hair.[4] The term husk is mostly used to refer to the leafy outer covering of an ear of maize (corn) as it grows on the plant. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Sea foam on the beach. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a fat consisting of about 90% saturated fat, extracted from coconuts and used in cosmetics as well as baking and cooking. ...


References In Popular Culture

  • The British Indian comedy show Goodness Gracious Me made a skit about "Mr Everything Comes From India" sitting on the verandah with his son who remarked that it was a nice English summer afternoon. "Mr Everything Comes From India" then blows the lid as he insists "the Queen's language" is rubbish because words like "verandah" and "shampoo" are really Indian words.
  • Ginger Rogers is famous for one scene in the movie Swing Time (1936). While shampooing hair, Fred Astaire sings "Just the Way You Look Tonight." This is considered a memorable scene.
  • In the movie Billy Madison starring Adam Sandler, Billy conducts an argument in his bath between his shampoo and conditioner, with shampoo claiming "shampoo is better, I go on first and clean the hair!" Conditioner rebuts, "conditioner is better, I leave the hair silky and smooth!"

Goodness Gracious Me was a BBC English language sketch show originally on BBC Radio 4 and later on BBC TWO, based on four Indian-British actors: Sanjeev Bhaskar, Kulvinder Ghir, Meera Syal and Nina Wadia. ... Ginger Rogers (July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an Academy Award-winning American film and stage actress and singer. ... This article is about the film. ... “Astaire” redirects here. ... Billy Madison is a 1995 comedy starring Adam Sandler in the title role about a slacker who must go back to school in order to take over his fathers company. ... Adam Richard Sandler (born September 9, 1966) is an American comedian, screenwriter, director, producer, actor, and musician. ...

See also

This is a list of shampoo brands: Alterna American Crew ARTec ASiRA Aubrey Organics Aussie Aveda Avon Ayush Back to Basics BAMF Bath and Body Works Bed Head Biolage Biosilk Breck Brocato Bumble and bumble. ... Hair conditioners, sometimes called cream rinse, are often used in hair care alongside shampoo, to improve the texture and appearance of human hair. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ From Pert: Do You Wash and Go?. Company Science Behind the Brands. Procter and Gamble. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  2. ^ See FDA Office of Nonprescription Products for information.
  3. ^ Mayo Clinic Staff (2006-08-12). Wrinkle creams: Your guide to younger looking skin. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  4. ^ Agar RAMBUT Selalu Sehat. Kompas Cyber Media (2004-04-11). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.

  Results from FactBites:
 
ACS :: Shampoo (291 words)
This substance is found in most shampoos, and the manufacturers use it because it produces a lot of foam and it is cheap.
BUT the fact is that SLS is used to scrub garage floors, and it is very strong.
Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and its chemical cousin sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) are known irritants, not known carcinogens.
Urban Legends Reference Pages: Shampoo Sham (1267 words)
This substance is found in most shampoos, and the manufactures [sic] use it because it produces a lot of foam and it is cheap.
According to the American Cancer Society, the "probability that an individual, over the course of their lifetime, will develop cancer or die from it" was one in three for both men and women in the 1980s, and one in two for men and one in three in women in 1998.
Ethanolamine lauryl sulfates used in these shampoos were determined to be the source of the nitrosamine contamination, and manufacturers took corrective action.
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