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Encyclopedia > Shame
Emotions

Acceptance
Affection
Aggression
Ambivalence
Anger
Apathy
Anxiety
Compassion
Depression
Disgust
Doubt
Ecstasy
Empathy
Envy
Embarrassment
Euphoria
Fear
Forgiveness
Frustration
Guilt
Gratitude
Grief
Happiness
Hatred
Hope
Horror
Hostility
Homesickness
Hysteria
Loneliness
Love
Paranoia
Pity
Pleasure
Pride
Rage
Regret
Remorse
Sadness
Shame
Sexiness
Suffering
Surprise
Sympathy
Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shame may mean: Shame, a psychological condition Shame (novel), by Salman Rushdie Shame (film), directed by Ingmar Bergman Shame (Depeche Mode song), Track #6 from Depeche Modes album Construction Time Again Shame (Evelyn King song), the first single from American disco artist Evelyn King Shame (Khanoda song), the first... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... It has been suggested that Idiot compassion be merged into this article or section. ... A woman showing disgust. ... This article is about the mental state. ... Ecstasy is a category of altered states of consciousness or trancelike states in which an individual transcends ordinary consciousness and as a result has a heightened capacity for exceptional thought, intense concentration on a specific task, extraordinary physical abilities or intense emotional experience. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Forgiveness (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... “Thanks” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... For the emotion Hatred please see Hate Hatred (Nenavist) is a Soviet film of 1975 directed by Samvel Gasparov. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Anger is a term for the emotional aspect of aggression, as a basic aspect of the stress response in animals whereby a perceived aggravating stimulus provokes a counterresponse which is likewise aggravating and threatening of violence. ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... I PITY THE FOOL is also Mr. ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Regret is often felt when someone feels sadness, shame, or guilt and primarily regret after commiting an action that the person later wishes that they had not done. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... Wide eyes are a common human physiological expression of emotional surprise. ... ...

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Shame is the consciousness or awareness of dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation. Genuine shame is associated with genuine dishonor, disgrace , or condemnation. False shame is associated with false condemnation as in the double-bind form of false shaming; "he brought what we did to him upon himself". Therapist John Bradshaw calls shame the "emotion that lets us know we are finite".[citation needed] John Bradshaw (1602-59) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ...

Contents

Characterizing shame

Shame vs. guilt

There is no standard distinction between shame and guilt. The cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict describes shame as a violation of cultural or social values while feelings of guilt arise from violations of internal values. It is possible to feel ashamed of thought or behavior that no one knows about as well as feeling guilty about actions that gain the approval of others. However, in Facing Shame, therapists Fossum and Mason state "While guilt is a painful feeling of regret and responsibility for one's actions, shame is a painful feeling about oneself as a person." Shame is needed to establish limits, in childhood, since young children are unable to associate cause and effect by themselves. However, as children become better able to judge their own actions, guilt becomes the conscience former. Although, in general, guilt guides adult consciences, intrinsic shame is often present in adults too, as shaming is a form of religious, political, and/or legal control in cultures worldwide.[citation needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), La Conscience (daprès Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ...


Shame vs. embarrassment

Shame differs from embarrassment in that it does not necessarily involve public humiliation: one can feel shame for an act known only to oneself, but in order to be embarrassed, one's actions must be revealed to others. Also, shame carries the connotation of a response to qualities that are considered morally wrong, whereas one can be embarrassed regarding actions that are morally neutral but socially unacceptable (such as a public fart). Another view of shame and embarrassment is that the two emotions lie on a continuum and only differ in intensity. The wish to sink into the ground and disappear from view, to hide oneself from eyes that witness one's embarrassment or humiliation is common to both.[citation needed] Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ...


Toxic shame

Psychologists often use the term "toxic" shame to describe false, and therefore, pathological shame. Therapist John Bradshaw states that toxic shame is induced, inside children, by all forms of child abuse. Incest and other forms of child sexual abuse can cause particularly severe toxic shame. Toxic shame often induces what is known as complex trauma in children who cannot cope with toxic shaming as it occurs and who dissociate the shame until it is possible to cope with.[citation needed] Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. ... Dissociation is a state of acute mental decompensation in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are compartmentalized because they are too overwhelming for the conscious mind to integrate. ...


Shamery (and shaming) is often associated with torture (see the psychology of torture). It is also a central feature of punishment, shunning, or ostracism. In addition, shame is often seen in victims of child neglect, child abuse and a host of other crimes against children. Parental incest is considered the ultimate form of shaming by child psychologists.[citation needed] Torture is the intentional infliction of severe physical or psychological torment as an expression of cruelty, a means of intimidation, deterrent, revenge or punishment, or as a tool for the extraction of information or confessions. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ...


Religious shame

In the Milgram experiment, described in the book Obedience to Authority, pp. 48-49, Stanley Milgram, described one of a very few individuals in the entire series of experiments who was able to successfully resist authority without experiencing feelings of shame. The subject, a professor of religion, explained that his reason for being able to resist unjust authority with equinamity came from his religious faith. The subject explained that "If one has as ones ultimate authority God, then it trivializes human authority." Professor Milgram wrote that "the answer for this man lies in the repudiation of authority, not in the substitution of good -- that is divine -- authority for bad." Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... The experimenter (V) orders the Teacher (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (S), who is actually an actor. ... Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ...


Vicarious shame

Psychologists recently introduced the notion of vicarious shame, which refers to the experience of shame on behalf of another person. Individuals vary in their tendency to experience vicarious shame, which is related to neuroticism and to the tendency to experience personal shame. Extremely shame-prone people might even experience vicarious shame: shame on behalf of another person who is already feeling shame on behalf of a third party (or possibly on behalf of the individual proper). In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ...


Shame in society

Shame is also generally considered one pillar of socialization in all societies. A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ...


Shame is enshrouded in legal precedent as a pillar of punishment and ostensible correction.


Shame has been linked to narcissism in the psychoanalytic literature. It is one of the most intense emotions. The individual experiencing shame may feel totally despicable, worthless and feel that there is no redemption. This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ...


According to the anthropologist Ruth Benedict, cultures may be classified by their emphasis of using either shame or guilt to regulate the social activities of their members. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... “Guilty” redirects here. ...


Shared opinions and expected behaviours that cause the feeling of shame (as well as an associated reproval) if violated by an individual are in any case proven to be very efficient in guiding behaviour in a group or society.


Shame is a common form of control used by those people who commit relational aggression. It is an important weapon in marriage, family, and church settings. It is also used in the workplace as a form of overt social control or aggression. Relational aggression is psychological (social/emotional) aggression between people in relationships. ...


Shame campaign

A shame campaign is a tactic in which particular individuals are singled out because of their behavior or suspected crimes, often by marking them publicly.


In the Philippines, Mayor Alfredo Lim popularized such tactics during his term as mayor of Manila. On July 1, 1997, he began a controversial "spray paint shame campaign” in an effort to stop drug use. He and his team sprayed bright red paint on two hundred squatter houses whose residents had been charged, but not yet convicted, of selling prohibited substances. Officials of other municipalities, emboldened by Lim’s campaign, began conceiving their own anti-crime shame strategies. Alfredo Siojo Lim (born December 21, 1929) is the newly-elected Mayor of the City of Manila and a former senator of the Philippines. ... Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban...


Lim’s shame campaign generated much publicity, and many questioned the legality and humaneness of singling out unconvicted suspects. Former Senator Rene A. Saguisag, a member of Movement for Brotherhood, Integrity and Nationalism, Inc. (MABINI), issued a public statement condemning Lim’s policy: "The shame campaign violated presumption of innocence because it transgresses due process…" In January 2000, the 14th Division of the Court of Appeals ruled the policy as "invalid and unconstitutional."[1] 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: January 1- Millennium celebrations take place throughout the world. ...


In January 2005, Metro Manila Development Authority Chair Bayani Fernando announced a "wet rags shame campaign" to target commuters who wait for rides in the middle of the streets. The MMDA traffic enforcers planned to punish jaywalkers by driving by in service vehicles and splashing them with wet rags attached to poles. Sound trucks were to drive ahead and warn pedestrians of their approach; those who refused to comply with traffic regulations were to have wet rags dropped on their heads. 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in January • 29 Ephraim Kishon • 25 Philip Johnson • 23 Johnny Carson • 22 Parveen Babi • 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański • 17 Virginia Mayo • 17 Zhao Ziyang • 15... Bayani Fernando (born July 25, 1946) is the current chairman of the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA). ...


Sen. Richard Gordon disagreed with the shame tactic, saying such a way of disciplining pedestrians is a "return to Grade One." He added that the campaign might work for a time but would end up being futile. Rep. Vincent Crisologo of Ilocos Sur, a known critic of Fernando, said the MMDA chief was resorting to martial law tactics. Rep. Rozzano Rufino Biazon of Muntinlupa City, criticized the plan: "It only shows that the MMDA looks at people as animals who should be herded like cattle instead of using reason to make them follow the law… it is an admission that its personnel assigned to the thoroughfares are not doing their job." Richard Dick Juico Gordon (born August 5, 1945) is a Filipino politician. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Ilocos Sur Region: Ilocos Region (Region I) Capital: Vigan City Founded: 1572 Population: 2000 census—594,206 (41st largest) Density—230 per km² (34th highest) Area: 2,579. ... The City of Muntinlupa (Filipino: Lungsod ng Muntinlupa) is the southernmost city in Metro Manila. ...


Chairman Fernando, unfazed by criticisms, proceeded with the campaign.[2]


In 2005, Tony Kwok, Hong Kong’s former corruption chief, suggested that the Philippine government should carry out a shame campaign to eliminate political corruption. A consultant of the Philippines’ Office of the Ombudsman, Kwok said, "This is what you need, a shame campaign. You have to let the politicians know that corruption is a high-risk crime." Kwok cited Hong Kong’s use of TV advertisements to discourage governmental misconduct. He added, "The best way is through enforcement and education."[3] World map of the Corruption Perceptions Index, which measures the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians. Blue colors indicate little corruption, red colors indicate much corruption In broad terms, political corruption is the misuse by government officials of their governmental powers for illegitimate...


See also

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A woman showing disgust. ... Shunning is the act of deliberately avoiding association with, and habitually keeping away from an individual or group. ... François Chifflart (1825-1901), La Conscience (daprès Victor Hugo) Conscience is an ability or faculty or sense that leads to feelings of remorse when we do things that go against our moral values, or which informs our moral judgment before performing such an action. ...

References

  1. ^ Pulta, Benjamin B. "Spray campaign debate heats up." Sun.Star Manila. June 26, 2003.
  2. ^ "MMDA’s shame campaign slammed." The Manila Times. January 12, 2005.
  3. ^ "'Shame campaign' vs graft backed." The Philippine Star. March 20, 2005.
  • Bradshaw, J (1988). Healing the Shame That Binds You, HCI, . ISBN 0-932194-86-9
  • Broucek, Francis.(1991)Shame and the Self, NY: The Guilford Press, ISBN0-89862-444-4
  • Fossum, M, and Mason, M, (1986). Facing Shame: Families in Recovery, W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-30581-3
  • Gilbert, P (2002}Body Shame: Conceptualisation, Research and Treatment. Brunner-Routledge. ISBN 1-58391-166-9
  • Gilbert, P (1998} Shame: Interpersonal Behavior, Psychopathology and Culture. ISBN 0-19-511480-9
  • Goldberg, Carl. (1991) Understanding Shame, Jason Aaronson, Inc., Northvale, NJ. ISBN 0-87668-541-6
  • Lewis, H. B. (1971). Shame and guilt in neurosis. International University Press. New York.ISBN 0-8236-8307-9
  • Lewis, Michael. (1992) Shame: The Exposed Self. NY: The Free Press. ISBN 0-02-918881-4
  • Kaufman, Gershen,(1992). Shame: The Power of Caring, 3rd edition, Schenkman Books, Rochester, VT, ISBN 0-87047-052-3
  • Middelton-Moz, J, (1990). Shame and Guilt: Masters of Disguise, HCI, ISBN 1-55874-072-4
  • Morrison, A (1996) The Culture of Shame. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-37484-3
  • Morrison, A (1989) Shame: The Underside of Narcissism. The Analytic Press. ISBN 0-88163-082-9
  • Nathanson, D., ed. (1987) The Many Faces of Shame. NY: The Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-705-2
  • Nathanson, Donald. (1992) Shame and Pride: Affect, Sex, and the Birth of the Self. NY: W.W. Norton, ISBN: 0-393-03097-0
  • Schneider, Carl D. (1977) Shame, Exposure, and Privacy. Boston: Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-1121-5
  • Vallelonga, Damian S. (1997). An empirical phenomenological investigation of being ashamed. In Valle, R. Phenomenological Inquiry in Psychology: Existential and Transpersonal Dimensions. New York: Plenum Press, 123-155.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shame - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1340 words)
Shame is a psychological condition and a form of religious, political, judicial, and social control consisting of ideas, emotional states, physiological states and a set of behaviors, induced by the consciousness or awareness of dishonor, disgrace, or condemnation.
Shame differs from embarrassment in that it does not necessarily involve public humiliation: one can feel shame for an act known only to oneself, but in order to be embarrassed, one's actions must be revealed to others.
Shame (and shaming) is often associated with torture (see the psychology of torture).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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