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Encyclopedia > Shamash
Ancient Middle Eastern deities
Levantine Semitic deities

Amurru | Anat | Asherah | Astarte | Baʿal | Dagon | El | Hadad | Mot | Yaw The Levant or Sham (Arabic root word related to the term Semite) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (Englished as Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with the east-Semitic goddess Ishtar. ... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Bá, i. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... Ä’l is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Haddad - בעל הדד (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Yahu, Yah or Yaw is the name of one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El. ...

Names of God in Judaism

Adonai | Elohim | Elyon | Hashem | Sabaoth | Shaddai | Shekinah | YHWH At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... Elohim (אלהים) or Eloah is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyôn when is means God or is applied to God... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... Shekinah (שכינה - alternative transliterations Shechinah, Shekhina, Shechina) is the English spelling of the Hebrew language word that means the glory or radiance of God, or God resting in his house or Tabernacle amongst his people. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts. ...

Mesopotamian deities

Adad | An/Anu | Anshar | Asshur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ninhursag/Damkina | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian and Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq. ... Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon, both usually written by the logogram dIM. The Akkadian god Adad is cognate in name and functions with northwest Semitic god Hadad. ... In Sumerian mythology, An was the god whose name was synonymous with the suns zenith, or heaven. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (see also An) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) is the sky god. ... Asshur, son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enki was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Hell. ... Innana was one of the most revered of Goddess names among the later Sumerian peoples. ... Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... Kishar is the begotten of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpents. ... Lahmu is a little known god in Mesopotamia. ... Marduk and his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal Marduk [märdook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center... Mummu vizer of primeval gods Apsu, the fresh water, and Tiamat, the salt water. ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal or Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah (or Kutha) represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... In sumerian mythology : First called Sud then Ninlil, she is the daughter of Nammu and An. ... Tiamat is a primeval monster/goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ...

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Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language famaily) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32° 32′ 11″ N, 44° 25′ 15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Ashur. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ...


The name signifies perhaps "servitor," and would thus point to a secondary position occupied at one time by this deity. Both in early and in late inscriptions Sha-mash is designated as the "offspring of Nannar," i.e. of the moon-god, and since, in an enumeration of the pantheon, Sin generally takes precedence of Shamash, it is in relationship, presumably, to the moon-god that the sun-god appears as the dependent power. Such a supposition would accord with the prominence acquired by the moon in the calendar and in astrological calculations, as well as with the fact that the moon-cult belongs to the nomadic and therefore earlier, stage of civilization, whereas the sun-god rises to full importance only after the agricultural stage has been reached. The two chief centres of sun-worship in Babylonia were Sippar, represented by the mounds at Abu Habba, and Larsa, represented by the modern Senkerah. At both places the chief sanctuary bore the name E-barra (or E-babbara) "the shining house" – a direct allusion to the brilliancy of the sun-god. Of the two temples, that at Sippara was the more famous, but temples to Shamash were erected in all large centres – such as Babylon, Ur, Mari, Nippur and Nineveh. Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... Sin was the name of the lunar god in Babylonia and Assyria. ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... Larsa (the Biblical Ellasar, Genesis 14:1), was an important city of ancient Babylonia, the site of the worship of the sun-god, Shamash, represented by the ancient ruin mound of Senkereh (Senkera). ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32° 32′ 11″ N, 44° 25′ 15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... UR, Ur, or ur can refer to several things: The City of Ur Ur can be used as shorthand in online communication - referring to the word words You are. EG. ur crazy Ur, the first known continent Royal Game of Ur Unreal the computer game Ur is the name of... Mari was an ancient city in Syria situated at the modern locality of Tell Hariri, on the western bank of Euphrates river. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... This article is about the ancient Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. ...


The attribute most commonly associated with Shamash is justice. Just as the sun disperses darkness, so Shamash brings wrong and injustice to light. Hammurabi attributes to Shamash the inspiration that led him to gather the existing laws and legal procedures into a code, and in the design accompanying the code the king represents himself in an attitude of adoration before Shamash as the embodiment of the idea of justice. Several centuries before Hammurabi, Ur-Engur of the Ur dynasty (c. 2600 BC) declared that he rendered decisions "according to the just laws of Shamash." This diorite head is believed to represent king Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian Khammurabi, from Amorite Ammurapi, The Kinsman is a Healer; Ammu, paternal kinsman + Rapi, to heal; also transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... Ur-Nammu (or Urnammu) was an ancient Sumerian king of Ur, fl. ... (Redirected from 2600 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ...


It was a logical consequence of this conception of the sun-god that he was regarded also as the one who released the sufferer from the grasp of the demons. The sick man, therefore, appeals to Shamash as the god who can be depended upon to help those who are suffering unjustly. This aspect of the sun-god is vividly brought out in the hymns addressed to him, which are, therefore, among the finest productions in the entire realm of Babylonian literature. It is evident from the material at our disposal that the Shamash cults at Sippar and Larsa so overshadowed local sun-deities elsewhere as to lead to an absorption of the minor deities by the predominating one. In the systematized pantheon these minor sun-gods become attendants that do his service. Such are Bunene, spoken of as his chariot driver, whose consort is Atgi-makh, Kettu ("justice") and Mesharu ("right"), who are introduced as servitors of Shamash. Other sun-deities, as Ninurta and Nergal, the patron deities of important centres, retained their independent existence as certain phases of the sun, Ninib becoming the sun-god of the morning and of the spring time, and Nergal the sun-god of the noon and of the summer solstice, while Shamash was viewed as the sun-god in general. Ninurta Lord Plough in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology was the god of Nippur, identified with Ningirsu with whom he may always have been identical. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal or Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah (or Kutha) represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ...


Together with Sin and Ishtar, Shamash forms a second triad by the side of Anu, Enlil and Ea. The three powers, Sin, Shamash and Ishtar, symbolized the three great forces of nature, the sun, the moon and the life-giving force of the earth. At times, instead of Ishtar, we find Adad, the storm-god, associated with Sin and Shamash, and it may be that these two sets of triads represent the doctrines of two different schools of theological thought in Babylonia which were subsequently harmonized by the recognition of a group consisting of all four deities. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (see also An) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... EA, Ea, or ea can signify several things. ... Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon, both usually written by the logogram dIM. The Akkadian god Adad is cognate in name and functions with northwest Semitic god Hadad. ...


The consort of Shamash was known as A. She, however, is rarely mentioned in the inscriptions except in combination with Shamash.


This entry was originally from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


Shamash in Judaism

The Jewish menorah contains a central stem in its candelabrum which is called Shamash. It is believed by some historians that this central stem is named after the Babylonian Sun god mentioned above, and that the combined seven branches or stems relate to the seven heavenly objects which were worshipped by several cultures in ancient Persia. "Shamash" is also an ordinary Hebrew word for an attendant, caretaker, custodian, or synagogue janitor. While this could easily discount the connection with the Babylonian god, it could also be a later folk etymology resulting from the forgetting of the Babylonian god. Yarmulke and Menorah from the Harry S. Truman collection A menorah (sometimes capitalized) is a branched candelabrum with seven candle-holders. ... A candlestick or candelabrum is a decorative holder for one or more candles, often shaped as a column or pedestal. ... Ancient Earth-centred model of the universe The Seven heavenly objects are the bright objects in the sky which can be seen with the naked eye from anywhere on the Earth: the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, the Sun, and Moon The days of the week are named... Folk etymology (or popular etymology) is a linguistic term for a category of false etymology which has grown up in popular lore, as opposed to one which arose in scholarly usage. ...


Nethertheless there are several other references, in hebrew scripture, which may involve Shamash. Perhaps the most obvious of these is Samson, whose english name is a translation of the hebrew Shimshon, which can be translated of the sun. It is possible to make other connections between Samson and solar worship, such as interpreting his hair, which was his source of strength, as the rays of the sun. Samson or Shimshon (שִׁמְשׁוֹן Of the sun (perhaps proclaiming he was radiant and mighty) or [One who] Serves [God], Standard Hebrew Šimšon, Tiberian Hebrew Šimšôn) is the third to last of the Judges of Israel mentioned in the Tanakh. ...


Another connection involves Balaam, described in the Torah as a prophet of El, usually translated as God, but equally able to mean a god. It is notable that, despite being a prophet of El, delivering several blessings upon the Israelites, Balaam is later listed amongst those who were slaughtered because they had been involved in the worship of the Baal of Peor. An ancient Aramaic inscription, found at Dier Alla, refers to further prophecies of Balaam held in a book of Balaam, but in this inscription, Balaam is identified as a prophet of Shamash. Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew Bilʻam, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Bá, i. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


Shamash is also equated with Shamsiel, the 15th leader (called 'Samsapiel') out of 20 leaders that were in charge of 200 fallen angels known as Watchers or Grigori. Shamsiel also taught mankind the signs of the sun according to the Book of Enoch. The Book of Enoch is a work attributed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
SHAMASH - LoveToKnow Article on SHAMASH (538 words)
Khammurabi attributes to Shamash the inspiration that led him to gather the existing laws and legal procedures into a code, and in the design accompanying the code the king represents himself in an attitude of adoration before Shamash as the embodiment of the idea of justice.
At times, instead of Ishtar, we find Adad (q.v.), the storm-god, associated with Sin and Shamash, and it may be that these two sets of triads represent the doctrines of two different schools of theological thought in Babylonia which were subsequently harmonized by the recognition of a group consisting of all four deities.
The consort of Shamash was known as A. She, however, is rarely mentioned in the inscriptions except in.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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