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Encyclopedia > Shamanistic cultures in Siberia

Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism [1]. It is inhabited by many different people. Many of its Uralic, Altaic, Paleosiberian (see below) peoples had living shamanistic practices even in modern times. Many classical ethnograpical sources of “shamanism” were recoded at Siberian people. Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (from Greek palaios, ancient) is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of languages spoken in remote regions of Siberia. ...

Contents

Lingustical classifications

Classifying the diverse population by language, it includes speakers of the following language families:

  1. Uralic.
  2. Turkic, Mongolian, Tungusic.
  3. Many languages are regarded as a standalone family, because no other languages are proven to be relative (Yukaghir). Although Eskimo languages form a branch of a larger family (Eskimo-Aleut), but their only (proven) relatives are the Aleut dialects.
  4. Nowadays, the majority of the Siberian population consists of Russian people. Their language is Indo-European.

This article discussess classical examples, peoples, where living shamanistic practices were recorded also in the modern times. Thus, discussion of the first three of the above list, sometimes termed as Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Geographical distribution of Yukaghir, Finnic, Ugric and Samoyedic languages The Yukaghir languages are a family of related languages spoken in Russia by the Yukaghir, a Siberian people, living in the basin of the Kolyma River. ... AN ESKIMO FAMILY from National Geographic Magazine, Volume 31 (1917), page 564. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language phylum. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ...

  1. Uralic
  2. Altaic
  3. Paleosiberian

Neither Altaic nor Paleosiberian has been proven to be a language family, a phylogenetic unit. Some approaches regard [Altaic as an example of Sprachbund. It would be even more problematic to regard Paleosiberian as a genealogical unit. Here, these two terms are listed just to serve as portal-like starting points — without suggesting genetic considerations. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... It has been suggested that Altaic hypothesis be merged into this article or section. ... Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (from Greek palaios, ancient) is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of languages spoken in remote regions of Siberia. ... It has been suggested that Altaic hypothesis be merged into this article or section. ... Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (from Greek palaios, ancient) is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of languages spoken in remote regions of Siberia. ... A Sprachbund (German for language bond, also known as a linguistic area, convergence area, diffusion area) is a group of languages that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity. ...


Geographical distribution

An ethnographic map of Siberia (which does not contain all shamanistic cultures, as it omits the Yakut (Sakha) people): This list is based solely on territory; the peoples listed here do not belong to a single language family or ethnicity: they are Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Eskimo-Aleut, and other groups. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ...

This image highlights the homeland of Nenets people, but it is useful also for an all-Siberian ethnographic overview
This image highlights the homeland of Nenets people, but it is useful also for an all-Siberian ethnographic overview

See Yakut (Sakha) people below, and also other — South Siberian, Central Asian, etc. — Turkic peoples. Only Turkic peoples are shown. Not all colored areas denote shamanistic cultures. Most important examples for shamanism are North Siberian Turkic peoples (Yakuts and Dolgans, but Dolgans are omitted), and South Siberian Turkic groups (e.g. Tuvans etc). Some shamanistic elements are remained also at some Central Asian Turkic peoples. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1679x1185, 313 KB) From Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples www. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1679x1185, 313 KB) From Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples www. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... The Dolgans (Долганы in Russian; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic -Mongoloid people, who inhabit the Taymyria region in the Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Dolgans (Долганы in Russian; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic -Mongoloid people, who inhabit the Taymyria region in the Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... Tuvans (or Tuvinians) are a group of Turkic people who make up about three fourths of the population of Tuva. ...

Turkic languages, including also North Siberian Yakuts (but Dolgans are omitted), South Siberian areas, and also Central Asia
Turkic languages, including also North Siberian Yakuts (but Dolgans are omitted), South Siberian areas, and also Central Asia

Special features of Siberian and some other Asian peoples (and also some common features which could be termed as “shamanistic”) are described in [1] — it can serve for both an overview and a rather detailed description. Image File history File links Turkic_language_map3. ... Image File history File links Turkic_language_map3. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... The Dolgans (Долганы in Russian; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic -Mongoloid people, who inhabit the Taymyria region in the Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ...


See also [2] [3] [4] [5] for detailed folkore examples of Eskimo shamanism, and [6] for a good summary work because this people (even Siberian Yupik) is mentioned only shortly in [1]. AN ESKIMO FAMILY from National Geographic Magazine, Volume 31 (1917), page 564. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ...


Living shamanistic practices also in modern times

Classified by languages:


Uralic

Uralic languages are proven to form a genalogical unit, a language family. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


Not all Uralic peoples live in Siberia or have shamanistic features any more. Saami people had kept living shamanistic practice for a long time. They live in Europe, they practiced shamaism till cca the 18th century [1]. Some other peoples (e.g. Hungarian, Finnic, Mari) have only remnant elements of shamanism [1]. Majority of Uralic population lives outside Siberia. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The term Uralic peoples is used to describe a peoples speaking a Uralic languages. ... Sami flag The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are an indigenous people of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia, covering a total area in the Nordic countries corresponding to the size of Sweden. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ...


Two main branches of Uralian family are Samoyedic and Finno-Ugric. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Samoyedic languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by perhaps 30,000 speakers altogether. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ...


Samoyedic

Samoyedic peoples were hunter-gatherers or reindeer breeders, and shamanism was a living tradition also in modern times, especially at hunter-gatherer groups, or living in isolation until recent times (Nganasans) [1]. Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Samoyedic languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by perhaps 30,000 speakers altogether. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Nganasans are one of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. ...


Nenets people, Enets people, Nganasan people live in North Siberia (Nenets live also in Euoropean parts), they provide classical examples and living shamanistic practices were recorded also in the second half of the 20th century. Selkups live more to the south, shamanism was in decline also at the beginning of 20th century [1]. The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... The Enets people (Russian: Энцы; singular: Энец), or Yenetses, Entsy, Entsi, Yenisei, Yenisei-Samoyed, Yenisey Samoyeds or Yeniseian people are a traditionally nomadic people who live on the east bank, near the mouth, of the Yenisei River, many in the village of Potapovo in the Taimyr Autonomous Territory, Taymyria of Krasnoyarsk Krai... The Nganasans are one of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. ... The Selkup (Russian: ), until 1930s called ostyak-samoyeds (остя́ко-самое́ды) are a people in Siberia, Russia. ...


Finno-Ugric

As mentioned, not all Finno-Ugric peoples practiced shamanism in the modern times. Many of Finno-Ugric peoples (includig those of the largest population: Hungarian people, Finnish people) live outside Siberia. Others live in the western part of Siberia (if we define this area in the broadest sense). The term Finno-Ugric people is used to describe a people speaking a Finno-Ugric language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The terms Finns and Finnish people are used both to refer to an ethnic group historically associated with Finland or Fennoscandia and to the present-day citizens or residents of Finland. ...

Distribution map of Finno-Ugric languages
Distribution map of Finno-Ugric languages

Image File history File links Finno-Ugric_languages. ... Image File history File links Finno-Ugric_languages. ...

Finno-Permic

Saami shamanism existed till cca the second half of 18th century [1]. They live outside Siberia. Saami or SAAMI can stand for: Sami peoples Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Ugric

Folklore about shamans could be recorded even in the second half of the 20th century among Khanty people, Mansi people [1]. Khanty (obsolete: Ostyaks) are an endangered indigenous people calling themself Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district, a region historically known as Yugra in Russian Federation, together with Mansi peoples. ...


External links

The external link Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia contains outstanding detailed resorces (huge amount of general data, bibliography, names of experts etc.)[7]


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hoppál, Mihály: Sámánok Eurázsiában. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2005. ISBN 963-05-8295-3. (The title means “Shamans in Eurasia”, the book is written in Hungarian, but it is published also in German, Estonian and Finnish.) Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian).
  2. ^ Rubcova, E.S.: Materials on the Language and Folklore of the Eskimoes, Vol. I, Chaplino Dialect. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moskva * Leningrad, 1954. Original data: Е.С. Рубцова: Материалы по языку и фольклору эскимосов (чаплинский диалект). Академия Наук СССР. Москва * Ленинград, 1954.
  3. ^ Menoščikov, G.A.: Popular Conceptions, Religious Beliefs and Rites of the Asiatic Eskimoes. Published in Diószegi, Vilmos et Hoppál, Mihály: Folk Beliefs and Shamanistic Traditions in Siberia. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1968, 1996.
  4. ^ Barüske, Heinz: Eskimo Märchen. Eugen Diederichs Verlag, Düsseldorf and Köln, 1969.
  5. ^ Merkur, Daniel: Becoming Half Hidden / Shamanism and Initiation Among the Inuit. Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis / Stockholm Studies in Comparative Religion. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1985.
  6. ^ Kleivan, I. and Sonne, B.: Eskimos / Greenland and Canada. (Series: Iconography of religions, section VIII /Artic Peoples/, fascicle 2). Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. E.J. Brill, Leiden (The Netherland), 1985. ISBN: 90 04 07160 1.
  7. ^ Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia, containing outstanding detailed resorces (huge amount of general data, bibliography, names of experts etc.)

 
 

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