FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Shamanism" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Shamanism
This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation).
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.

Shamanism refers to a range of traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world. There are many variations in shamanism throughout the world, though there are some beliefs that are shared by all forms of shamanism: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Look up shaman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (420x800, 73 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Shamanism ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (420x800, 73 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Shamanism ... Music-Drama Theatre in Kyzyl Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызы́л) is a city in Russia, capital of Tyva Republic. ...

  • The spirits can play important roles in human lives.
  • The shaman can control and/or cooperate with the spirits for the community's benefit.
  • The spirits can be either good or bad.
  • Shamans engage various processes and techniques to incite trance; such as: singing, dancing, taking entheogens, meditating and drumming.
  • Animals play an important role, acting as omens and message-bearers, as well as representations of animal spirit guides.
  • The shaman's spirit leaves the body and enters into the supernatural world during certain tasks.
  • The shamans can treat illnesses or sickness.
  • Shamans are healers, gurus and magicians.

Shamans have the ability to diagnose and cure human suffering and, in some societies, the ability to cause suffering. This is believed to be accomplished by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. Shamans have been credited with the ability to control the weather, divination, the interpretation of dreams, astral projection, and traveling to upper and lower worlds. Shamanistic traditions have existed throughout the world since prehistoric times. Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Entheogens are psychoactive substances that have traditionally been used in a religious context, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms and Peyote cactuses. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... This article is about the paranormal concept. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ...


Some anthropologists and religious scholars define a shaman as an intermediary between the natural and spiritual world, who travels between worlds in a state of trance. Once in the spirit world, the shaman would commune with the spirits for assistance in healing, hunting or weather management. Ripinsky-Naxon describes shamans as, “People who have a strong interest in their surrounding environment and the society of which they are a part.” Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Other anthropologists critique the term "shamanism", arguing that it is a culturally specific word and institution and that by expanding it to fit any healer from any traditional society it produces a false unity between these cultures and creates a false idea of an initial human religion predating all others. However, some others say that these anthropologists simply fail to recognize the commonalities between otherwise diverse traditional societies.


Shamanism is based on the premise that the visible world is pervaded by invisible forces or spirits that affect the lives of the living. In contrast to animism and animatism, which any and usually all members of a society practice, shamanism requires specialized knowledge or abilities. It could be said that shamans are the experts employed by animists and animist communities. Shamans are often organized into full-time ritual or spiritual associations, like priests. The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Animatism is a term coined by R. R. Marett to refer to the belief of certain cultures in supernatural forces and powers. ... This article is about religious workers. ...

Contents

Etymology

Shaman pronounced /ˈʃɑːmən/, /ˈʃeɪmən/, (|ˈshämən; ˈshā-|) noun (pl. -man(s)) originally referred to the traditional healers of Turkic-Mongol areas such as Northern Asia (Siberia) and Mongolia, a "shaman" being the Turkic-Tungus word for such a practitioner and literally meaning "he or she who knows." The words in Turkic languages which refer to shamans are kam, and sometimes baksı. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... North Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Some say the Tungusic word šamán is from Chinese sha men (Chinese: 沙门,沙弥), "Buddhist monk," borrowed from Pali śamana, ultimately from Sanskrit śramana "ascetic," from śramati "he fatigues" (see shramana). However, it is disputed whether the connection with ancient Sanskrit is actual or merely apparent due to the words' similarities[citation needed]. Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, and indeed is "the only commonly used English word that is a loan from this language".[1] Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... A (Sanskrit) or (Pāli) is a wandering monk in certain ascetic traditions of ancient India, including: Jainism Buddhism Ä€jÄ«vika religion (now extinct) Mahavira, the 24th Jina, and Gautama Buddha were leaders of their shramana orders. ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ...


Another explanation analyzes this Tungusic word as containing root “sa-”, this means “to know”. “Shaman” is “one who knows”:[2][3] a person who is an expert in keeping together the multiple codes through which this complex belief system appears, and has a comprehensive view of them in their mind with certainty of knowledge.[2] Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


A criticism against the above approach says that there is no evidence that this Tungusic word would be of inner origin, and it is hard to reconstruct from the sources where this word was borrowed from in the past.[4][5]


The word passed through Russian and German before it was adopted into English.


In any case, the proper plural form of the word is "shaman" or "shamans" and not "shamen", as it is unrelated to the English word "man". Similarly, the feminine form is not "shamaness" but "shamanka".


In its common usage, it has replaced the older English language term witch doctor, a term which unites the two stereotypical functions of the shaman: knowledge of magical and other lore, and the ability to cure a person and mend a situation. However, this term is generally considered to be pejorative and anthropologically inaccurate. Objections to the use of shaman as a generic term have been raised as well, by both academics and traditional healers themselves, given that the word comes from a specific place, people, and set of practices. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A witch doctor (in southern Africa known as a Sangoma) often refers to exotic healers that believe that maladies are caused by magic and are therefore best cured by it, as opposed to science or developed medicine. ...


The shaman is referred to in Greek mythology as a necromancer and could raise sprits and corpses to use as slaves, soldiers, power chanerlers and as tools for divination. Necromancy is divination by raising the spirits of the dead. ...


Function

If we want to enumerate the functions of the shamans (in all cultures that are recorded as having shamans), then we get a plethora of functions:[6] healing;[7][8] leading a sacrifice;[9] preserving the tradition by storytelling and songs;[10] fortune-telling;[11] acting as a psychopomp (literal meaning, “guide of souls”).[12] In some cultures, a shaman may fulfill several functions in one person.[13] Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... For the 2001 film, see Storytelling (film) Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in words, images, and sounds. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... This is an article about the mythology of the Psychopomp. ...


As a psychopomp, the shaman may accompany the incarnating soul of a newborn baby, or inversely, the departing soul of the newly-dead.[12] They may also serve the community by maintaining the tradition through memorizing long songs and tales.[10] For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ...


Mediator

Shamans act as "mediators" in their culture.[14][15] The shaman is seen as communicating with the spirits on behalf of the community, including the spirits of the dead. In some cultures, this mediator function of the shaman may be illustrated well by some of the shaman's objects and symbols. E.g. among the Selkups, a report mentions sea duck as a spirit-animal: ducks are capable of both flying, and diving underwater, thus they are regarded as belonging to both the upper world and the world underneath.[16] Similarly, the shaman and the jaguar are identified in some Amazonian cultures: the jaguar is capable of moving freely on the ground, in the water, and climbing trees (like the shaman's soul). In some Siberian cultures, it is some water fowl species that are associated to the shaman in a similar way, and the shaman is believed to take on its form.[17] For statistical mediation, see Mediation (Statistics). ... The Selkup (Russian: ), until 1930s called ostyak-samoyeds (остя́ко-самое́ды) are a people in Siberia, Russia. ... Genera Polysticta Somateria Histrionicus Camptorhynchus Melanitta Clangula Bucephala Mergellus Lophodytes Mergus † For other ducks, see also: Anatidae The seaducks, Merginae, form a subfamily of the duck, goose and swan family of birds, Anatidae. ...


“The shaman's tree” is an image found in several cultures (Yakuts, Dolgans, Evenks) as a symbol for mediation. The tree is seen as a being whose roots belong to the world underneath; its trunk belongs to the middle, human-inhabited word; and its top is related to the upper world.[18] Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ...


Distinct types of shamans

In some cultures there may be additional types of shamans, who perform more specialized functions. For example, among the Nanai people, a distinct kind of shaman acts as a psychopomp.[19] Other specialized shamans may be distinguished according to the type of spirits, or realms of the spirit world, with which the shaman most commonly interacts. These roles vary among the Nenets, Enets, and Selkup shamans (paper [20]; online[21]). Among the Huichol shamans, there are two categories of shamans. This demonstrates the differences of shamans even within a single tribe. The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... The Nenets people (Russian name: Ненцы - Nentsy (plural)) are an indigenous people in Russia. ... The Enets people (Russian: Энцы; singular: Энец), or Yenetses, Entsy, Entsi, Yenisei, Yenisei-Samoyed, Yenisey Samoyeds or Yeniseian people are a traditionally nomadic people who live on the east bank, near the mouth, of the Yenisei River, many in the village of Potapovo in the Taimyr Autonomous Territory, Taymyria of Krasnoyarsk Krai... The Selkup (Russian: ), until 1930s called ostyak-samoyeds (остя́ко-самое́ды) are a people in Siberia, Russia. ...


Ecological aspect

In tropical rainforests, resources for human consumption are easily depletable. In some rainforest cultures, such as the Tucano, a sophisticated system exists for the management of resources, and for avoiding the depletion of these resources through overhunting. This system is conceptualized in a mythological context, involving symbolism and, in some cases, the belief that the breaking of hunting restrictions may cause illness. As the primary teacher of tribal symbolism, the shaman may have a leading role in this ecological management, actively restricting hunting and fishing. The shaman is able to “release” game animals (or their souls) from their hidden abodes,[22] The Desana shaman has to negotiate with a mythological being for souls of game.[23] Not only Tucanos, but also some other rainforest Indians have such ecological concerns related to their shamanism, for example Piaroa.[24] Besides Tukanos and Piaroa, also many Eskimo groups think that the shaman is able to fetch souls of game from remote places ;[25][26] or undertake a soul travel in order to promote hunting luck, e.g. by asking for game from mythological beings (Sea Woman).[27] Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Peru Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... The Tucano are a group of indigenous South Americans living in the northwestern Amazon, along the Vaupés river and the surrounding area. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... The Piaroa are an indigenous American ethnic group living along the banks of the Orinoco and its tributaries in present day Venezuela, and in a few scattered locations elsewhere in Venezuela and in Colombia. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... Soul Travel is the belief that when one sleeps, their Soul leaves its body and seeks spiritual lessons in the Soul Planes, or heaven as Christians would call it. ... In Inuit mythology, Sedna (Inuktitut Sanna, ᓴᓐᓇ) is a sea goddess and mistress of the animals, especially mammals such as seals, of the ocean. ...


Soul concept, spirits

The plethora of functions described in the above section may seem to be rather distinct tasks, but some important underlying concepts join them.


Soul concept

In some cases, at some cultures, the soul concept can explain more, seemingly unassociated phenomena:[28] For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...

Healing
may be based closely on the soul concepts of the belief system of the people served by the shaman (online [7]). It may consist of the retrieving the lost soul of the ill person [29]. See also the soul dualism concept.
Scarcity of hunted game
can be solved by “releasing” the souls of the animals from their hidden abodes. Besides that, many taboos may prescribe the behavior of people towards game, so that the souls of the animals do not feel angry or hurt, or the pleased soul of the already killed prey can tell the other, still living animals, that they can let themselves to be caught and killed[30] [31]. The ecological aspect of shamanistic practice (and the related beliefs) has already been mentioned above in the article.
Infertility of women
can be cured by obtaining the soul of the expected child to be born.

For the Todd Rundgren album, see Healing (Todd Rundgren). ... Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of souls. ... In economics, scarcity is defined as a condition of limited resources, where society does not have sufficient resources to produce enough to fulfill subjective wants. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ...

Spirits

The beliefs related to spirits can explain many phenomena too, for example, the importance of storytelling, or acting as a singer, can be understood better if we examine the whole belief system: a person who is able to memorize long texts or songs (and play an instrument) may be regarded as having achieved this ability through contact with the spirits (for example among Khanty people).[32] The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... For the 2001 film, see Storytelling (film) Storytelling is the ancient art of conveying events in words, images, and sounds. ... Khanty (obsolete: Ostyaks) are an endangered indigenous people calling themself Khanti, Khande, Kantek (Khanty), living in the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district, a region historically known as Yugra in Russian Federation, together with Mansi peoples. ...


Knowledge

As mentioned, a (debated) approach explains the etymology of word “shaman” as meaning “one who knows”.[33][34] Really, the shaman is a person who is an expert in keeping together the multiple codes through which this complex belief system appears, and has a comprehensive view on it in their mind with certainty of knowledge.[35] The shaman uses (and the audience understands) multiple codes. Shamans express meanings in many ways: verbally, musically, artistically, and in dance. Meanings may be manifested in objects, such as amulets.[36] In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...


The shaman knows the culture of their community well,[37][38] and acts accordingly. Thus, their audience knows the used symbols and meanings — that's why shamanism can be efficient: people in the audience trust it.[38] Such belief system can appear to its members with certainty of knowledge — this explains the above described etymology for the word “shaman”.[39] For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is currently under construction. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Sami shaman with his drum
Sami shaman with his drum

There are semiotic theoretical approaches to shamanism,[40][41][42] and also ones that regard it as a congnitive map,[43][44] see also Juha Pentikäinen's “grammar of mind” approach:[45] Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Juha Pentikäinen is a professor in the Department of Comparative Religion at the University of Helsinki. ...

Juha Pentikäinen, in his introduction to Shamanism and Northern Ecology, explains how the Sámi drum embodies Sámi worldviews. He considers shamanism to be a ‘grammar of mind’ (10), because shamans need to be experts in the folklore of their cultures (11)

.


Some approaches refer to hermeneutics[46] (“ethnohermeneutics”[44]). Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ...


Other fieldworks use systems theory concepts and ecological considerations to understand the shaman's lore. Desana and Tucano Indians have developed a sophisticated symbolism and concepts of “energy” flowing between people and animals in cyclic paths. Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff relates these concepts to the changes how modern science (systems theory, ecology, some new approaches in anthropology and archeology) treats causality in a less linear way [22]. He suggests also a cooperation of modern science and indigenous lore (online [47]). Fieldwork refers to scientific activity conducted in the field, outside the laboratory, of subject matter in an as-found state, by anthropologists, geologists, botanists, archaeologists or others who study the natural or human world. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Tucano are a group of indigenous South Americans living in the northwestern Amazon, along the Vaupés river and the surrounding area. ... Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff (March 6, 1912—May 16, 1994) was an anthropologist, known for his holistic approach and his in-depth fieldworks among tropical rainforest cultures (e. ... Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ...


According to Vladimir Basilov and his work Chosen By the Spirits, a shaman is to be in the utmost healthy conditions to perform their duties to the fullest. The belief of the shaman is most popular through the people located in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The traditions of the shamanism is also imbedded in the Tadzhiks and Uzbeks regions. The shaman’s bodies are to be formed in a strong manner, someone having a small build would be turned away at once. Age is a requirement as well, definitely being over the age of fifty would disqualify those that want to be involved in serving the spirits. The shamans are always of the higher intellect and are looked at in a different perspective, they have a way that makes them quick on their feet and at ill will curing those in need.


One of the most significant and relevant qualities that separate a shaman from other spiritual leaders is their communications with the supernatural world. As early as the beginning of the century self-hypnosis was very highly thought of by those who worship. Another characteristic of the shaman is the talent to locate objects and discover thieves, shocking those of their tribe and those others also around to witness. The belief in the spirits or the supernatural is what attracts those to believe in the shamans. Those who have ill children or are in failing health of their own is what draws them to the shaman spiritual healings. Although the shamans are still in existence, the population is surely declining.[48]


Career

Initiation and learning

In the world's shamanic cultures, the shaman plays a priest-like role; however, there is an essential difference between the two, as Joseph Campbell describes: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ...

"The priest is the socially initiated, ceremonially inducted member of a recognized religious organization, where he holds a certain rank and functions as the tenant of an office that was held by others before him, while the shaman is one who, as a consequence of a personal psychological crisis, has gained a certain power of his own." (1969, p. 231)

A shaman may be initiated via a serious illness, by being struck by lightning and dreaming of thunder to become a Heyoka, or by a near-death experience (e.g., the shaman Black Elk), or one might follow a "calling" to become a shaman. There is usually a set of cultural imagery expected to be experienced during shamanic initiation regardless of the method of induction. According to Mircea Eliade, such imagery often includes being transported to the spirit world and interacting with beings inhabiting the distant world of spirits, meeting a spiritual guide, being devoured by some being and emerging transformed, and/or being "dismantled" and "reassembled" again, often with implanted amulets such as magical crystals. The imagery of initiation generally speaks of transformation and the granting powers to transcend death and rebirth. // Heyoka, approximately translated from Lakota, means ‘contrarian’ or ‘sacred clown’. Heyoka are thought of as being backwards-forwards, upside-down, or contrarian in nature. ... NDE redirects here. ... Black Elk (Hehaka Sapa) (c. ... Imagery is any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste). ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... Mircea Eliade (March 13 [O.S. February 28] 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer...


In some societies shamanic powers are considered to be inherited, whereas in other places of the world shamans are considered to have been "called" and require lengthy training. Among the Siberian Chukchis one may behave in ways that "Western" bio-medical clinicians would perhaps characterize as psychotic, but which Siberian peoples may interpret as possession by a spirit who demands that one assume the shamanic vocation. Among the South American Tapirape shamans are called in their dreams. In other societies shamans choose their career. In North America, First Nations peoples would seek communion with spirits through a "vision quest"; whereas South American Shuar, seeking the power to defend their family against enemies, apprentice themselves to accomplished shamans. Similarly the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia have an elaborate cosmological system predicated on the ritual consumption of ayahuasca. Coupled with millenarian impulses, Urarina ayahuasca shamanism is a key feature of this poorly documented societyUrarina. Chukchi, or chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the northeasternmost portion of the Russian Federation on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... Health science is the discipline of applied science which deals with human and animal health. ... Look up Possession in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Tapirape is an indigenous people of the Central Amazon in Brazil  This ethnic-group-related article is a stub. ... Dreaming is the subjective experience of imaginary images, sounds/voices, thoughts or sensations during sleep, usually involuntarily. ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Shuar, in the Shuar language, means people.[1] The people who speak the Shuar language live in tropical rainforest between the upper mountains of the Andes, and the tropical rainforests and savannas of the Amazonian lowlands, in Ecuador and Peru. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... A river in the Amazon rainforest The Amazon is a rainforest in South America. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ...


Putatively customary shamanic "traditions" can also be noted among indigenous Kuna peoples of Panama, who rely on shamanic powers and sacred talismans to heal. As such, they enjoy a popular position among local peoples. The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... KUNA-LP Channel 15 is a Telemundo affiliate in Indio-Palm Springs, CA. Also owned by KESQ-TV (ABC), KCWB (WB), and KDFX 33 (FOX) KUNA-LP signed on the air as K15EI on May 15, 1996 and switched to KUNA-LP on March 31, 2003. ... SACRED SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...


Note: Some feel that the Lakota tradition (which includes the Heyoka and Black Elk, mentioned above) are not really shamanic. There is a big difference between the Lakota culture and shamanic cultures. In many South American shamanic cultures there is the use of psycho-active substances (peyote, fly agaric, psilocybin, etc.) In the Lakota culture pain is often used instead of psychoactive plants. While a Siberian shaman would use fly agaric, a Lakota medicine man would do a sun dance. The Lakota medicine people have some bias against the use of psychoactive plants. The majority of shamanic cultures use repetitive sound to enter the shamanic state verses the use of psycho-active plants or pain. Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ...


Shamanic illness

Shamanic illness, also called shamanistic inititatory crisis, is a psycho-spiritual crisis, usually involuntary, or a rite of passage, observed among those becoming shamans. The episode often marks the beginning of a time-limited episode of confusion or disturbing behavior where the shamanic initiate might sing or dance in an unconventional fashion, or have an experience of being "disturbed by spirits". The symptoms are usually not considered to be signs of mental illness by interpreters in the shamanic culture; rather, they are interpreted as introductory signposts for the individual who is meant to take the office of shaman (Lukoff et.al, 1992). Similarities of some shamanic illness symptoms to the kundalini process have been often noted [1]. The significant role of initiatory illnesses in the calling of a shaman can be found in the detailed case history of Chuonnasuan, the last master shaman among the Tungus peoples in Northeast China (Noo and Shi, 2004). For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). ... Kundalini ( ) is a Sanskrit word meaning either coiled up or coiling like a snake. ...


Practice

Underlying beliefs of practice

The shaman plays the role of healer in shamanic societies; shamans gain knowledge and power by traversing the axis mundi and bringing back knowledge from the heavens. Even in western society, this ancient practice of healing is referenced by the use of the caduceus as the symbol of medicine. Often the shaman has, or acquires, one or more familiar helping entities in the spirit world; these are often spirits in animal form, spirits of healing plants, or (sometimes) those of departed shamans. In many shamanic societies, magic, magical force, and knowledge are all denoted by one word, such as the Quechua term "yachay". Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the medical symbol often mistakenly referred to as a caduceus, see Rod of Asclepius. ... The Odic force (also called Od [õd], Odyle, Önd, Odes or Odems) is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach (1788-1869), an accomplished chemist (known for his analysis of creosote, waxy paraffin, and phenol). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Yachay is the traditional name for the magical phlegm of the curandero healers of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. ...


While the causes of disease are considered to lie in the spiritual realm, being effected by malicious spirits or witchcraft, both spiritual and physical methods are used to heal. Commonly, a shaman will "enter the body" of the patient to confront the spirit making the patient sick, and heal the patient by banishing the infectious spirit. Many shamans have expert knowledge of the plant life in their area, and an herbal regimen is often prescribed as treatment. In many places shamans claim to learn directly from the plants, and to be capable of harnessing their effects and healing properties only after obtaining permission from its abiding or patron spirit. In South America, individual spirits are summoned by the singing of songs called icaros; before a spirit can be summoned the spirit must teach the shaman its song. The use of totem items such as rocks is common; these items are believed to have special powers and an animating spirit. Such practices are presumably very ancient; in about 368 BCE, Plato wrote in the Phaedrus that the "first prophecies were the words of an oak", and that everyone who lived at that time found it rewarding enough to "listen to an oak or a stone, so long as it was telling the truth". “Witch” redirects here. ... Icaros are medicine songs, used as part of the toolkit of Shamans in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. ... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ...


The belief in witchcraft and sorcery, known as brujeria in South America, is prevalent in many shamanic societies. Some societies distinguish shamans who cure from sorcerers who harm; others believe that all shamans have the power to both cure and kill; that is, shamans are in some societies also thought of as being capable of harm. The shaman usually enjoys great power and prestige in the community, and is renowned for their powers and knowledge; but they may also be suspected of harming others and thus feared. Brujeria is a Mexican death-grind band. ...


By engaging in this work, the shaman exposes himself to significant personal risk, from the spirit world, from any enemy shamans, as well as from the means employed to alter his state of consciousness. Certain of the plant materials used can be fatal, and the failure to return from an out-of-body journey can lead to physical death. Spells are commonly used to protect against these dangers, and the use of more dangerous plants is usually very highly ritualized.


Methods

Generally, the shaman traverses the axis mundi and enters the spirit world by effecting a transition of consciousness, entering into an ecstatic trance, either autohypnotically or through the use of entheogens. The methods employed are diverse, and are often used together. Some of the methods for effecting such trances: Axis mundi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... ‹ The template below (Mind-body interventions) is being considered for deletion. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ...

    • "Power" or "master" plants used as incense or consumed to heal or attain altered states (please do very thorough research before using them, and always consider using it with guidance from an experienced person):

Shamans will often observe dietary or customary restrictions particular to their tradition. Sometimes these restrictions are more than just cultural. For example, the diet followed by shamans and apprentices prior to participating in an Ayahuasca ceremony includes foods rich in tryptophan (a biosynthetic precursor to serotonin) as well as avoiding foods rich in tyramine, which could induce hypertensive crisis if ingested with MAOIs such as are found in Ayahuasca brews. Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Drumming may refer to: the act of playing the drums or other percussion instruments Drumming, a musical composition written by Steve Reich in 1971 for percussion ensemble This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Icaros are medicine songs, used as part of the toolkit of Shamans in the Peruvian Amazon Basin. ... Vigil, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) This article is about the period of sleeplessness. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Nez Percé sweat-lodge The sweat lodge is a ceremonial sauna and an important ritual used by North American First Nations or Native American peoples. ... A rite of passage in some native American cultures. ... Mariri is the traditional name for the magical phlegm of the curandero healers of the Peruvian Amazon Basin. ... Bladesmithing is the art of blacksmithing that relates specifically to creating knives, swords, and other blades using a forge, hammer, anvil, and other smithing tools. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Mazatec Shamans are known for their cultivation and spiritual use of the plant salvia divinorum, morning glory seeds and psilocybe mushrooms. ... María Sabina García (1888 - November 23, 1985) was a Mazatec medicine woman who lived her whole life in a modest dwelling in the Sierra Mazateca of southern Mexico. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja,[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Binomial name Trichocereus pachanoi San Pedro cactus (Trichocereus pachanoi) is a fast-growing cactus native to the Andes of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Ayahuasca is an entheogenic drink prepared from segments of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... Species See text below Datura is a genus of 12-15 species of vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... Binomial name Tabernanthe iboga (L.) Nutt. ... This article is about the plant. ... Binomial name Hierochloe odorata (L.) P. Beauv. ... Binomial name L. Sage leaves - first variety Sage leaves - second variety Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Epling & Játiva[1] Salvia divinorum, also known as Diviners Sage,[2] Magic Mint,[2] María Pastora,[3] Sage of the Seers, or simply Salvia (although the genus name is shared among many plants), is a powerful psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... In organic chemistry tyramine (4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, para-tyramine, p-tyramine) is a monoamine compound derived from the amino acid tyrosine. ... A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ...


Music, songs

See also: Imitation of natural sounds related to various shamanistic beliefs or practice

Just like shamanism itself,[49] music and songs related to it in various cultures are diverse, far from being alike. In some cultures and several instances, some songs related to shamanism intend to imitate also natural sounds, sometimes via onomatopoiea.[50] Shamanism in various cultures shows great diversity. ... Natural or animal sounds which may have contributed to or participated in the development of human music include: Warning sounds These are sounds made by animals to warn others, of their species, of impending danger. ... Look up onomatopoeia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Of course, in several cultures, imitation of natural sounds may serve other functions, not necessarily related to shamanism: practical goals as luring game in the hunt;[51] or entertainment (katajjaqs of Inuit).[51][52] The imitation of natural sounds in various cultures is a diverse phenomenon. ... The Nunatsiaq News, a newspaper of the Nunavik region of Arctic Quebec since 1973, reports on throat singing among the Inuit. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ...


Paraphernalia

Goldes shaman priest in his regalia
Goldes shaman priest in his regalia

As mentioned above, cultures termed as shaministic can be very different. Thus, shamans may have various kinds of paraphernalia. Image File history File links Goldes_shaman_priest_in_his_regalia. ... Image File history File links Goldes_shaman_priest_in_his_regalia. ...


Drum

Shaman's drum
Shaman's drum

Drum is used by shamans of several peoples in Siberia; same holds for many Eskimo groups,[53] although its usage for shamanistic seances may be lacking among Inuits of Canada.[54] Image File history File links Shamans_Drum. ... Image File history File links Shamans_Drum. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ...


The beating of the drum allows the shaman to achieve an altered state of consciousness or to travel on a journey. The drum is for example referred to as, “‘horse’ or ‘rainbow-bridge’ between the physical and spiritual worlds” [55]. The journey mentioned is one in which the shaman establishes a connection with one or two of the spirit worlds. With the beating of the drum come neurophysiological effects. Much fascination surround the role that the acoustics of the drum play to the shaman. For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


There are two different worlds, the upper and the lower. In the upper world, images such as “climbing a mountain, tree, cliff, rainbow, or ladder; ascending into the sky on smoke; flying on an animal, carpet, or broom and meeting a teacher or guide”, [56]are typically seen. The lower world consists of images including, “entering into the earth through a cave, hollow tree stump, a water hole, a tunnel, or a tube”[57]. By being able to interact with a different world at an altered and aware state, the Shaman can then exchange information between the world in which he lives and that in which he has traveled to. The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


Rattle

Found mostly among South American and African peoples. Also used in ceremonies among the Navajo and in traditional ways in their blessings and ceremonies. For other uses, see Navajo (disambiguation). ...


Gong

Often found through South East Asia, Far Eastern peoples.


Didgeridoo & Clap Stick

Found mainly among the various aboriginal peoples of Australia.


Gender and sexuality

While some cultures have had higher numbers of male shamans, others have had a preference for females. Recent archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known shamans—dating to the Upper Paleolithic era in what is now the Czech Republic—were women.[58] For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ...


In some societies, shamans exhibit a two-spirit identity, assuming the dress, attributes, role or function of the opposite sex, gender fluidity and/or same-sex sexual orientation. This practice is common, and found among the Chukchi, Sea Dyak, Patagonians, Araucanians, Arapaho, Cheyenne, Navajo, Pawnee, Lakota, and Ute, as well as many other Native American tribes. Indeed, these two spirited shamans were so widespread as to suggest a very ancient origin of the practice. See, for example, Joseph Campbell's map in his The Historical Atlas of World Mythology: [Vol I: The Way of the Animal Powers: Part 2: pg 174] Such two-spirit shamans are thought to be especially powerful, and Shamanism so important to ancestral populations that it may have contributed to the maintenance of genes for transgendered individuals in breeding populations over evolutionary time through the mechanism of "kin selection." [see final chapter of E.O. Wilson's "Sociobiology: The New Synthesis] They are highly respected and sought out in their tribes, as they will bring high status to their mates. Berdache (from French, from Arabic bardajo meaning kept boy) is a generic term used by some for a third gender (woman-living-man) among many, if not most, Native American tribes. ... Chukchi, or Chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Russian Far East on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... Categories: Ethnicity stubs ... Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Diné in Navajo language) encompasses all things important to the Navajo. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The Utes (; yoots) are an ethnically related group of American Indians now living primarily in Utah and Colorado. ... For other uses, see Joseph Campbell (disambiguation). ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ...


In Korea, almost all of the shamans are female. This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


Duality and bisexuality are also found in the shamans of the Dogon people of Mali (Africa). References to this can be found in several works of Malidoma Somé, a writer who was born and initiated there. The Dogon village of Banani. ... Malidoma Somé Malidoma Somé is an internationally recognized author and speaker from the Dagara tribe of Burkina Faso in West Africa. ...


Tuva is the only region in the world to have shamanism as an official religion. The Tuvans' higher than average syphilis infection rate (according to the Moscow Times, 2.5% of the population) has been blamed on a tradition of the Republic, which says a woman is more fertile if she has had a large number of sexual partners before marriage. [citation needed] Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


Position

In some cultures, the border between the shaman and the lay person is not sharp:

Among the Barasana, there is no absolute difference between those men recognized as shamans and those who are not. At the lowest level, most adult men have some abilities as shamans and will carry out some of the same functions as those men who have a widespread reputation for their powers and knowledge.

The difference is that the shaman knows more myths and understands their meaning better, but the majority of adult men knows many myths, too.[59] For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ...


Also in many Eskimo groups, many laic people have felt experiences that are usually attributed to shamans: daydreaming, reverie, trance [60]. It is the control over helping spirits that is characteristic mainly to shamans, the laic people use amulets, spells, formulae, songs.[61][62] Some laic people may have the capability to have closer relationships with beings of the belief system than others. These people are apprentice shamans who failed to accomplish their learning process.[63] A daydream is a fantasy that a person has while awake, often about spontaneous and fanciful thoughts not connected to the persons immediate situation. ... Trance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... An amulet from the Black Pullet grimoire. ...


How shamans get sustenance and take part in everyday life varies between cultures. In many Eskimo groups, they provide services for the community and get a “due payment” (some cultures believe the payment is given to the helping spirits [64]), but these goods are only “welcome addenda.” They are not enough to enable shamanizing as a full-time activity. Shamans live like any other member of the group, as hunter or housewife.[64][65]


History

Shamanistic practices are sometimes claimed to predate all organized religions, dating back to the Paleolithic (Shamanism in Prehistory, by Clottes), and certainly to the Neolithic period [citation needed]. Aspects of shamanism are encountered in later, organized religions, generally in their mystic and symbolic practices. Greek paganism was influenced by shamanism, as reflected in the stories of Tantalus, Prometheus, Medea, and Calypso among others, as well as in the Eleusinian Mysteries, and other mysteries. Some of the shamanic practices of the Greek religion later merged into the Roman religion. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Tantalos, by Goya In Greek mythology Tantalus (Greek Τάνταλος) was a son of Zeus[1] and the nymph Plouto (riches)[2] Thus he was a king in the primordial world, the father of a son Broteas whose very name signifies mortals (brotoi)[3] Other versions name his father as Tmolus wreathed... In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Ancient Greek: , forethought)[1] is a Titan known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals for their use. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... Now hes left to pine on an island, wracked with grief (Odyssey V): Calypso and Odysseus, by Arnold Böcklin, 1883 Calypso (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal, also transliterated as Kalypsó or Kālypsō), was a naiad, daughter of Atlas who lived on the island of Gozo in Greek mythology. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...


The shamanic practices of many cultures were marginalized with the spread of monotheism in Europe and the Middle East. In Europe, starting around 400, institutional Christianity was instrumental in the collapse of the Greek and Roman religions. Temples were systematically destroyed and key ceremonies were outlawed or appropriated. The Early Modern witch trials may have further eliminated lingering remnants of European shamanism (if in fact "shamanism" can even be used to accurately describe the beliefs and practices of those cultures). For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Devil, one of the main protagonists of the witch trials. ...


The repression of shamanism continued as Catholic influence spread with Spanish colonization. In the Caribbean, and Central and South America, Catholic priests followed in the footsteps of the Conquistadors and were instrumental in the destruction of the local traditions, denouncing practitioners as "devil worshippers" and having them executed. In North America, the English Puritans conducted periodic campaigns against individuals perceived as witches. As recently as the nineteen seventies, historic petroglyphs were being defaced by missionaries in the Amazon. A similarly destructive story can be told of the encounter between Buddhists and shamans, e.g., in Mongolia (See Caroline Humphrey with Urgunge Onon, 1996). It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... West Indies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland Petroglyph on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument Petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


Today, shamanism survives primarily among indigenous peoples. Shamanic practice continues today in the tundras, jungles, deserts, and other rural areas, and also in cities, towns, suburbs, and shantytowns all over the world. This is especially widespread in Africa as well as South America, where "mestizo shamanism" is widespread. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço...


Areal variations

Europe

While shamanism had a strong tradition in Europe before the rise of monotheism, shamanism remains as a traditional, organized religion in Uralic , Altaic people and Huns; and also in Mari-El and Udmurtia, two semi-autonomous provinces of Russia with large Finno-Ugric minority populations. It was widespread in Europe during the Stone Age[citation needed], and continued to be practiced throughout the Iron Age by the various Teutonic tribes and the Fino-Baltic peoples.[66] Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Mari El Republic (Russian: ; Mari: Марий Эл Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Udmurt Republic (Russian: ; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The term Finno-Ugric people is used to describe a people speaking a Finno-Ugric language. ...


See also Sami shamanism, Huns , Finnish mythology , Tengri and the appropriate parts of Shamanism in Siberia. A Noaide [noaydeh] is a shaman or druid of the Sami people, usually representing an indigenous nature religion. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Finnish mythology has many features that it shares with other Finnic mythologies, like the Estonian mythology, and also elements similar with non-Finnic neighbours, especially the the Balts and the Scandinavians. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism [1]. It is inhabited by many different people. ...


Some peoples, which used to live in Siberia, have wandered to their present locations since then. For example, many Uralic peoples live now outside Siberia. The original location of the Proto-Uralic peoples (and its extent) is debated. Combined phytogeographical and linguistic considerations (distribution of various tree species and the presence of their names in various Uralic languages) suggest that this area was north of Central Ural Mountains and on lower and middle parts of Ob River.[67] The ancestors of Hungarian people or Madyars have wandered from their ancestral proto-Uralic area to the Pannonian Basin. Shamanism is no more a living practice among Hungarians, but some remnants have been reserved as fragments of folklore, in folktales, customs.[68] See shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore. Proto-Uralic is the hypothetical language ancestral to the Uralic languages, including the modern Samoyedic and Finno-Ugric languages. ... Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... lauren rocks my world The river splits into more than one arm, especially after joining the large Irtysh tributary at about 69° E. Originating in China, the Irtysh is actually longer than the Ob from their sources to the point of their confluence. ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Topographic map The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in Central Europe. ... Comparative methods used in analysing ethnographic data of Hungarian folklore, and some historical sources (e. ...


Asia

Siberia

Main article: Shamanism in Siberia

Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism.[69] It is inhabited by many different ethnic groups. Many of its Uralic, Altaic, and Paleosiberian peoples observe shamanistic practices even in modern times. Many classical ethnographic sources of “shamanism” were recorded among Siberian peoples. Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism [1]. It is inhabited by many different people. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... Paleosiberian (Palaeosiberian, Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian languages (from Greek palaios, ancient) is a term of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of languages spoken in remote regions of Siberia. ...


Among several Samoyedic peoples shamanism was a living tradition also in modern times, especially at groups living in isolation until recent times (Nganasans).[70] The last notable Nganasan shaman's seances could be recorded on film in the 1970s.[70][71] Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The term Samoyedic peoples is used to describe peoples speaking a Samoyedic language. ... The Nganasans are one of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. ...


When the People's Republic of China was formed in 1949 and the border with Russian Siberia was formally sealed, many nomadic Tungus groups that practiced shamanism were confined in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia. These include the Ewenki and the Oroqen. The last shaman of the Oroqen, Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu), died in October 2000. The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ...


In many other cases, shamanism was in decline even at the beginning of 20th century (Selkups).[72] The Selkup (Russian: ), until 1930s called ostyak-samoyeds (остя́ко-самое́ды) are a people in Siberia, Russia. ...


Korea

Main article: Korean shamanism

Shamanism is still practiced in South Korea, where the role of a shaman is most frequently taken by women known as mudangs, while male shamans (rare)are called baksoo mudangs. Korean shamans are considered to be from a low class. There are a number of shamanistic practices that are developed in Korea, where the role of a shaman is most frequently taken by women. ...


A person can become a shaman through hereditary title or through natural ability. Shamans are consulted in contemporary society for financial and marital decisions.


The Korean shamans' use of the Amanita Muscaria .[citation needed]. in traditional practice is thought to have been suppressed as early as the Choseon dynasty. Another mushroom of the Russula genus was renamed as the Shaman's mushroom, "무당버섯". Korean shamans are also reputed to use spiders over the subject's skin. Colorful robes, dancing, drums and ritual weapons are also features. Binomial name (L.:Fr. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Around 750 worldwide species of mushrooms compose the genus Russula. ...


Other Asian areas

There is a strong shamanistic influence in the Bön religion of some Central Asians, and in Tibetan Buddhism. Buddhism became popular with shamanic peoples such as the Tibetans, Mongols, and Manchu beginning in the eighth century. Forms of shamanistic ritual combined with Tibetan Buddhism became institutionalized as the state religion under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty and the Manchurian Qing dynasty. However, in the shamanic cultures still practiced by various ethnic groups in areas such as Nepal and northern India, shamans are not necessarily considered enlightened, and often are even feared for their ability to use their power to carry out malicious intent. Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... A Tibetan pilgrim The Tibetans speak the Tibetan language natively and form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), although in anthropological terms they include more than one ethnic group. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


In Tibet, the Nyingma schools in particular, had a Tantric tradition that had married "priests" known as Ngakpas or Ngakmas/mos (fem.). The Ngakpas were often employed or commissioned to rid the villages of demons or disease, creations of protective amulets, the carrying out of religious rites etc. The Ngakpas should however, been grounded in Buddhist philosophy and not simply another form of shaman, but sadly, this was most often not the case. There have always been, however, highly realised and accomplished ngakpas. They were in their own right great lamas who were of equal status as lamas with monastic backgrounds. The monasteries, as in many conventional religious institutions, wished to preserve their own traditions, sometimes at the expense of others. The monasteries depended upon the excesses of patrons for support. This situation often led to a clash between the more grassroots and shamanic character of the travelling Chödpa and Ngakpa culture and the more conservative religious monastic system.[73] Chöd (literally cutting through) is a Tibetan Buddhist practice which cuts through hindrances (eg. ... In Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, Ngagpas (sNgags-pa) or male practitioners (female practioners are knowns as Ngagmas or Ngagmos [1]) are non-monastic practitioners of such disciplines as Vajrayana, shamanism, Tibetan medicine, Tantra and Dzogchen amongst other traditions, disciplines and arts. ...


Shamanism is still widely practiced in the Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), where shamans are known as 'Nuru' (all women) and 'Yuta'. 'Nuru' generally administrates public or communal ceremonies while 'Yuta' forcuses on the civil or private matters. Shamanism is also practiced in a few rural areas in Japan proper. It is commonly believed that the Shinto religion is the result of the transformation of a shamanistic tradition into a religion. Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ...


Eskimo cultures

Yup'ik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy, Nushagak, Alaska, 1890s. Nushagak, located on Nushagak Bay of the Bering Sea in southwest Alaska, is part of the territory of the Yup'ik, speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language
Yup'ik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy, Nushagak, Alaska, 1890s.[74] Nushagak, located on Nushagak Bay of the Bering Sea in southwest Alaska, is part of the territory of the Yup'ik, speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language

Eskimo groups comprise a huge area stretching from Eastern Siberia through Alaska and Northern Canada (including Labrador Peninsula) to Greenland. Shamanistic practice and beliefs have been recorded at several parts of this vast area crosscutting continental borders.[75][60][31] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (550 × 924 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) No known restrictions on reproduction. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 357 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (550 × 924 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) No known restrictions on reproduction. ... Nushagak was a trade center and settlement near the present-day site of Dillingham, Alaska at the northern end of Nushagak Bay in northern Bristol Bay. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Nushagak Bay is one of the largest estuaries of Bristol Bay, a large body of water in the eastern Bering Sea north of the Alaska Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Languages Central Alaskan Yupik, English Religions Christianity (mostly Russian Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, or Moravian Church) Related ethnic groups Other Yupik peoples (Siberian Yupik, Alutiiq, Naukan), Inuit, Aleut This article is about people of southwestern Alaska. ... For the people, see Yupik. ... Yupik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Siberia. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Northern Canada, defined politically Northern Canada is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. ... Labrador Peninsula, Canada Labrador Peninsula is a large peninsula in eastern Canada. ...


As for terminology used in the article: the term Eskimo has fallen out of favour in Canada and Greenland, where it is considered pejorative and the term Inuit has become more common. However, Eskimo is still considered acceptable among Alaska Natives of Yupik and Inupiaq (Inuit) heritage, and is preferred over Inuit as a collective reference. To date, no replacement term for Eskimo inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people has achieved acceptance across the geographical area inhabited by the Inuit and Yupik peoples. The Inuit and Yupik languages together constitute one branch within the Eskimo-Aleut language family alongside the Aleut branch. (The Sireniki Eskimo language is sometimes proposed to form a third branch of the Eskimo,[76][77][78] but sometimes it is regarded as belonging to the Yupik languages.[79]) The languages of the Eskimo branch have certain common characteristics (compared to Aleut) which justifies "splitting off" the Eskimo branch inside the Eskimo-Aleut family. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of the Americas native to the state of Alaska within the United States. ... The language of the Inuit people is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. ...


Shamanistic features

When speaking of “shamanism” in various Eskimo groups, we must remember that (as mentioned above) the term “shamanism” can cover certain characteristics of various different cultures[80]. Mediation is regarded often as an important aspect of shamanism in general.[81] Also in most Eskimo groups, the role of mediator is known well:[82] the person filling it in is actually believed to be able to contact the beings who populate the belief system. Term “shaman” is used in several English-language publications also in relation to Eskimos.[75][83][84][85] Also the /aˈliɣnalʁi/ of the Asian Eskimos is translated as “shaman” in the Russian[86] and English[82] literature.


The belief system assumes specific links between the living people, the souls of hunted animals, and those of dead people.[87] The soul concepts of several groups are specific examples of soul dualism (showing variability in details in the various cultures). For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of souls. ...


Like most cultures labelled as “shamanistic”, the Eskimo groups have several special features, or at least ones that are not present in all shamanistic cultures. Unlike in many Siberian cultures, the careers of most Eskimo shamans lack the motivaton of force: becoming a shaman is usually a result of deliberate consideration, not a necessity forced by the spirits.[88]


Diversity, with some similarities

Another possible concern: do the belief systems of various Eskimo groups have such common features at all, that would justify any mentioning them together? There was no political structure above the groups, their languages were relative, but differed more or less, often forming language continuums (online [78]). In sociolinguistics, a language continuum is said to exist when two or more different languages or dialects merge one into the other(s) without a definable boundary. ...


There are some similarities in the cultures of the Eskimo groups[89][90][91][92][93] together with diversity, far from homogeneity.[94]


The Russian linguist Меновщиков, an expert of Siberian Yupik and Sireniki Eskimo languages (while admitting that he is not a specialist in ethnology[95]) mentions, that the shamanistic seances of those Siberian Yupik and Sireniki groups he has seen have many similarities to those of Greenland Inuit groups described by Fridtjof Nansen,[96] although a large distance separates Siberia and Greenland. There may be certain similarities also in Asiatic groups with some North American ones.[97] Also the usage of a specific shaman's language is documented among several Eskimo groups, used mostly for talking to spirits.[98][99] Also the Ungazigmit (belonging to Siberian Yupiks) had a special allegoric usage of some expressions.[100] For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... For the language, see Sireniki Eskimo language. ... Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


The local cultures showed great diversity. The myths concerning the role of shaman had several variants, and also the name of their protagonists varied from culture to culture. For example, a mythological figure, usually referred to in the literature by the collective term Sea Woman, has factually many local names: Nerrivik “meat dish” among Polar Inuits, Nuliayuk “lubricous” among Netsilingmiut, Sedna “the nether one” among Baffin Land Inuits.[101] Also the soul conceptions, e.g. the details of the soul dualism showed great variability, ranging from guardianship to a kind of reincarnation. Conceptions of spirits or other beings had also many variants (see e.g. the tupilaq concept).[102] In Inuit mythology, Sedna (Inuktitut Sanna, ᓴᓐᓇ) is a sea goddess and mistress of the animals, especially mammals such as seals, of the ocean. ... The Netsilik Inuit (Netsilingmiut) live predominately in the communities of Kugaaruk and Gjoa Haven of the Kitikmeot Region, Nunavut and to a smaller extent in Taloyoak and the north Qikiqtaaluk Region. ... Soul dualism or a dualistic soul concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of souls. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... In Greenlandic Inuit folklore, a Tupilaq (Tupilak) was an avenging monster fabricated by a practitioner of witchcraft or shamanism by using various objects such as animal parts (bone, hair, etc. ...


Africa

In the early 19th century traditional healers in parts of Africa were often referred to in a derogatory manner as "witch doctors" practising Juju by early European settlers and explorers. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A witch doctor (in southern Africa known as a Sangoma) often refers to exotic healers that believe that maladies are caused by magic and are therefore best cured by it, as opposed to science or developed medicine. ... For other uses, see Juju (disambiguation). ...


Americas

Native American "conjuror" in a 1590 engraving
Native American "conjuror" in a 1590 engraving

Native American and First Nations cultures have diverse religious beliefs. There was never one universal Native American religion or spiritual system. Though many Native American cultures have traditional healers, ritualists, singers, mystics, lore-keepers and "Medicine People", none of them ever used, or use, the term "shaman" to describe these religious leaders. Rather, like other indigenous cultures the world over, their spiritual functionaries are described by words in their own languages, and in many cases are not taught to outsiders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x629, 188 KB) Summary Indian conjuror engraving by G. Veen after a watercolor by John White. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x629, 188 KB) Summary Indian conjuror engraving by G. Veen after a watercolor by John White. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many of these indigenous religions have been grossly misrepresented by outside observers and anthropologists, even to the extent of superficial or seriously mistaken anthropological accounts being taken as "more authentic" than the accounts of actual members of the cultures and religions in question. Often these accounts suffer from "Noble Savage"-type romanticism and racism. Some contribute to the fallacy that Native American cultures and religions are something that only existed in the past, and which can be mined for data despite the opinions of Native communities. A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Not all Indigenous communities have roles for specific individuals who mediate with the spirit world on behalf of the community. Among those that do have this sort of religious structure, spiritual methods and beliefs may have some commonalities, though many of these commonalities are due to some nations being closely-related, from the same region, or through post-Colonial governmental policies leading to the combining of formerly-independent nations on reservations. This can sometimes lead to the impression that there is more unity among belief systems than there was in antiquity.


Navajo medicine men, known as "Hatałii", use several methods to diagnose the patient's ailments. These may include using special tools such as crystal rocks, and abilities such as hand-trembling and trances, sometimes accompanied by chanting. The Hatałii will select a specific healing chant for that type of ailment. Navajo healers must be able to correctly perform a healing ceremony from beginning to end. If they don't, the ceremony will not work. Training a Hatałii to perform ceremonies is extensive, arduous, and takes many years, and is not unlike priesthood. The apprentice learns everything by watching his teacher, and memorizes the words to all the chants. Many times, a medicine man cannot learn all sixty of the traditional ceremonies, so he will opt to specialize in a select few. The Navajo (also Navaho) people of the southwestern United States call themselves the Diné (pronounced ), which roughly means the people. They speak the Navajo language, and many are members of the Navajo Nation, an independent government structure which manages the Navajo reservation in the Four Cs area of the United... The Navajo (also Navaho) people of the southwestern United States call themselves the Diné (pronounced ), which roughly means the people. They speak the Navajo language, and many are members of the Navajo Nation, an independent government structure which manages the Navajo reservation in the Four Cs area of the United...


Mayan

Mayan priest performing a healing ritual
Main article: Maya religion
Further information: Mayan astrology

The Mayan people of Guatemala, Belize, and Southern Mexico practice a highly sophisticated form of shamanism based upon astrology and a form of divination known as "the blood speaking", in which the shaman is guided in divination and healing by pulses in the veins of his arms and legs. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the ancient and modern Maya vary greatly over space and time, but certain common features can be discerned, all of which are consistent with other Mesoamerican religions. ... Maya calendrical divination is a subset of traditional beliefs, rituals and divinatory practices that are held or performed among various Maya communities in Guatemala and southern Mexico. ... The adjective Mayan is sometimes used to refer to the indigenous peoples of parts of Mexico and Central America, their culture, language, and history. ...


Amazonia

Shaman from an equatorial Amazonian forest. June 2006
Shaman from an equatorial Amazonian forest. June 2006
Urarina shaman, 1988
Urarina shaman, 1988

In the Peruvian Amazon Basin and north coastal regions of the country, the healer shamans are known as curanderos. In addition to Peruvian shaman’s (curanderos) use of rattles, and their ritualized ingestion of mescaline-bearing San Pedro cactuses (Trichocereus pachanoi) for the divinization and diagnosis of sorcery, north-coastal shamans are famous throughout the region for their intricately complex and symbolically dense healing altars called mesas (tables). Sharon (1993) has argued that the mesas symbolize the dualistic ideology underpinning the practice and experience of north-coastal shamanism. [103] For Sharon, the mesas are the, "physical embodiment of the supernatural opposition between benevolent and malevolent energies” (Dean 1998:61). [104] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2336 × 3504 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x1800, 1038 KB) Summary Urarina Shaman, Photo by Bartholomew Dean Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An Indigenous Peoples of the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto), they refer to themselves as Kachá (lit. ... Amazon River basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. ... A curandero (or curandera for a female) is a traditional folk healer or shaman prevalent in Latin America, and especially in Mexico and in Chicano communities in the southwestern United States. ... A rattle may be: bird-scaring rattle, a Slovene device used to drive birds off vineyards and a folk instrument football rattle, a noisy ratchet device for showing approval, used by sports fans. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Binomial name (Britton and Rose) Friedrich and Rowley Synonyms Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose The San Pedro cactus (Echinopsis pachanoi, syn. ... Divinization is the making divine of an earthly entity or activity. ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the Amazon Rainforest, at several Indian groups the shaman acts also as a manager of scare ecological resources (paper [22][24]; online [47]). The rich symbolism behind Tukano shamanism has been documented in some in-depth field works[22][105][106] even in the last decades of the 20th century. Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... The Tucano are a group of indigenous South Americans living in the northwestern Amazon, along the Vaupés river and the surrounding area. ... Field work is a general descriptive term for the collection of raw data in the natural and social sciences, such as archaeology, biology, ecology, environmental science, geology,geography geophysics, paleontology, anthropology, linguistics, and sociology. ...


Mapuche

Among the Mapuche people of South America, the community "shaman", usually a woman, is known as the Machi, and serves the community by performing ceremonies to cure diseases, ward off evil, influence the weather and harvest, and by practicing other forms of healing such as herbalism. Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the Indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A Machi is a shaman or (usually) a good witch in the Mapuche culture of South America; and is also an important character and the Mapuche mythology. ...


Fuegians

Although Fuegians (the indigenous peoples of Tierra del Fuego) were all hunter-gatherers,[107] they did not share a common culture. The material culture was not homogenous, either: the big island and the archipelago made two different adaptations possible. Some of the cultures were coast-dwelling, others were land-oriented.[108][109] Picture of a Fuegian (possibly a Yaghan) from the voyage of FitzRoys ship, HMS Beagle. ... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


Both Selk'nam and Yámana had persons filling in shaman-like roles. The Selk'nams believed their /xon/s to have supernatural capabilities, e.g. to control weather.[110][111] The figure of /xon/ appeared in myths, too.[112] The Yámana /jekamuʃ/[113] corresponds to the Selknam /xon/.[114] The Selknam, also known as the Ona, a now-extinct people, lived in the Tierra del Fuego islands, in southern Chile and Argentina. ... Yagán, also known as Yámana, Yaghan, and Háusi Kúta, is one of the indigenous languages of Tierra del Fuego, spoken by the Yagán people. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


Oceania

In Australia various aboriginal groups refer to their "shamans" as "clever men" and "clever women" also as kadji. These Aboriginal shamans use maban or mabain, the material that is believed to give them their purported magical powers. The Western Australian term maban is also cognate with the term "shaman". Besides healing, contact with spiritual beings, involvement in initiation and other secret ceremonies, they are also enforcers of tribal laws, keepers of special knowledge and may "hex" to death one who breaks a social taboo by singing a song only known to the "clever men". For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Maban is a magical substance in Australian Aboriginal mythology. ...


Criticism of the term “shaman” or “shamanism”

Certain anthropologists, most notably Alice Kehoe in her book Shamans and Religion: An Anthropological Exploration in Critical Thinking, are highly critical of the term. Part of this criticism involves the notion of cultural appropriation.[citation needed] This includes criticism of New Age and modern Western forms of Shamanism, which may not only misrepresent or 'dilute' genuine indigenous practices but do so in a way that, according to Kehoe, reinforces racist ideas such as the Noble Savage.[citation needed] Cultural appropriation is the adoption of some specific elements of one culture by a different cultural group. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this American Indian has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 17th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered...


Kehoe is highly critical of Mircea Eliade's work.[citation needed] Eliade, being a historian rather than an anthropologist, had never done any field work or made any direct contact with 'shamans' or cultures practicing 'shamanism'.[citation needed] According to Kehoe, Eliade's 'shamanism' is an invention synthesized from various sources unsupported by more direct research.[citation needed] To Kehoe, what Eliade and other scholars of shamanism treat as being definitive of shamanism, most notably drumming, trance, chanting, entheogens and hallucinogenics, spirit communication and healing, are practices that Mircea Eliade (March 13 [O.S. February 28] 1907 – April 22, 1986) was a Romanian historian of religion, fiction writer, philosopher, and professor at the University of Chicago. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ...

  • exist outside of what is defined as shamanism and play similar roles even in non-shamanic cultures (such as the role of chanting in Judeo-Christian rituals)[citation needed]
  • in their expression are unique to each culture that uses them and cannot be generalized easily, accurately or usefully into a global ‘religion’ such as shamanism.[citation needed]

Because of this, Kehoe is also highly critical of the notion that shamanism is an ancient, unchanged, and surviving religion from the Paleolithic period.[citation needed] Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...


Hoppál also discusses whether the term “shamanism” is appropriate. He recommends using the term “shamanhood”[115] or “shamanship”[116] for stressing the diversity and the specific features of the discussed cultures. This is a term used in old Russian and German ethnographic reports at the beginning of the 20th century. He believes that this term is less general and places more stress on the local variations,[49] and it emphasizes also that shamanism is not a religion of sacred dogmas, but linked to the everyday life in a practical way.[117] Following similar thoughts, he also conjectures a contemporary paradigm shift.[115] Also Piers Vitebsky mentions, that (despite of really astonishing similarities) there is no unity in shamanism. The various, fragmented shamanistic practices and beliefs coexist with other beliefs everywhere. There is no record of pure shamanistic societies (although, as for the past, their existence is not impossible).[118] Piers Vitebsky is an anthropologist and is the Head of Social Science at the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England. ...


See books and small online materials on this topic[119].


Shamanism and New Age movement

Main article: Neoshamanism

The New Age movement has appropriated some ideas from shamanism as well as beliefs and practices from Eastern religions and Native American cultures. As with other such appropriations, the original practitioners of these traditions frequently condemn New Age use as misunderstood, sensationalized, or superficially understood and/or applied.[2] Some Nanai shamans experienced performances on the stage as dangerous: inappropriate (untimely, superfluous) invocation of the helping spirits can raise their anger.[120] Neoshamanism is a term applied to certain emergent shamanistic philosophies, whether they are a revival of older shamanistic beliefs and tradition or an amalgation of new-age and spiritual beliefs. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Cultural appropriation is the adoption of some specific elements of one culture by a different cultural group. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ...


There is an endeavor in some occult and esoteric circles to reinvent shamanism in a modern form, drawing from core shamanism - a set of beliefs and practices synthesized by the controversial Michael Harner - often revolving around the use of ritual drumming and dance, and Harner's interpretations of various indigenous religions. Harner has faced much criticism for implying that pieces of diverse religions can be taken out of context to form some sort of "universal" shamanic tradition. Some of these neoshamans also focus on the ritual use of entheogens, as well as chaos magic. Allegedly, European-based Neoshamanic traditions are focused upon the researched or imagined traditions of ancient Europe, where they believe many mystical practices and belief systems were suppressed by the Christian church. Some of these practitioners express a desire to practice a system that is based upon their own ancestral traditions. Some anthropologists and practitioners have discussed the impact of such "neoshamanism" as 'giving extra pay' (Harvey, 1997 and elsewhere) to indigenous American traditions, particularly as many Pagan- or Heathen-'shamanic practitioners' of legitimate cultural traditions do not call themselves shamans, but instead use specific names derived from the older European traditions - the völva or seidkona (seid-woman) of the sagas being an example (see Blain 2002, Wallis 2003). Shamanism has also been used in New Age therapies which use enactment and association with other realities as an intervention [3][4] For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Core Shamanism is a system of shamanic beliefs and practices from all over the world. ... Michael Harner synthesized shamanic beliefs and practices from all over the world into a system now known as core shamanism or neoshamanism. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... The chaos star (called a chaosphere, or black hole sun,[citations needed] by some practitioners) is the most popular symbol of chaos magic. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... Seid or seiðr is an Old Norse term for a type of sorcery or witchcraft which was practiced by the pre-Christian Norse. ...


(see also Plastic shaman) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


See also

Astral spirits are spirits believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies, to whom worship was paid, and to hover unembodied through space exercising demonic influence on embodied spirits. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Core Shamanism is a system of shamanic beliefs and practices from all over the world. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Mana is a traditional term that refers to a concept among the speakers of Oceanic languages, including Melanesians, Polynesians, and Micronesians. ... A Machi is a shaman or (usually) a good witch in the Mapuche culture of South America; and is also an important character and the Mapuche mythology. ... Neoshamanism is a term applied to certain emergent shamanistic philosophies, whether they are a revival of older shamanistic beliefs and tradition or an amalgation of new-age and spiritual beliefs. ... Neuroanthropology is the study of culture and the brain. ... Not to be confused with neuroethology. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Ovoo An ovoo (Mongolian: , heap) is a type of shamanistic rock cairn found in Mongolia. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Binomial name (Lem. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In the shamanic belief every thing is alive and carries with it power and wisdom. ... This is an article about the mythology of the Psychopomp. ... Shamans Drum Journal, a periodical devoted to experiential shamanism, is edited by Timothy White and published by the Cross-Cultural Shamanism Network (a nonprofit educational organization). ... A torii at Itsukushima Shrine Shinto (神道 Shintō) (sometimes called Shintoism) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Soul Catcher is the name of a book written by Frank Herbert in 1972. ... map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (dark yellow), Taoic (light yellow), and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... Technoshamanism is a term used to describe various methods of integrating modern technology into shamanic practice (see shamanism). ... It has been suggested that Thought-form be merged into this article or section. ... Yatiri are medical practitioners and community healers among the Aymara of Bolivia, Chile and Peru, who use in their practice both symbols and materials such as coca leaves. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Crossley, Pamela Kyle (1996). The Manchus. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 1557865604. 
  2. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:15
  3. ^ Diószegi 1962:13
  4. ^ Noll & Shi 2004: 1
  5. ^ Voigt 2000:41–45
  6. ^ Hoppál 2005: 25
  7. ^ a b Sem, Tatyana. Shamanic Healing Rituals. Russian Museum of Ethnography.
  8. ^ Hoppál 2005: 27–28
  9. ^ Hoppál 2005: 28–33
  10. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 37
  11. ^ Hoppál 2005: 34–35
  12. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 36
  13. ^ Hoppál 2005: 25
  14. ^ Hoppál 2005: 45
  15. ^ Boglár 2001: 24
  16. ^ Hoppál 2005: 94
  17. ^ Vitebsky 1996: 46
  18. ^ Hoppál 2005: 149
  19. ^ Hoppál 2005:36164
  20. ^ Hoppál 2005:87–95
  21. ^ Czaplicka 1914
  22. ^ a b c d Reichel-Dolmatoff 1997
  23. ^ Vitebsky 1996:107
  24. ^ a b Boglár 2001:26
  25. ^ Merkur 1985: 5
  26. ^ Vitebsky 1996:108
  27. ^ Kleivan & Sonne: 27–28
  28. ^ Merkur 1985: 4
  29. ^ Hoppál 2005: 27
  30. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 7, 19–21
  31. ^ a b Gabus, Jean: A karibu eszkimók. Gondolat Kiadó, Budapest, 1970. (Hungarian translation of the original: Vie et coutumes des Esquimaux Caribous, Libraire Payot Lausanne, 1944.) It desribes the life of Caribou Eskimo groups.
  32. ^ Hoppál 2005: 99
  33. ^ Hoppál 2005:14
  34. ^ Diószegi 1962:13
  35. ^ Hoppál 2005:15
  36. ^ Hoppál 2005:14
  37. ^ Boglár 2001:24
  38. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:25–26,43
  39. ^ Hoppál 2004:14
  40. ^ Hoppál 2005: 13–15, 58, 197
  41. ^ Hoppál 2006a: 11
  42. ^ Hoppál 2006b: 175
  43. ^ Hoppál 2005:15
  44. ^ a b Hoppál, Mihály: Nature worship in Siberian shamanism
  45. ^ page 14 in: Dana, Kathleen Osgood. Áillohaš and his image drum: the native poet as shaman (pdf).
  46. ^ Merkur 1985:v
  47. ^ a b Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff: A View from the Headwaters. The Ecologist, Vol. 29 No. 4, July 1999.
  48. ^ Shamanic Worlds: Rituals and Lore of Siberia and Central Asia
  49. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 15
  50. ^ Hoppál 2006c: 143
  51. ^ a b Nattiez: 5
  52. ^ Deschênes 2002
  53. ^ Barüske 1969: 24, 50–51
  54. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 25
  55. ^ Maxfield, Melinda. "The journey of the drum." ReVision 16.4 (1994): 157.
  56. ^ Maxfield, Melinda. "The journey of the drum." ReVision 16.4 (1994): 157.
  57. ^ Maxfield, Melinda. "The journey of the drum." ReVision 16.4 (1994): 157.
  58. ^ Tedlock, Barbara. 2005. The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New York: Bantam.
  59. ^ Stephen Hugh-Jones 1980: 32
  60. ^ a b Merkur 1985
  61. ^ Merkur 1985
  62. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 8–10
  63. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 24
  64. ^ a b Merkur 1985: 3
  65. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 24
  66. ^ A. Asbjorn Jon, Shamanism and the Image of the Teutonic Deity, Óðinn
  67. ^ Hajdú 1975:35
  68. ^ Diószegi 1998
  69. ^ Hoppál 2005:13
  70. ^ a b Hoppál 2005:92–93
  71. ^ Hoppál 1994:62
  72. ^ Hoppál 2005:94
  73. ^ Economy of Excess. George Bataille.
  74. ^ Fienup-Riordan, Ann. 1994:206
  75. ^ a b Kleivan & Sonne 1985
  76. ^ Linguist List's description about Nikolai Vakhtin's book: The Old Sirinek Language: Texts, Lexicon, Grammatical Notes. The author's untransliterated (original) name is “Н.Б. Вахтин”.
  77. ^ Representing genealogical relations of (among others) Eskimo-Aleut languages by tree: Alaska Native Languages (found on the site of Alaska Native Language Center)
  78. ^ Ethnologue Report for Eskimo-Aleut
  79. ^ Hoppál 2005:15
  80. ^ Hoppál 2005:45–50
  81. ^ a b Menovščikov 1996:442
  82. ^ Merkur 1985
  83. ^ Vitebsky 1996
  84. ^ Freuchen 1961: 32
  85. ^ Рубцова 1954: 203, 209
  86. ^ Both death of a person and successfully hunted game require that cutting, sewing etc. be tabooed, so that the invisible soul does not get hurt accidentally (Kleivan&Sonne, pp. 18–21). In Greenland, the transgression of death tabu could turn the soul of the dead into a tupilak, a restless ghost which scared game away (Kleivan&Sonne 1985, p. 23). Animals fleed from hunter in case of taboo breaches, e.g. birth taboo, death taboo (Kleivan&Sonne, pp. 12–13)
  87. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 24
  88. ^ Kleivan 1985:8
  89. ^ Rasmussen 1965:366 (ch. XXIII)
  90. ^ Rasmussen 1965:166 (ch. XIII)
  91. ^ Rasmussen 1965:110 (ch. VIII)
  92. ^ Mauss 1979
  93. ^ Kleivan 1985:26
  94. ^ Menovščikov 1996 [1968]:433
  95. ^ Menovščikov 1996 [1968]:442
  96. ^ Vitebsky 1996:42 (ch. North America)
  97. ^ Merkur 1985:7
  98. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985:14
  99. ^ Rubcova 1954:128
  100. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 27
  101. ^ Kleivan & Sonne 1985: 30–31
  102. ^ Joralemen, D and D Sharon 1993 Sorcery and Shamanism: Curanderos and Clients in Northern Peru. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
  103. ^ Dean, Bartholomew 1998 “Review of Sorcery and Shamanism: Curanderos and Clients in Northern Peru” American Ethnologist. 25(1): 61-62.
  104. ^ Christine Hugh-Jones 1980
  105. ^ Stephen Hugh-Jones 1980
  106. ^ Gusinde 1966, pp. 6–7
  107. ^ Service, Elman: The Hunter. Prentice-Hall, 1966.
  108. ^ Extinct Ancient Societies Tierra del Fuegians
  109. ^ Gusinde 1966:175
  110. ^ About the Ona Indian Culture in Tierra del Fuego
  111. ^ Gusinde 1966:15
  112. ^ Gusinde 1966:156
  113. ^ Gusinde 1966:186
  114. ^ a b ISSR, 2001 Summer, abstract online in 2nd half of 2nd paragraph)
  115. ^ Hoppál & Szathmári & Takács 2006: 14
  116. ^ Hoppál 1998:40
  117. ^ Vitebsky 1996:11
  118. ^ Books relating to “shamanhood”, some of them with online abstract:
    • (Online abstract) Pentikäinen, Juha. Shamanhood symbolism and epic. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 2001. ISBN 963-05-7811-5.
    • Pentikäinen, Juha and Simoncsics, Péter (eds): Shamanhood. An endangered language. The Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture, 2005. (Series B, 117). ISBN 82-7099-391-3.
    See also similar online abstracts.
  119. ^ Shaman on the Stage (Shamanism and Northern Identity) by Tatyana Bulgakova

Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff (March 6, 1912—May 16, 1994) was an anthropologist, known for his holistic approach and his in-depth fieldworks among tropical rainforest cultures (e. ...

References

Latin

  • Barüske, Heinz (1969). Eskimo Märchen, Die Märchen der Weltliteratur (in German). Düsseldorf • Köln: Eugen Diederichs Verlag.  The title means: “Eskimo tales”, the series means: “The tales of world literature”.
  • Boglár, Lajos (2001). A kultúra arcai. Mozaikok a kulturális antropológia köreiből, TÁRStudomány (in Hungarian). Budapest: Napvilág Kiadó. ISBN 963 908294 5.  The title means “The faces of culture. Mosaics fom the area of cultural anthropology”.
  • Czaplicka, M. A. (1914). "Types of shaman", Shamanism in Siberia. Aboriginal Siberia. A study in social anthropology, preface by Marett, R. R., Sommerville College, University of Oxford, Clarendon Press. 
  • Deschênes, Bruno (2002). Inuit Throat-Singing. Musical Traditions. The Magazine for Traditional Music Throughout the World.
  • Diószegi, Vilmos (1960). Sámánok nyomában Szibéria földjén. Egy néprajzi kutatóút története (in Hungarian). Budapest: Magvető Könyvkiadó.  The book has been translated to English: Diószegi, Vilmos (1968). Tracing shamans in Siberia. The story of an ethnographical research expedition, Translated from Hungarian by Anita Rajkay Babó, Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications. 
  • Diószegi, Vilmos (1962). Samanizmus, Élet és Tudomány Kiskönyvtár (in Hungarian). Budapest: Gondolat.  The title means: “Shamanism”.
  • Diószegi, Vilmos [1958] (1998). A sámánhit emlékei a magyar népi műveltségben, first reprint (in Hungarian), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN ISBN 963 05 7542 6.  The title means: “Remnants of shamanistic beliefs in Hungarian folklore”.
  • Fienup-Riordan, Ann (1994). Boundaries and Passages: Rule and Ritual in Yup'ik Eskimo Oral Tradition. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 
  • Freuchen, Peter (1961). Book of the Eskimos. Cleveland • New York: The World Publishing Company. 
  • Gusinde, Martin (1966). Nordwind—Südwind. Mythen und Märchen der Feuerlandindianer. (in German). Kassel: E. Röth.  The title means: “Northern wind, southern wind. Myths and tales of Fuegians”.
  • Hajdú, Péter (1975). "A rokonság nyelvi háttere", in Hajdú, Péter: Uráli népek. Nyelvrokonaink kultúrája és hagyományai (in Hungarian). Budapest: Corvina Kiadó. ISBN 963 13 0900 2.  The title means: “Uralic peoples. Culture and traditions of our linguistic relatives”; the chapter means “Linguistical background of the relationship”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (1994). Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek (in Hungarian). Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963 208 298 2.  The title means “Shamans, souls and symbols”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (1998). "A honfoglalók hitvilága és a magyar samanizmus", Folklór és közösség (in Hungarian). Budapest: Széphalom Könyvműhely, 40–45. ISBN 963 9028 142.  The title means “The belief system of Hungarians when they entered the Pannonian Basin, and their shamanism”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (2005). Sámánok Eurázsiában (in Hungarian). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3.  The title means “Shamans in Eurasia”, the book is published also in German, Estonian and Finnish. Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian).
  • Hoppál, Mihály (2006a). "Sámánok, kultúrák és kutatók az ezredfordulón", in Hoppál, Mihály & Szathmári, Botond & Takács, András: Sámánok és kultúrák. Budapest: Gondolat, 9–25. ISBN 963 9450 286.  The chapter title means “Shamans, cultures and researchers in the millenary”, the book title means “Shamans and cultures”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (2006b). "Sámánság a nyenyecek között", in Hoppál, Mihály & Szathmári, Botond & Takács, András: Sámánok és kultúrák. Budapest: Gondolat, 170–182. ISBN 963 9450 286.  The chapter title means “Shamanship among the Nenets”, the book title means “Shamans and cultures”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (2006c). "Music of Shamanic Healing", in Gerhard Kilger: Macht Musik. Musik als Glück und Nutzen für das Leben. Köln: Wienand Verlag. ISBN 3879098654. 
  • Hugh-Jones, Christine (1980). From the Milk River: Spatial and Temporal Processes in Northwest Amazonia, Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Hugh-Jones, Stephen (1980). The Palm and the Pleiades. Initiation and Cosmology in Northwest Amazonia, Cambridge Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kleivan, Inge; B. Sonne (1985). Eskimos: Greenland and Canada, Iconography of religions, section VIII, "Arctic Peoples", fascicle 2. Leiden, The Netherlands: Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07160-1. 
  • Lawlor, Robert (1991). Voices Of The First Day: Awakening in the Aboriginal dreamtime. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, Ltd. ISBN 0-89281-355-5
  • Menovščikov, G. A. (= Г. А. Меновщиков) (1968). "Popular Conceptions, Religious Beliefs and Rites of the Asiatic Eskimoes", in Diószegi, Vilmos: Popular beliefs and folklore tradition in Siberia. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. 
  • Merkur, Daniel (1985). Becoming Half Hidden: Shamanism and Initiation among the Inuit. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 91-22-00752-0. 
  • Nattiez, Jean Jacques, Inuit Games and Songs • Chants et Jeux des Inuit, Musiques & musiciens du monde • Musics & musicians of the world, Montreal: Research Group in Musical Semiotics, Faculty of Music, University of Montreal. The songs are online available from the ethnopoetics website curated by Jerome Rothenberg.
  • Noll, Richard; Shi, Kun (2004). "Chuonnasuan (Meng Jin Fu). The Last Shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China" (pdf). Journal of Korean Religions (6): 135–162.  It describes the life of Chuonnasuan, the last shaman of the Oroqen of Northeast China.
  • Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1997). Rainforest Shamans: Essays on the Tukano Indians of the Northwest Amazon. Dartington: Themis Books. ISBN 0-9527302-4-3. 
  • Voigt, Vilmos (1966). A varázsdob és a látó asszonyok. Lapp népmesék, Népek meséi (in Hungarian). Budapest: Európa Könyvkiadó.  The title means: “The magic drum and the clairvoyant women. Sami folktales”, the series means: “Tales of folks”.
  • Voigt, Miklós (2000). "Sámán — a szó és értelme", Világnak kezdetétől fogva. Történeti folklorisztikai tanulmányok (in Hungarian). Budapest: Universitas Könyvkiadó, 41–45. ISBN 963 9104 39 6.  The chapter discusses the etymology and meaning of word “shaman”.
  • Vitebsky, Piers (1996). A sámán, Bölcsesség • hit • mítosz (in Hungarian). Budapest: Magyar Könyvklub • Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963 208 361 X.  Translation of the original: Vitebsky, Piers (1995). The Shaman (Living Wisdom). Duncan Baird. 

Cyrillic

  • Рубцова, Е. С. (1954). Материалы по языку и фольклору эскимосов (чаплинский диалект). Москва • Ленинград: Академия Наук СССР.  Rendering in English: Rubcova, E. S. (1954). Materials on the Language and Folklore of the Eskimoes (Vol. I, Chaplino Dialect). Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 

Peter Freuchen, born Lorenz Peter Elfred Freuchen (February 2, 1886 Nykøbing Falster - September 2, 1957) was a Danish explorer, writer and traveler. ... Jean-Jacques Nattiez is a musical semiologist or semiotician and professor of Musicology at the University of Montreal. ... Music semiology, the semiology of music, is the study of music and musicology as symbols, their meaning, and their effects on human behaviour. ... Ethnopoetics refers to poetic traditions which are typically seen as tribal or otherwise ethnic by the West (or indeed between any ethnoculturally different peoples). ... Jerome Rothenberg (born 1931) is an American poet and editor who is noted for his work in ethnopoetics. ... Richard Noll (born 1959) is a well-known author and clinical psychologist. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff (March 6, 1912—May 16, 1994) was an anthropologist, known for his holistic approach and his in-depth fieldworks among tropical rainforest cultures (e. ... Piers Vitebsky is an anthropologist and is the Head of Social Science at the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England. ... Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ...

Further reading

  • Joseph Campbell, The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology. 1959; reprint, New York and London: Penguin Books, 1976. ISBN 0-14-019443-6
  • Richard de Mille, ed. The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies. Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson, 1980.
  • George Devereux, "Shamans as Neurotics", American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 63, No. 5, Part 1. (Oct., 1961), pp. 1088-1090.
  • Nevill Drury, The Shaman and the Magician: Journeys Between the Worlds, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1982. ISBN 0-7100-0910-0
  • Mircea Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. 1964; reprint, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-11942-2
  • Jay Courtney Fikes, Carlos Castaneda: Academic Opportunism and the Psychedelic Sixties, Millennia Press, Canada, 1993ISBN 0-9696960-0-0
  • Joan Halifax, ed. Shamanic Voices: A Survey of Visionary Narratives. 1979; reprint, New York and London: Penguin, 1991. ISBN 0-14-019348-0
  • Michael Harner: The Way of the Shaman. 1980, new edition, HarperSanFrancisco, 1990, ISBN 0-06-250373-1
  • Graham Harvey, ed. Shamanism: A Reader. New York and London: Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-25330-6.
  • Åke Hultkrantz (Honorary Editor in Chief): Shaman. Journal of the International Society for Shamanistic Research
  • Philip Jenkins, Dream Catchers: How Mainstream America Discovered Native Spirituality. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-516115-7
  • Alice Kehoe, Shamans and Religion: An Anthropoligical Exploration in Critical Thinking. 2000. London: Waveland Press. ISBN 1-57766-162-1
  • Jeremy Narby and Francis Huxley, eds. Shamans Through Time: 500 Years on the Path to Knowledge. 2001; reprint, New York: Tarcher, 2004. ISBN 0-500-28327-3
  • Daniel C. Noel. Soul Of Shamanism: Western Fantasies, Imaginal Realities.Continuum, 1997. ISBN 0-8264-1081-2
  • Åke Ohlmarks 1939: Studien zum Problem des Schamanismus. Gleerup, Lund.
  • Jordan Paper. The Spirits are Drunk: Comparative Approaches to Chinese Religion, SUNY Press, 1995. ISBN 0-7914-2315-8
  • John Perkins. The World Is As You Dream It: Shamanic Teachings from the Amazon and Andes. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street, 1994. ISBN 0-89281-459-4
  • John Perkins. Spirit of the Shuar: Wisdom from the Last Unconquered People of the Amazon. Destiny Books, 2001. ISBN 0-89-281865-4
  • Barbara Tedlock, Time and the Highland Maya,U. of New Mexico Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8263-1358-2
  • Alberto Villoldo, PhD, Eric Jendresen: Dance of the Four Winds - Secrets of the Inca Medicine Wheel. Destiny Books ISBN 978-0892815142
  • Piers Vitebsky, The Shaman: Voyages of the Soul - Trance, Ecstasy and Healing from Siberia to the Amazon, Duncan Baird, 2001. ISBN 1-903296-18-8
  • Michael Winkelman, (2000) Shamanism: The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
  • Andrei Znamenski, ed. Shamanism: Critical Concepts, 3 vols. London: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-31192-6
  • Andrei Znamenski, Shamanism in Siberia: Russian Records of Siberian Spirituality. Dordrech and Boston: Kluwer/Springer, 2003. ISBN 1-4020-1740-5
  • Andrei Znamenski, The Beauty of the Primitive: Shamanism and the Western Imagination.Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 0195172310

The American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. ... Piers Vitebsky is an anthropologist and is the Head of Social Science at the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Shamanism (1087 words)
Shamanic, visionary ecstasy, the mysterium tremendum, the unio mystica, the eternally delightful experience of the universe as energy, is a sine qua non of religion, it is what religion is for!
Peruvian painter and Shaman, Pablo Amaringo Shuna and the Colombian anthropologist Luis Eduardo Luna and his wife, Sirpa Rasanen.
Shamanism and Western Civilization: Introduction to an Eleusinian Revival
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m