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Encyclopedia > Shakas
For information on the town in Hiroshima, Japan, see Saka, Hiroshima.

The Sakas are considered a branch of Scythians by most scholars. (Saka is the usual Persian term, while Scythian is a Greek term.) The Sakas lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Ukraine, and Altai and Siberia in Russia, approximately from 1400 BC to 300 AD. Some of their neighbours included the Sarmatians, Issedons, and Massagetae. Their language is poorly known, but seems to have originally been a member of the Iranian family (though some question whether this applied to all stratas of their society, or only the ruling class at various times). Hiroshima Prefecture (広島県 Hiroshima-ken) is located in the Chugoku region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Saka (坂町; -cho) is a town located in Aki District, Hiroshima, Japan. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatian Cataphract from Tanais: compare Pausanias description of armor (text below) Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Massagetae were an Iranian people of antiquity. ...


In Akkadian, the Saka were called the Ashkuza and were closely associated with the Gimirri, who were the Cimmerians known to the Greeks. Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language famaily) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... The Cimmerians were an ancient people of unknown affinity, possibly of Anatolian, Thracian or Iranian origin, who lived in the south of modern-day Ukraine (Crimea and northern Black sea coast) and Russia (Black Sea coast and Caucasus), at least in the 8th and 7th century BC. In the early...

Saka (Scythian) horseman from Pazyryk in Central Asia, c. 300 BC.
Saka (Scythian) horseman from Pazyryk in Central Asia, c. 300 BC.

Contents

Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 148 KB)Pazyrik horseman. ... Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c. ...


Connection theories

Asian peoples

Among others, modern Kazakhs (especially the branch known as "Saks") claim to be descendants of the Sakas. The Sakha people of Siberia (see Yakuts) are also considered remnants of the earlier Saka people. DNA analysis conducted at the Novosibirsk Institute of Cytology and Genetics has found Kazakhs and Altai people to be the nearest relatives of a Scythian from the Pazyryk burial in Siberia. A Kazakh and his camel The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak, Qazaq, or Quazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic-Mongol people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with Yakutia/Sakha Republic. ...


The most notable Saka burial to date, whose occupant is referred to as the "Golden Man", was found in Kazakhstan.


The silver dish found with the "Golden Man" is inscribed with what appears to be a form of runic writing, however the language and content have not yet been satisfactorily deciphered.


The worldview of Sakas, like that of present-day Kazakhs and Mongols, was that a human is a part of the Universe, Cosmos, Heaven, Sun, mountains, nature. Shamanism and Tengriism are still practiced today, from Kazakhstan to Siberia. The concept of God is related to Cosmic Laws and forces. The name of only one God, Ruler of skies, Creator of universe, the God of earliest monotheistic religion in humanity- Tengri. ...


It has been further claimed that Saka (or Scythian) animal-stylized art closely resembles Sumerian art, and that the contemporary Kazakh language has about 500 words in common with the Sumerian language. Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ...


The Sakas (or Shakyas) were also one of several tribes that conquered India from the northwest, where they established the rule of the Indo-Scythians. The Indian National Calendar starts from the first year of the Saka Era, 78 AD. Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Coin of the Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II, riding on horseback (c. ... The Hindu calendar used in Vedic times has undergone many changes in the process of regionalization, and today there are several regional Indian calendars. ... For other uses, see number 78. ...


There has been no strong genetic link discovered between the Kazakhs and peoples of India; however, the marker R1a1 accounts for more than 50% of Altai, Slavic and NW Indian/Pakistani males.


It is likely that by about 600 BC, Central Asia was occupied by a number of ethnic groups all sharing simpler cultural traits.


European peoples

According to some, the Saka race, with an affiliated tribe under a different name, migrated to the area of the Baltic Sea, and supposedly gave rise to the Saxon tribe in the area of present day Germany. This claim was cited in favour of Nazi claims that Germans were "original descendants of the Aryan race". However, contemporary philologists have rejected this notion, questioning the archaeological evidence for major cultural contacts between anyone in Uzbekistan or Iran, and the Baltic area. Nevertheless, many Germans believe that there was a connection between people in Central Asia and their own ancestors who were migrants from the East. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ... The Saxons were a large and powerful Germanic people located in what is now northwestern Germany and a small section of the eastern Netherlands. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Importance and applicability Archaeology is the study of human nature and attempts to illuminate the question of what it means to be human. ...


Paul Pezon ardently supports this theory, claiming that the Saka Scythians and the seemingly related Cimmerians were ultimately ancestors to the Celts and Germans, and that the Germans fled the Baltic area when it was flooded by the rising sea level after the Ice age - since the German tribe Cimbri are thought to be descended from a branch of the Cimmerians). A Celtic cross. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Cimbri lived around a bay near Heligoland and near the Elbe. ...


Some researchers have argued that both the Celts and Germans came from an area southeast of the Black Sea, and migrated westward to the coast of Europe, starting with the reign of the Persian king Cyrus the Great, when they declined to help him in his conquest of the Babylonian empire. Herodotus (440 BC) actually mentions a division of Scythians known as "Germanii". Map of the Black Sea. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Persia or Persian most often refer to: Persia The Persians, an ethnic group, also called Tajiks Persian language Persian (Pokémon) See also Iranian, Iranian peoples, Iranian languages and Aryan. ... Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae Cyrus II the Great (Persian: کوروش کبیر) (about 576 - July, 529 BC) was a king of Persia, famous for his military prowess and mercy. ... Äž Ăǘē ĒØĂŷ ĞŐąËò Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ...


When the Saxons invaded England ca. 400 AD, their chroniclers said they "sent back to Scythia for reinforcements." The implication is that the Saxons considered themselves to be Scythians -- the name having traveled with them, even though they were far away from the region the Greeks had labelled "Scythia". The English are known to be descended from two related tribes, the Angles and the Saxons. The burial customs of the Scythians and Vikings also show similarities, wherefore some have argued a common origin in support of the theory. Angles (German: Angeln, Old English: Englas, Latin: singular Anguls, plural Anglii) were Germanic people, from Angeln in Schleswig, who settled in East Anglia in the 5th century. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ...


About 50% of Slavs and Balts, and about 30% of Central Europeans share the same Y chromosome (R1a) with 50% of the people of the Indus Valley.


[1] [2] [3],[4],[5] See also: Pashtun, Jat (people) Location of Main Pashtun populations. ... The Jats are a prominent people caste/jati settled in and occupying a prominent position in Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan in India. ...


Sakas (Scythians) in Ancient Indian Literature

Some sections of Scythians, neighbors to ancient Persia, were referred to as Sacas in old Persian inscriptions. The Persian name Saca appears as Shaka in ancient Indian literature. The name finds numerous mention in texts like the Puranas, Manusmriti, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Mahabhasiya of Patanjali, Brhat Samhita of Vraha Mihira, Kavyamimamsa, Brihat-Katha-Manjari, Katha-Saritsagara and host of old texts. Persia and Persian can refer to: the Western name for Iran. ...


According to numerous Puranas, the military corporations of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas and Paradas, known as five hordes (pānca-ganah), had militarily supported the Haihaya and Talajunga Kshatriyas in depriving Ikshvaku king Bahu of his Ayodhya kingdom. A generation later, Bahu's son Sagara managed to recapture Ayodhya after defeating these foreign hordes. Sagara punished these rowdies by meting out to them weird punishments. He made the Shakas shave half of their heads, the Kambojas and the Yavanas the full, the Pahlavas to keep their beards and the Paradas to let their hair go free. The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Kamboja was the ancient name of a country and the Indo-Iranian warrior tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Horde is a term derived from a Turkic word - ordu. ... According to the Hindu code of Manu, a Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Ayodhya (अयोध्या) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ...


Balakanda of Ramayana also groups the Shakas with the Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas and Mlechhas and refers to them as military allies of sage Vishistha against Vedic king Vishwamitra (55/2-3). The Kishkindha Kanda of Ramayana locates the Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas and Paradas in the extreme north-west beyond the Himavat (i.e. Hindukush) (43/12). Lord Ram, Laxman, Sita and Hanuman(crouching) The Ramayana (Sanskrit: march (ayana) of Rama) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ... Species see List of Salvia species Sage is a term used for plants of the genus Salvia of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... The Himalaya is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


Mahabharata also associates the Shakas with the Yavanas, Gandharas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Tusharas, Sabaras, Barbaras etc and addresses them all as the Barbaric tribes of Uttarapatha. In another verse, the epic groups the Shakas Kambojas and Khashas and addresses them as the tribes from Udichya i.e north division (5/169/20). The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ... Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... EPIC might be an acronym or abbreviation for: Electronic Privacy Information Center Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing Enhanced Programmable ircII Client El Paso Intelligence Center End Poverty In California European Privatisation and Investment Corporation Sometimes it is also used to refer to Epic Games game development company. ...


Udyogaparava of Mahabharata (5/19/21-23) informs us that the composite army of the Kambojas, Yavanas and Shakas had participated in the Mahabharata war under the supreme command of Kamboja king Sudakshina. The epic numerously applauds this composite army as being very fierce and wrathful. EPIC might be an acronym or abbreviation for: Electronic Privacy Information Center Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing Enhanced Programmable ircII Client El Paso Intelligence Center End Poverty In California European Privatisation and Investment Corporation Sometimes it is also used to refer to Epic Games game development company. ...


The Vanaparava of Mahabharata contains verses in the form of prophecy that the kings of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas and Abhiras etc shall rule unrightously in Kaliyuga (MBH 3/188/34-36). This reference apparently alludes to precarious poltical scenario following the collapse of Mauryan and Sunga dynasties in northern India and its occupation by foreign hordes of the Shakas, Yavanas, Kambojas and Pahlavas etc. The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... A dynasty is a family or extended family which retains political power across generations, or more generally, any organization which extends dominance in its field even as its particular members change. ...


Manusmriti (X/43-44) groups the Shakas with the Yavanas, Kambojas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Kiratas and the Daradas etc and addresses them all as degraded Kshatriyas. Anushasanaparava of Mahabharata also views the Shakas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, Paradas etc in the same light. The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ... According to the Hindu code of Manu, a Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ...


Patanjali in his Mahabhasya (II.4.10) regards the Shakas and Yavanas as pure Shudras. Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... Shudra, or Sudra, is the fourth caste, or varna, in the traditional four-caste division among Indian castes. ...


Vartika of Katayana informs us that the kings of the Shakas and the Yavanas, like those of the Kambojas, may also be addressed by their respective tribal names. Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ...


Tenth century CE Kavyamimamsa of Chander Shekhar (Ch 17) also lists the Shakas, Tusharas, Vokanas, Hunas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Pahlavas, Tangana, Turukshas etc togather and states them as the tribes located in the Uttarapatha division.


Brihat-Katha-Manjari of Kshmendra (10/1/285-86) informs us that king Vikramaditya had unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Shakas, Mlecchas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Tusharas, Parasikas, Hunas etc by annhilating these sinners completely. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Barbarian was originally a Greek term applied to any foreigner, one not sharing a recognized culture or degree of polish with the speaker or writer employing the term. ...


See also

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ...

References

  • Bailey, H. W. 1958. "Languages of the Saka." Handbuch der Orientalistik, I. Abt., 4. Bd., I. Absch., Leiden-Köln. 1958.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • P’iankov, I. V. 1994. "The Ethnic History of the Sakas." Bulletin of the Asia Institute: The Archaeology and Art of Central Asia. Studies From the Former Soviet Union. New Series. Edited by B. A. Litvinskii and Carol Altman Bromberg. Translation directed by Mary Fleming Zirin. Vol. 8, (1994), pp. 37-46.[6]
  • Pulleyblank, Edwin G. 1970. "The Wu-sun and Sakas and the Yüeh-chih Migration." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 33 (1970), pp. 154-160.
  • Puri, B. N. 1994. "The Sakas and Indo-Parthians." In: History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, pp. 191-207.
  • Thomas, F. W. 1906. "Sakastana." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1906), pp. 181-216.
  • Yu, Taishan. 1998. A Study of Saka History. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 80. July, 1998. Dept. of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.
  • Yu, Taishan. 2000. A Hypothesis about the Source of the Sai Tribes. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 106. September, 2000. Dept. of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, University of Pennsylvania.

External links

  • The Ethnic of Sakas (Scythians)
  • [7]
  • [8]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Shaka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5095 words)
Shaka was probably the first son of the chieftain Senzangakhona and Nandi, a daughter of a past chief of the Langeni tribe, born near present-day Melmoth, KwaZulu-Natal Province.
Shaka is often said to have been dissatisfied with the long throwing assegai, and credited with introducing a new variant of the weapon—the Iklwa, a short stabbing spear, with a long, swordlike spearhead.
Shaka is also supposed to have introduced a larger, heavier shield made of cowhide and to have taught each warrior how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing his ribs for a fatal spear stab.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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