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Encyclopedia > Shahnameh
Shâhnameh
Shâhnameh

Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: شاهنامه )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc.), "The Book of Kings" , is an enormous poetic opus written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi around 1000 CE and is the national epic of the Persian-speaking world. The Shāhnāmeh tells the mythical and historical past of Iran from the creation of the world up until the Islamic conquest of Iran in the 7th century. Download high resolution version (635x877, 148 KB)Shahnameh This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (635x877, 148 KB)Shahnameh This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Persia redirects here. ...


Aside from its literary importance the Shâhnameh, written in almost pure Persian, has been pivotal for reviving the Persian language subsequent to the influence of Arabic. This voluminous work, regarded by Persian speakers as a literary masterpiece, also reflects Iran's history, its cultural values, its ancient religions (Zoroastrianism), and its profound sense of nationhood. Ferdowsi completed the Shâhnameh at the point in time when national independence had been compromised. While there are memorable heroes and heroines of the classical type in this work, the real, ongoing hero is Iran itself. It's thus an important book for all Persian speakers of the Iranian world, including Afghanistan and Tajikistan, to other Persian speakers of Central Asia, Pakistan, India and as far as China, as well as the many Iranians living abroad all around the world since the Revolution of 1979. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


This book is also important to the remaining 200,000 Zoroastrians in the world, because the Shâhnameh traces the beginning of Zoroastrianism to the defeat of the last Zoroastrian king by Arab invaders. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Illustrated copies of the work are among the most sumptuous examples of Persian miniature painting. Several copies remain intact, although two of the most famous, the Houghton Shahnameh and the Great Mongol Shahnameh, were broken up for sheets to be sold separately in the 20th century. A single sheet from the former (now Aga Khan Museum) was sold for £904,000 in 2006. [1] The Bayasanghori Shâhnâmeh, an illuminated manuscript copy of the work (Golestan Palace, Iran), is included in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register of cultural heritage items[2] [3]. Safavid era Miniature painting kept at Shah Abbas Hotel in Isfahan. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Contents

The sources

Shâhnameh
Shâhnameh

There is an ongoing controversy among scholars about the sources of the Shâhnameh. Ferdowsi's epic is probably based mainly on an earlier prose version which itself was a compilation of old Iranian stories and historical facts and fables. However, there is without any doubt also a strong influence of oral literature, since the style of the Shahnameh shows characteristics of both written and oral literature. Some of the characters of the Epic are of Indo-Iranian heritage, and are mentioned in sources as old as the ancient Avesta and even the Hindu Rig Veda. The Shâhnameh itself was written in Pahlavi Persian, which at the time was looking towards a bleak end. Download high resolution version (556x836, 154 KB)Shahnameh This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (556x836, 154 KB)Shahnameh This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ...


The Shâhnameh of Ferdowsi, an epic poem of over 60,000 couplets, is based mainly on a prose work of the same name compiled in the poet's earlier life in his native Tus. This prose Shâhnameh was in turn and for the most part the translation of a Pahlavi work, a compilation of the history of the kings and heroes of Iran from mythical times down to the reign of Khosrau II (590-628), but it also contains additional material continuing the story to the overthrow of the Sassanids by the Arabs in the middle of the 7th century. The first to undertake the versification of this chronicle of pre-Islamic and legendary Persia was Daqīqī-e Balkhī, a poet at the court of the Samanids, who came to a violent end after completing only 1000 verses. These verses, which deal with the rise of the prophet Zoroaster, were afterward incorporated by Ferdowsi, with due acknowledgments, in his own poem. For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... For the Angel episode, see Couplet (Angel episode). ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Gold coin of Khosrau II. Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi (935/942-976/9801), sometimes refered to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی) was an early Persian poet, from Tus, Bukhara, Samarkand or Balkh (sources vary). ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, ZōroastrÄ“s) or Zarathustra (Avestan: ZaraθuÅ¡tra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


The work itself

Ferdowsi started his composition of the Shahnameh in the Samanid era in 977 A.D and completed it around 1010 A.D. during the Ghaznavid era.[4]. The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ...


The Shâhnameh recounts the history of Iran, beginning with the creation of the world and the introduction of the arts of civilization (fire, cooking, metallurgy, law) to the Aryans and ends with the Arab conquest of Persia. The work is not precisely chronological, but there is a general movement through time. Some of the characters live for hundreds of years (as do some of the characters in the Bible), but most have normal life spans. There are many shāhs who come and go, as well as heroes and villains, who also come and go. The only lasting images are that of Greater Iran itself, and a succession of sunrises and sunsets, no two ever exactly alike, yet illustrative of the passage of time. edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... A girl in rural Iran. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to...


Father Time, a Saturn-like image, is a reminder of the tragedy of death and loss, yet the next sunrise comes, bringing with it hope of a new day. In the first cycle of creation, evil is external (the devil). In the second cycle, we see the beginnings of family hatred, bad behavior, and evil permeating human nature. Shāh Fereydūn's two eldest sons feel greed and envy toward their innocent younger brother and, thinking their father favors him, they murder him. The murdered prince's son avenges the murder, and all are immersed in the cycle of murder and revenge, blood and more blood. For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... This article is about modern humans. ... FereydÅ«n (فریدون), also pronounced FarÄ«dÅ«n, in medieval Persian FirÄ“dÅ«n, Middle Persian FrÄ“dōn, and Avestan ΘraÄ“taona is the name of a mythical king and hero who is an emblem of victory, justice and generosity in the Persian literature. ...


In the third cycle, we encounter a series of flawed shahs. There is a Phaedra-like story of Shāh Kay Kāūs, his wife Sūdāba, and her passion and rejection by her stepson, Sīyāvash. Alexandre Cabanels painting Phaedra (1880) In Greek mythology, Phaedra is the daughter of Minos, wife of Theseus and the mother of Demophon and Acamas. ... Siyâvash (in Persian: ) (common spelling: Siavash) is a character in Ferdowsis epic, Shahnameh. ...


In the next cycle, all the players are unsympathetic and selfish and evil. This epic on the whole is darker over all than most other epics, most of which have some sort of resolution and catharsis. This tone seems reflective of two things, perhaps: the conquest of the Persians by the Arabs, and a reflection of the last days of Persian Zoroastrianism. The old religion had been fraught with heresies, and somehow Zoroaster's optimistic view of man's ability to choose had become life denying and negative of this world. There is an enormous amount of bad luck and bad fate in the stories. Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


It is only in the characterizations of the work's many figures, both male and female, that Zoroaster's original view of the human condition comes through. Zoroaster emphasized human free will. We find all of Ferdowsi's characters complex. Nobody is an archetype or a puppet. The best characters have bad flaws, and the worst have moments of humanity.


Ferdowsi was grieved by the fall of the Iranian empire and its subsequent rule by Arabs and Turks. The Shahnameh is largely his effort to preserve the memory of Iran's golden days and transmit it to a new generation so that they could learn and try to build a better world.[5]. Though formally Muslim, the Shahnameh nevertheless has a certain anti-Arab and anti-Turk bias[6]. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Shâhnameh and its impact on Modern Persian

After Ferdowsi's Shâhnameh, a number of other works similar in nature surfaced over the centuries within the cultural sphere of the Persian language. Without exception, all such works were based in style and method on Ferdowsi's Shâhnameh, but none of them could quite achieve the same degree of fame and popularity.


Some experts believe the main reason the Modern Persian language today is more or less the same language as that of Ferdowsi's time over 1000 years ago is due to the very existence of works like Ferdowsi's Shâhnameh which have had lasting and profound cultural and linguistic influence. In other words, the Shâhnameh itself has become one of the main pillars of the modern Persian language. Studying Ferdowsi's masterpiece also became a requirement for achieving mastery of the Persian language by subsequent Persian poets, as evidenced by numerous references to the Shâhnameh in their works. Farsi redirects here. ...


The Shâhnameh has 62 stories, 990 chapters, and contains 60,000 rhyming couplets, making it more than seven times the length of Homer's Iliad, and more than twelve times the length of the German Nibelungenlied. There have been a number of English translations, almost all abridged. Mathew Arnold produced one of the first English translations of the story of Rostam and Sohrab [6]. This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ...


In 1925, the brothers Arthur and Edmond Warner published the complete work in nine volumes, now out of print. A recent translation by Dick Davis [7] has made this epic poem accessible for English speakers. The translation is combination of poetry and prose, although it is not the complete translation of the Shahnameh. Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Synopsis

The Shâhnameh is an impressive monument of poetry and historiography, being mainly the poetical recast of what Ferdowsi, his contemporaries, and his predecessors regarded as the account of Iran's ancient history. Many such accounts already existed in prose, an example being the Shâhnameh of Abu Mansur Abd-al-Razaq. A small portion of Ferdowsi's work, in passages scattered throughout the Shâhnameh, is entirely of his own conception. Added to the vivid descriptions of various scenes and phenomena, these occasional comments expresses his reflection on life, his religious and ethical beliefs and his admiration of virtue, his praise for his patrons, and his references to the sources he used. The rest of the work is divided into three successive parts: the mythical, heroic, and historical ages. Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ...


The mythical age

After an opening in praise of God and Wisdom, the Shâhnameh gives an account of the creation of the world and of man as believed by the Sasanians. This introduction is followed by the story of the first man, Keyumars, who also became the first king after a period of mountain dwelling. His grandson Hushang, son of Sīyāmak, accidentally discovered fire and established the Sadeh Feast in its honor. Stories of Tahmuras, Jamshid, Zahhāk, Kawa or Kaveh, Fereydūn and his three sons Salm, Tur, and Iraj, and his grandson Manuchehr are related in this section. This portion of the Shâhnameh is relatively short, amounting to some 2100 verses or four percent of the entire book, and it narrates events with the simplicity, predictability, and swiftness of a historical work. Naturally, the strength and charm of Ferdowsi's poetry have done much to make the story of this period attractive and lively. This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Keyumars (کیومرث), Arabic transliteration KayÅ«marṯ, older Persian Kayōmart, was the first Shāh of the world according to the poet FirdausÄ«s Shāhnāma. ... Hushang (in Persian: ), older Persian Hōšang, was the second Shāh to rule the world according to Ferdowsis Shāhnāma. ... Siāmak (Persian: , IPA: ), also transcribed as Siyamak, is a Persian given name, and a character (Kiumars son) in the Shahnameh. ... Sadeh is an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated 50 days before nowrouz. ... Tahmuras or Tahmures (Persian: ), New Persian transliteration , older Persian Tahmurat, is the third Shāh of the world according to Ferdowsis Shāhnāma. ... Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ... Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan My name is Kaveh, I am a Persian-American and live in San Diego. ... Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan My name is Kaveh, I am a Persian-American and live in San Diego. ... FereydÅ«n (فریدون), also pronounced FarÄ«dÅ«n, in medieval Persian FirÄ“dÅ«n, Middle Persian FrÄ“dōn, and Avestan ΘraÄ“taona is the name of a mythical king and hero who is an emblem of victory, justice and generosity in the Persian literature. ... Salm is a river in: Germany, tributary to the river Moselle, see: Salm, Germany; Belgium, tributary to the river Meuse, see: Salm, Belgium. ... Tur or TUR can stand for: Arbaah Turim, a work of Jewish law Tur (bean) Turkish language (ISO 639-2 language code) West Caucasian Tur, a species of goat Trans-urethral resection, a surgical procedure Tur, Egypt Tur, Iran Tur (son of Fereydun), son of Fereydun and predecessor of... Iraj Weeraratne is Sri Lanka’s maestro of hip-hop and the island’s new generation star. ... ManÅ«chehr (in Persian: ), older Persian Manōčihr, Avestan Manuščiθra, is the name of the first of the legendary Shāhs who ruled Iran after the breakup of the world empire of ManÅ«chehrs great-grandfather, FereydÅ«n. ...


The heroic age

Almost two-thirds of the Shâhnameh is devoted to the age of heroes, extending from Manuchehr's reign until the conquest of Alexander the Great (Sekandar). The main feature of this period is the major role played by the Sagzi (Saka) or Sistānī heroes who appear as the backbone of the Persian Empire. Garshāsp is briefly mentioned with his son Narimān, whose own son Sām acted as the leading paladin of Manuchehr while reigning in Sistān in his own right. His successors were his son Zāl and Zal's son Rostam, the bravest of the brave, and then Farāmarz. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Persia redirects here. ... Garshāsp (گرشاسپ) is the name of a monster-slaying hero in Persian mythology. ... Saam (سام) is a mythical hero of ancient Persia, and an important character in the Shahnameh epic. ... ZÃ¥l (زال in Persian) was a mythical warrior of ancient Iran. ... Rostam Slaying the Dragon- A miniature Painting by Master Mahmoud Farshchian. ...


The feudal society in which they lived is admirably depicted in the Shâhnameh with accuracy and lavishness. Indeed, the Masters' descriptions are so vivid and impressive that the reader feels himself participating in the events or closely viewing them. The tone is significantly epic and moving, while the language is extremely rich and varied.


Among the stories described in this section are the romance of Zal and Rudāba, the Seven Stages (or Labors) of Rostam, Rostam and Sohrāb, Sīyāvash and Sudāba, Rostam and Akvān Dīv, the romance of Bižhan and Manížheh, the wars with Afrāsīyāb, Daqiqi's account of the story of Goshtāsp and Arjāsp, and Rostam and Esfandyār. Rudaba or Roodabeh (رودابه in Persia) was Daughter of Mehrab Kaboli. ... Rostam and Sohrab is a story from the Persian epic the Shahnameh. ... Bijan and Manijeh (also Bizhan and Manizheh, Persian بيژن Ùˆ منيژه) is a love story in Ferdowsis Shahnameh (Shāh-Nāmeh, The Epic of Kings). ... Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi (935/942-976/9801), sometimes refered to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی) was an early Persian poet, from Tus, Bukhara, Samarkand or Balkh (sources vary). ... Esfandiar or Esfandyar is an Iranian legendary hero. ...


It is noteworthy that the legend of Rostam and Sohrāb is attested only in the Shâhnameh and, as usual, begins with a lyrical and detailed prelude. Here Ferdowsi is at the zenith of his poetic power and has become a true master of storytelling. The thousand or so verses of this tragedy comprise one of the most moving tales of world literature. Rostam and Sohrab is a story from the Persian epic the Shahnameh. ...


The historical age

A brief mention of the Ashkānīyān dynasty follows the history of Alexander and precedes that of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sassanid dynasty. After this, Sassanid history is related with a good deal of accuracy. The fall of the Sassanids and the Arab conquest of Iran are narrated romantically, and in very moving poetic language. Here, the reader can see Ferdowsi himself lamenting over this catastrophe and over what he calls the arrival of "the army of darkness". The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...


According to Ferdowsi, the final edition of the Shâhnameh contained some sixty thousand distichs. But this is a round figure; most of the relatively reliable manuscripts have preserved a little over fifty thousand distiches. Nezami-e Aruzi reports that the final edition of the Shâhnameh sent to the court of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was prepared in seven volumes. Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Ali Nizami Arudhi Samarqandi was an 11-12th century poet of Persia. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...


The Shâhnameh's message

Scenes from the Shâhnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried.
Scenes from the Shâhnameh carved into reliefs at Tus, where Ferdowsi is buried.

Ferdowsi's style is that of a superb poet. His epic language is rich, moving and lavish. Personal touches in the Shâhnameh prevent it from falling into a dry reproduction of historical narratives. No history has been so eagerly read, so profoundly believed, and so ardently treasured in Iran as has the Shâhnameh of Ferdowsi. If a history were ever to influence its readers, the Shâhnameh has done and still does so in the finest way. Where many "Tājīk" military and religious leaders failed, Ferdowsi succeeded. An example of Ferdowsi's works illustrates his mastery of poettry and brings to the reader's imagination vivid pictures through the power of language: e.g. Image File history File links Tus_shahnameh. ... Image File history File links Tus_shahnameh. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Languages Persian Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni (Hanafi), with Shia (Twelver and Ismaili) minorities) Tājik (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east and northeast of present-day Iran. ...


Bah roozah nabard Aan yalah arj-mand, Bah Shamshier, Khanjar, bah Gorz-o-Kamand, Deried-o-Boried-o-Shekasst-o-Basst, Yallan-raa Sarr-o-Sienah-o-Paa-o-Dasst.


Ferdowsi, instigated many formats of poems; beginning the foundations of literature.


(Translation) On the day of battle that grandiose warrior, By Sword, Dagger, by Mace and Rope, Severed, slivered, shattered, and tied, warrior’s heads, chest, legs, and hands.


If my countrymen find that the bold mastery of Ferdowsi's writings are lost in this poor man's translation, I ask for your indulgence and forgiveness of my humble translation to their own honorable selves.


Thus, to such an extent is Ferdowsi isconfident of his masterpiece's endurance and immortality that he versifies in the following couplets:


بناهاى آباد گردد خراب
ز باران و از تابش آفتاب


پى افكندم از نظم كاخي بلند
كه از باد و باران نيابد گزند


از آن پس نميرم كه من زنده‌ام
كه تخم سخن را پراكنده‌ام


هر آنكس كه دارد هش و راى و دين
پس از مرگ بر من كند آفرين



Banāhāye ābād gardad kharāb
ze bārānō az tābeshē āftāb

pay afkandam az nazm kākhī boland
ke az bādō bārān nayābad gazand

az ān pas namiram ke man zendeh'am
ke tokhme sokhan rā parākandeh'am

har ānkas ke dārad hosh o rāy o din
pas az marg bar man konad āfarin

"Buildings of the city suffer deterioration
From the raindrop and the ray of sunlight."

"I founded a great palace of verse [The Shahnameh]
That is impervious to the wind and the rain"

"I shall not die, these seeds [of discourse] I've sown will save
My name and reputation from the grave,"

"And men of sense and wisdom will proclaim,
When I have gone, my praises and my fame."


Ferdowsi did not expect his reader to pass over historical events indifferently, but asked him/her to think carefully, to see the grounds for the rise and fall of individuals and nations; and to learn from the past in order to improve the present, and to better shape the future. Ferdowsi stresses his belief that since the world is transient, and since everyone is merely a passerby, one is wise to avoid cruelty, lying, avarice, and other traditional evils; instead one should strive for justice, honor, truth, order, and other traditional virtues.


The singular message that the Shâhnameh of Ferdowsi strives to convey is the idea that the history of Sassanid Empire was a complete and immutable whole: it started with Keyumars, the first man, and ended with his fiftieth scion and successor, Yazdegerd III, six thousand years of history of Iran. The task of Ferdowsi was to prevent this history from being lost to future Iranian generations. Keyumars (کیومرث), Arabic transliteration KayÅ«marṯ, older Persian Kayōmart, was the first Shāh of the world according to the poet FirdausÄ«s Shāhnāma. ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ...


Shahnameh, its praises and influence

Modern Persian has existed as a living language for around 1100 years, and the Shahnameh, despite being more than 1000 years old, is read by Persian speakers throughout the world in its original form. This makes the Shahnameh different from other epics which are written in languages that are now dead. As an example, Beowulf, an important epic in its own right, can not be understood by the modern English speaker. Because it is a living language, and because it has sustained Persian poetry throughout the centuries, the Shahnameh has had a tremendous influence in shaping the modern identity of its Iranian, Afghan and Tajik readers. Beside being a epic book, Ferdowsi has decorated his book with many universal virtuous and moral concepts. According to the expert Dr. Jalal Khaleghi Mutlaq, the Shahnameh teaches: Yekta-Parasti (Worship of one God), Khoda Tarsi (Fear of breaking the commandments of God), Din Dari (Religious Uprightness), Mihan Doosti (patriotism), Mehr beh Zan o Farzand (love of wife, family and children), Dastgiryeh Darmandegaan (Helping the poor), Kheradmandi (Pursuit of Wisdom), Dad-Khwahi (Pursuit of Justice), Door-Andishi (Long term thinking), Miyaneh Ravi (Seeking and Acting in Equilibrium), Adaab Daani (Acting and Knowing correct manner), Mehman Nawazi (Seeking the happiness of Guests), Javanmardi (Chivalry), Bakhshesh (Forgiveness), Sepasgozari (Thankfulness), Khwoshnoodi o Khworsandi (Being content and Happy with existence), Kooshaayi (Hard Work), Narmesh Yaa Modaaraa (Being Peaceful and Kind), Wafadaari (Being faithful), Raasti (Truth and opposing anything that is against the Truth), Peymaan Daari (Keeping covenants), Sharm o Ahestegi (Shame at commiting immoral acts and also control over one's self), Khamooshi (Not acting loud), Danesh Amoozi (Pursuing Knowledge), Sokhon Dani (Knowledge of Wise Words) and many other moral qualities[8]. This article is about the epic poem. ...


Ferdowsi wrote in the end of his Shahnameh proclaims:


I’ve reached the end of this great history


And all the land will with talk of me:


I shall not die, these seeds I’ve sown will save


My name and reputation from the grave,


And men of sense and wisdom will proclaim


When I have gone, my praises and my fame.[9]


This prediction of Ferdowsi has come true and many Persian literary figures, historians and biographers have praised him and his Shahnameh. The Shahnameh is considered by many to be the most important piece of work in Persian literature. Western writers have also praised the Shahnameh and Persian literature in general. Persian literature has been considered by such thinkers as Goethe as one of the four main bodies of world literature[10]. Goethe was inspired by Persian literature, which moved him to write his famous "West-Eastern Divan". Goethe writes: When we turn our attention to a peaceful, civilized people, the Persians, we must -- since it was actually their poetry that inspired this work -- go back to the earliest period to be able to understand more recent times. It will always seem strange to the historians that no matter how many times a country has been conquered, subjugated and even destroyed by enemies, there is always a certain national core preserved in its character, and before you know it, there re-emerges a long-familiar native phenomenon. In this sense, it would be pleasant to learn about the most ancient Persians and quickly follow them up to the present day at an all the more free and steady pace.[11].


Saint - Beuve, when he observed the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, proclaimed: If we could realize that great works such as the Shahnameh exists in the world, we would not become so much proud of our own works in such a silly manner.[12].


Biographers

Tazkira or Biography of important poets and writers has long been a Persian tradition. Some of the biographies of Ferdowsi are now considered apocryphal, nevertheless this shows the important impact he had in the Iranian World. Among the famous biographers are[13]:


1) Nizami 'Arudi-i Samarqandi in his Chahar Maqaleh (Four Articles).


2) Dowlat Shah-i Samarqandi in his Tazkeye-Al-Shu'ara (The Biography of poets)


3) Jami in his Baharistan.


4) Muhammad 'Awfi in his Lobab al-Lobab.


5) Natayej al-Afkar by Mowlana Muhammad Qudrat Allah


6) 'Arafat Al-Ashighin written by Taqqi Al-Din 'Awhadi Balyani


A modern biography in English is written by the late Professor Abdullah Shapur Shahbazi of Eastern Oregan University titled: "Ferdowsi: A Critical Biography"[14]


Poets

Famous poets of Persia and the Persian tradition have praised and eulogized Ferdowsi. Many of them were heavily influenced by his writing and used his genre and stories to develop their own Persian epics, stories and poems:[15]. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


1) Anvari a famous poet in his own right remarks about the eloquence of the Shahnameh:"He was not just a Teacher and we his students. He was like a God and were his slaves".[16] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


2) Asadi Tusi was born in the same city as Ferdowsi. His Garshaspnama was inspired by the Shahnameh as he attests in the intrdoction. He praises Ferdowsi in the introduction [17] and considers Ferdowsi the greatest poet of his time[18] Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ...


3) Masud Sa'ad Salman, originally from Persia, was a poet of the Ghaznavid courts of India. Showing the influence of the Shahnameh only 80 years after the composition of the Shahnameh, he recited its poems in the Ghaznavid court.


4) Othman Mukhtari another poet at the court of the Ghaznavids of India remarks: "Alive is Rustam through the epic of Ferdowsi, Else there would not be a trace of him in this World"[19]


5) Sanai believes that in reality the foundation of poetry was established by Ferdowsi.[20] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


6) Nezami Ganjavi was influenced greatly by Ferdowsi and three of his five jewls had to do with pre-Islamic Persia. His Khusraw o Shirin, Haft Paykar and Eskandarnama used the Shahnameh as a major source. Nezami remarks that Ferdowsi is "the wise sage of Tus" who beautified and decorated words like a new bride.[21] Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial...


7) Khaghani of Shirvan who was the court poet of the Shirvanshah has remarked about Ferdowsi: Khaqani (1120-1190) (Persian: خاقانی) was a Persian poet. ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ...


" The pure words of the Ferdowsi of Tusi are like


The candle of the knowledgeable in this dust of sorrow,


He was born of pure nature like the purity of the Houri In Islam, the ḥūr or ḥūrīyah (Arabic: ) are described as (splendid)[1] companions of equal age (well-matched)[2], lovely eyed[3], of modest gaze[4], voluptuous,[5] pure beings or companions pure of paradise, denoting humans and jinns who enter paradise after being recreated anew in...


If there is man like Ferdowsi, he was born of Houri"[22] In Islam, the ḥūr or ḥūrīyah (Arabic: ) are described as (splendid)[1] companions of equal age (well-matched)[2], lovely eyed[3], of modest gaze[4], voluptuous,[5] pure beings or companions pure of paradise, denoting humans and jinns who enter paradise after being recreated anew in...


8) Attar remarks about the poetry of Ferdowsi: Open your eyes to the heavenly eden of Ferdowsi and behold the sweet poetry of Ferdowsi[23] The Conference of the Birds painted by Habib Allah. ...


9) Sa'adi in famous poem remarks: "How sweetly has conveyed the pure natured Ferdowsi, May blessing be upon his pure resting place. Do not harass an ant that is dragging a seed, because it has life and sweet life is indeed sweet.[24]


10) Jami in his Baharistan remarks:He came from Tus and his excellence, renown and perfection are well known. Yes, what need is there of the panegyrics of others to that man who has composed verses as those of the Shah-nameh?


Many other poets can also be named. For example Hafez, Rumi and other mystical poets have used many imageries of Shahnameh heroes in their poetry. With this regard, the Saqinaameh of Hafez and the famous verse of Rumi: "Shir Khwoda o Rostam Dastanam Arezoost"(The lion of God (Ali) and Rostam of Dastaan is what I seek) come to mind.


Historians

The Shahnameh's impact on Persian historiography was immediate and some historians decorated their books with the verses of Shahnameh. Below is sample of ten important historian who have praised the Shahnameh and Ferdowsi[25]:


1) The unknown writer of the Tarikh Sistan (History of Sistan) (circa 1053 A.D.)


2) The unknown writer of Majmal al-Tawarikh wa Al-Qasas (circa 1126). A copy of the book from Herat, dated 1425CE. Depicted are Muhammad and the archangel Gabriel. ...


3) Mohammad Ali Ravandi the writer of the Rahat al-Sodur wa Ayat al-Sorur (circa 1206)


4) Ibn Bibi the writer of the history book Al-Awamir al-'Alaiyah written during the era of 'Ala ad-din KayGhobad


5) Ibn Esfandyar the composer of the Tarikh-e Tabarestan.


6) Muhammad Juwayni the early historian of the Mongol era in his Tarikh-e Jahan Gushay (Ilkhanid era) Alaiddin Ata-ul-Mulk Juvayni (1226 - 1283) was a Persian historian who wrote the famous Tarikh-i-Jehan Ghusha (finished in 1259CE). ...


7) Hamdullah Qazwini also paid much attention to the Shahnameh and wrote his Zafarnama based on the same style. (Ilkhanid era)


8) Hafez Abru (1430) in his Majma' al-Tawarikh


9) Khwand Mir in his Habab al-Siyar (circa 1523) has praised Ferdowsi and has given an extensive biography on Ferdowsi.


10) The Arab Historian Ibn Athir remarks in his book titled "Al-Kamil": "If we name it the Quran of 'Ajam, we have not said something in vain. If a poet writes poetry and the poems have many verses, or if someone writes many compositions, it will always be the case that some of their writings might not be excellent. But in the case of Shahnameh, despite having more than 40 thousand couplets, all its verses are excellent". [26] Ibn Athir is the family name of three brothers, all famous in Arabian literature, born at JazIrat ibn Umar in Kurdistan. ...


Patronage of Shahnameh by different dynasties

The Shirvanshah dynasty adopted many of their names from the Shahnameh. The relationship between Shirwanshah and his son, Manuchihr, is mentioned in chapter eight of Nizami's Lili o Majnoon. Nizami advises the king's son to read the Shah-nama and to remember the meaningful sayings of the wise.[27] // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ...


According to the Turkish historian Mehmat Fuad Koprulu[28] :

Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Kaus, and Kai-Qubad; and that Ala' al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact {i.e. the importance of Persian influence} is undeniable.

Shah Ismail Safavi was also deeply influenced by the Persian literary tradition of Iran, particularly by the "Shāhnāma" of Ferdowsi, which probably explains the fact that he named all of his sons after Shāhnāma-characters. Dickson and Welch suggest that Ismāil's "Shāhnāmaye Shāhī" was intended as a present to the young Tahmāsp[29]. After defeating Muhammad Shaybāni's Uzbeks, Ismāil asked Hātefī, a famous poet from Jam (Khorasan), to write a Shāhnāma-like epic about his victories and his newly established dynasty. Although the epic was left unfinished, it was an example of mathnawis in the heroic style of the Shāhnāma written later on for the Safavid kings[30]. Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... The Masnavi or Masnavi I Manavi (مثنوی معنوی in Persian), also written Mathnawi or Mesnevi, written in Persian by Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the well known Persian Sufi saint and poet, is one of the best known and most influential works of Muslim mysticism. ...


Impact of Shahnameh on local Iranian and Christian cultures

Professor Victoria Arakelova of Yerevan University states[31]: During the ten centuries passed after Firdausi composed his monumental work, heroic legends and stories of Shahnameh have remained the main source of the storytelling for the peoples of this region: Persians, Kurds, Gurans, Talishis, Armenians, Georgians, North Caucasian peoples, etc.


Professor Jamshid Sh. Giunshvili remarks on the connection of Goergian culture with that of Shahnama[32]:The names of many Shahnama heroes, such as Rostom, Tahmine, Sam-i, or Zaal-i, are found in 11th- and 12th-century Georgian literature. They are indirect evidence for an Old Georgian translation of the Shahnama that is no longer extant.. Furthermore he remarks:The Shahnama was not only translated to satisfy the literary and aesthetic needs of readers and listeners, but also to inspire the young with the spirit of heroism and Georgian patriotism. Georgian ideology, customs, and worldview often informed these translations because they were oriented toward Georgian poetic culture. Conversely, Georgians consider these translations works of their native literature. Georgian versions of the Shahnama are quite popular, and the stories of Rostam and Sohrab, or Bijan and Manizha became part of Georgian folklore..


Shâhnameh scholars

edit Persian literature series
شاهنامه فردوسی
Shahnameh of Ferdowsi
Characters: Abteen | Arash | Afrāsiāb | Akvan-e Div | Bahman | Bizhan | Div-e Sepid | Esfandiār | Fereydun |Garshasp | Goodarz | Gordāfarid | Haoma | Homa | Hushang | Īraj | Jamasp | Jamshid | Kāveh | Kai Kavoos | Kai Khosrow | Kei Qobád |Kiumars | Luarsab | Manuchehr | Manizheh | Mehrab Kaboli | Nowzar |Pashang | Rakhsh | Rohām | Rostam | Rostam Farrokhzad | Rudābeh | Salm | Sām | Shaghād | Siāmak | Siāvash | Simurgh | Sohrāb |Sudabeh | Tahmineh | Tahmuras |Tur | Zāl | Zahhāk
Places: Alborz (Hara_Berezaiti) | Irān | Māzandarān | Samangān | Turān | Zābolestān | Kābul | Birjand | Ark of Bukhara
See also: Asadi Tusi | Derafsh Kaviani | Shahnameh | Bijan and Manijeh | Daqiqi | Sadeh | Kayanian | Jaam-e Jam

Shahrokh Meskoob(Born 1924 Babol, Iran) was an outstanding Persian writer, translator, scholar and University professor. ... Mir Jalaleddin Kazzazi is an outstanding master of Persian literature and a renowed Iranologist. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Statue of Arash in Borujerd Âraŝ, the Archer (Persian: Ä€raÅ¡-e KamāngÄ«r) is a heroic archer of the Persian mythology. ... Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... Akvan, meaning Evil Mind, is a Persian div with great powers and strength. ... Bijan and Manijeh (also Bizhan and Manizheh, Persian بيژن Ùˆ منيژه) is a love story in Ferdowsis Shahnameh (Shāh-Nāmeh, The Epic of Kings). ... Esfandiar or Esfandyar (in Persian: ) is an Iranian legendary hero. ... FereydÅ«n (فریدون), also pronounced FarÄ«dÅ«n, in medieval Persian FirÄ“dÅ«n, Middle Persian FrÄ“dōn, and Avestan ΘraÄ“taona is the name of a mythical king and hero who is an emblem of victory, justice and generosity in the Persian literature. ... Garshāsp (گرشاسپ) is the name of a monster-slaying hero in Persian mythology. ... Goodarz is a character in Shahnameh. ... Gurdāfarǐd (Persian: ) is one of the heroines in Shahnama (The Book of Kings or The Epic of Kings), an enormous poetic opus written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi around 1000 AD. She was a champion who fought against Sohrab (another Iranian hero who was the commander of Turanian... Haoma is the Avestan language name of a plant and its divinity, both of which play a role in Zoroastrian doctrine and in later Persian culture and mythology. ... Statues of two head Homa in Persepolis ruins, Iran A relief of Armenian tribute bearer carrying a metal vessel with Homa (griffin) handles. ... Hushang (in Persian: ), older Persian Hōšang, was the second Shāh to rule the world according to Ferdowsis Shāhnāma. ... Iraj (Persian: ) is a character in Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... Statue of Kaveh in Isfahan My name is Kaveh, I am a Persian-American and live in San Diego. ... Kai Kavoos is a character in Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Kai Khosrow is a character in Persian epic book, Shahnameh. ... Keyumars (کیومرث), Arabic transliteration KayÅ«marṯ, older Persian Kayōmart, was the first Shāh of the world according to the poet FirdausÄ«s Shāhnāma. ... ManÅ«chehr (in Persian: ), older Persian Manōčihr, Avestan Manuščiθra, is the name of the first of the legendary Shāhs who ruled Iran after the breakup of the world empire of ManÅ«chehrs great-grandfather, FereydÅ«n. ... Bijan and Manijeh is a classical love story in the Persian literature epic of Shahnameh. ... Poshng, King of Turan, was according to Ferusis epic the Shahnama, of the race of Tur (called his sire) and the father of Afrasiab. ... Rakhsh (in Persian: meaning luminous) is the stallion of main protagonist Rostam in the Persian national epic, Shahnameh of Ferdowsi. ... Roham or (Rohum,Rohaam) ( رﻭهام in Persian, means the guardian ) is a hero in Ferdosis Shahnama, He is son of Goodarz ( گودرز in Persian ) who defeated Baarmaan( بارمان in Persian ) in the battle of Davazdahrokh ( دوازده رخ in Persian ). He is from the city of Ardebil. ... Rostam Slaying the Dragon- A miniature Painting by Master Mahmoud Farshchian. ... Rostam Farrōkhzād (رستم فرّخزاد in Persian) was the commander of the Sāsānian Empires armed forced under the reign of Yazdgird III, r. ... Rudaba or Roodabeh (رودابه in Persia) was Daughter of Mehrab Kaboli. ... Salm is a character is Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Saam (سام) is a mythical hero of ancient Persia, and an important character in the Shahnameh epic. ... Shaghad was the brother of Rostam, the mighty Iranian hero of the Shahnameh, who killed Rostam by dropping him into a hole full of swords or other sharp things. ... Siāmak (Persian: ‎ , IPA: ), also transcribed as Siyamak, is a Persian given name, and a character (Kiumars son) in the Shahnameh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Siavash. ... Sassanid silk twill textile of a Simorgh in a beaded surround, 6-7th c. ... For other uses, see Sohrab (disambiguation). ... Tahmineh is one of female characters of the epic of Shahnameh. ... Tahmuras or Tahmures (Persian: ), New Persian transliteration , older Persian Tahmurat, is the third Shāh of the world according to Ferdowsis Shāhnāma. ... Tur is a character in the Persian epic Shahnameh. ... ZÃ¥l (زال in Persian) was a mythical warrior of ancient Iran. ... Zahak, Zahhak, Zahak-e Tāzi or (Arab Zahak) also knwon as Bivar-Asp, which means [he who has] 10,000 horses in the Pahlavi (middle Persian) language, and Avestan Āži-Dahāk) is a mythical figure of ancient Persia (Iran). ... Here are the list of places represented/mentioned in the Persian epic poem Shāhnāma by Ferdowsi: This literature-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Harā BÉ™rÉ™zaitÄ« is the name given in the Avestan language to a legendary mountain or mountain range around which the world is structured. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1 Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian, Constitutional status for regional languages such as Azeri and Kurdish [1] Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President... Mazandaran (Persian: مازندران) is a province in northern Iran, bordering the Caspian (Mazandaran) Sea in the north. ... Samangan (Persian: سمنگان) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... Zabulistan (Persian: ) or Zabolestan is a historical region in the border area of todays Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Birjand (Persian: Storm city) is the capital of South Khorasan province (formerly a subprovince named Birjand or Quhestan, a part of Khorasan province) in the east Iran, known for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. ... Entrance to the Ark fortress. ... Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ... The Derafsh-e Kavian (DerafÅ¡-e Kāvīān, Middle Persian) was the legendary royal standard of the Sassanid kings. ... Bijan and Manijeh (also Bizhan and Manizheh, Persian بيژن Ùˆ منيژه) is a love story in Ferdowsis Shahnameh (Shāh-Nāmeh, The Epic of Kings). ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Balkhi (935/942-976/980[1]), (in Persian: ) sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی), was an early Persian (TājÄ«k) poet from Balkh[2], currently one of the cities of Afghanistan. ... Sadeh is an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated 50 days before nowrouz. ... The Cup of Jamshid (Cup of Djemscheed or Jaam-e Jam, in Persian: جام جم) is a cup of divination which, according to legend, was long possessed by the rulers of ancient Persia. ... Kelileh va Demneh Persian manuscript copy dated 1429, from Herat, depicts the Jackal trying to lead the Lion astray. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... The Jamasp Nameh (var: Jāmāsp Nāmag, Jāmāsp Nāmeh, Story of Jamasp) is a Middle Persian book of revelations. ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Kârnâmag î Ardashîr î Babagân or Book of the Deeds of Ardashir, Son of Babag, is a mythological Persian Phalavi tale written sometime during the Sassanid dynasty. ... Category: ... Category: ... The Pazend or Pazand is one of the writing systems used for the Middle Persian language. ... Rudaki depicted as a blind poet, here on this Iranian stamp. ... Abu Mansur Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Daqiqi Balkhi (935/942-976/980[1]), (in Persian: ) sometimes referred to as Daqiqi (also Dakiki, Daghighi, Persian: دقیقی), was an early Persian (TājÄ«k) poet from Balkh[2], currently one of the cities of Afghanistan. ... Tomb of Ferdowsi in Tus HakÄ«m Abol-Qāsem FerdowsÄ« TÅ«sÄ« (Persian: ), more commonly transliterated as Ferdowsi, (935–1020) was a highly revered Persian poet. ... Abu Shakur Balkhi (b. ... Rabea Balkhi (Persian: ), also called as Rabiah bint Kaab Quzdari or Ghozdary (in Persian: رابعه قزداري) , or just as Rabeah was most likely the first poetess in the History of Persian Poetry. ... Abusaeid Abolkheyr(966-1046) (In Persian ابوسعید ابوالخیر هجری قمری 440-357) also known as Sheikh Abusaeid , was a famous Persian Sufi who contributed extensively to the evolution of Sufi thought. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Abul Qasim Hasan Unsuri (d. ... Abu Nazar Abdul Aziz ibn Mansur Asjadi was a 10-11th century royal poet of Ghaznavid Persia. ... Abul Hasan Abu Ishaq Kisai Marvazi was a 10th century poet of Persia. ... Ayyuqi was a 10th century poet of Persia. ... Baba Tahirs Mausoleum Baba Tahir was a Persian poet who lived in the 11th century. ... 20th century Artistic rendition of Nasir Khusraw from the USSR Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nasir Khusraw Qubadyani [also spelled Khusrow] (1004 - 1088 CE) (Persian: ) was a Persian poet, philosopher, Ismaili scholar and a traveler. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Abu Ismaïl Abdullah ibn Abi-Mansour Mohammad or Khwajah Abdullah Ansari (1006-1088) (Persian: خوجه عبدالله انصاری) was a famous Persian poet and Sufi. ... Abu Mansur Ali ibn Ahmad Asadi Tusi (born: Tus, Iranian province of Khorasan - died: 1072 Tabriz, Iran) is arguably the second most important Persian poet of Iranian national epics, after Ferdowsi who also happens to come from the same town of Tus. ... Abu Mansur Qatran Adudi ( 1009 - 1072) was a royal Persian poet. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk Turks. ... Masud-i Sad-i Salmān was an 11th century Persian poet of Ghaznavid empire. ... For other people, places or with similar names of Khayam, see Khayyam (disambiguation). ... Fakhruddin Asad Gurgani (in Persian: ) was an 11th century poet of Persia (Iran). ... Data Durbar, Hujwiris shrine in Lahore, Pakistan Abul Hassan Ali Ibn Usman al-Jullabi al-Hajweri al-Ghaznawi or Abul Hassan Ali Hajweri (Arabic: علی بن عثمان الجلابی الهجویری الغزنوی ) (sometimes spelled Hujwiri), also known as Data Ganj Bakhsh (Persian/Urdu: داتا گنج بخش ) or Data Sahib, was a Persian Sufi and scholar during the 11th century. ... Abu Najm Abu Ahmad ibn Qaus Manuchehri (Persian: منوچهری) was a royal poet of the 11th century in Persia. ... Ayn-al-Quzāt HamadānÄ« (1098–1131), Persian: , was a Persian jurisconsult, mystic, philosopher and mathematician who was executed at the age of 33. ... Uthman Mukhtari was an 11th and 12th century poet of Ghaznavid Persia. ... Abul Faraj Runi was an 11th century poet of Persia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Amir Abdollah Muhammad Muizzi (also written Muezzi) was an 11th century and 12th century poet of Persia. ... Mahsati Ganjavi was a 12th century Persian-language poetess. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Shihabuddin Sharaful-udaba Sabir known as Adib Sabir was a 12th century royal poet of Persia. ... Shihabuddin Amaq (d. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Khaqani (1120-1190) (Persian: خاقانی) was a Persian poet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye GanjavÄ« (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or NezāmÄ« (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-DÄ«n AbÅ« Muhammad Ilyās ibn-YusÅ«f ibn-ZakÄ« ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... For the missionary, see Shams Tabraiz (missionary). ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Mahmud Shabistari is one of the most celebrated Persian Sufi poets. ... Abul Hasan YamÄ«n al-DÄ«n Khusrow (Persian: , Devanagari: अबुल हसन यमीनुददीन ख़ुसरो) (1253-1325 CE), better known as AmÄ«r Khusrow DehlawÄ«, was the greatest Persian-writing poet of medieval India one of the iconic figures in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. ... Sheikh Sa‘di (in Persian: , full name in English: Muslih-ud-Din Mushrif-ibn-Abdullah) (1184 - 1283/1291?) is one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period. ... Bostan (pronounced Bustān) is a book of combined poetry and prose by Perisan writer and legend Saadi, completed in 1257CE. It is the first work of Sadi, and its title means the fruit orchard. ... Gulestan is a landmark literary work in Persian literature. ... Bahram-e-Pazhdo (Bahram the son of Pazhdo) was a Persian poet of the 13th century and was the father of Zartosht-e-Bahram (mid 13th century). ... Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo, was a Persian Zoroastrian poet and the son of Bahram-e-Pazhdo. ... Rumi redirects here. ... Homam-e Tabrizi (Persian: همام تبریزی) or Homamiddin ibni Ala-e Tabrizi was an Iranian poet. ... Khwaju Kermani (1280-1352) was a famous poet and Sufi mystic from Persia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Shah Nur ad-Din Nimatullah Vali. ... Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century. ... Fazlallah Astarabadi was the founder of the Hurufi movement. ... Imadeddin Nasimi (1369-1417) was born in Shamakhy, Azerbaijan. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... Fuzûlî (1483?–1556) Fuzûlî (فضولی) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: mahlas; ﻡﺨﻠﺺ) of the poet Muhammad ibn Suleyman (محمد بن سليمان) (c. ... Mirza Abdol-Qader Bidel Dehlavi (in Persian: ابوالمعالي ميرزا عبدالقادر بيدل دهلوي) was a Persian poet and arguably the greatest Persian poet of the land of India. ... Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi (b. ... Mohammad TaqÄ« Bahār Mohammad-TaqÄ« Bahār (MTB) (محمد تقی بهار in Persian) (December 8, 1886 - April 22, 1951), widely known as Malek o-Å o`arā (ملک‌ الشعراء), is considered as the greatest Twentieth Century Iranian (Persian) poet and scholar, who was also a politician, journalist, professor of literature and historian. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ... Ahmad Shamlou (Persian: ‎ ) (December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was a Persian poet, writer, and journalist. ... Khalilollah Khalili on the cover of Deewaan-e Khalilullah Khalili Khalilullāh KhalÄ«lÄ« (1908-1987; Persian: ‎ ; alternative spellings: Khalilollah, Khalil Ullah) was Afghanistans foremost 20th Century poet as well as a noted historian, university professor, diplomat and royal confidant. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ... Layeq Shir-Ali (born 1940)(Tajiki/Persian: Лоиқ Шералӣ/لایق شیرعلی) was a Tajik poet, Iranologist and one of the most cellebrated Persian literary figures of Tajikistan and central Asia. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Ebrahim Poordavood (February 9 1885 - November 17 1968)),(also written as pourdavoud , Poordavoud) was born in Rasht. ... Mirzadeh Eshghi was an emotional political poet. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh is the present master of the Nimatullahi Sufi Order. ... Gholam Hossein Saedi (January,1935 –- November,1985) was an Iranian socialist novelist and playwright best known for the screenplay of the famous Iranian movie Gaav. ...

See also

Rostam and Sohrab is an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian. ... Persian Trilogy is a set of three orchestral works composed by Iranian classical musician, Behzad Ranjbaran. ... The Flying Throne of Kai Kavus was a legendary eagle-propelled craft built by the Persian King Kai Kavus, used for flying the king all the way to China. ... Vis O Ramin is an ancient love story in Persian Literature. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... The following is a List of Festivals in Iran (Persia): // Nowruz: Celebration of the start of spring (Rejuvenation). It starts on the first day of spring (also the first day of the Iranian Calendar year) and lasts for 13 days. ...

Sources and references

  • Abolqasem Ferdowsi, Dick Davis trans. (2006), Shahnameh: The Persian Book of Kings ISBN 0-670-03485-1, modern English translation, current standard. See also
  • Clinton, Jerome W. (translator) The Tragedy of Sohrab and Rostam: From the Persian National Epic, the Shahname of Abdol-Qasem Ferdowsi 2nd ed. (University of Washington Press, 1996) (abridged selection)
  • Clinton, Jerome W. (translator) In the Dragon's Claws: The Story of Rostam and Esfandiyar from the Persian Book of Kings (Mage Publishers, 1999)
  • Davis, Dick, (translator) Stories from the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi
Vol. 1, The Lion and the Throne, (Mage Publishers, 1998)
Vol. 2, Fathers and Sons, (Mage Publishers, 1998)
Vol. 3, Sunset of Empire, (Mage Publishers, 2003)
  • Davis, Dick, (translator), The Legend of Seyavash, (Penguin, 2001, Mage Publishers 2004) (abridged)
  • Levy, Reuben (translator), The Epic of the Kings: Shah-Nama, the National Epic of Persia, (Mazda Publications, 1996) (abridged prose version)
  • Warner, Arthur and Edmond Warner, (translators) The Shahnama of Firdausi, 9 vols. (London: Keegan Paul, 1905-1925) (complete English verse translation)
  • Hassan Anvari, Ancient Iran's Geographical Position in Shah-Nameh (Iran Chamber Society, 2004). [7]
  • Rostam: Tales from the Shahnameh (2005), The Story of Rostam & Sohrab ISBN 0977021319, modern English translation, Graphic Novel.
  • Rostam: Return of the King (2007), The Story of Kai-Kavous & Soodabeh ISBN 0977021327, modern English translation, Graphic Novel.
  • Jalal Khāleghi Motlagh, Editor, The Shahnameh, to be published in 8 volumes (ca. 500 pages each), consisting of six volumes of text and two volumes of explanatory notes. See: Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University.

Notes

  1. ^ Fine Books Magazine, Item 7
  2. ^ [http://portal.unesco.org/ci/photos/showgallery.php/cat/793 Six pages from the Bayasanghori Shâhnâmeh”, Unesco website
  3. ^ News story
  4. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, [1], Ferdowsi, Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh
  5. ^ A. Shapur Shahbazi, "Ferdowsi: A Critical Biography", Hardvard University Center For Middle Eastern Studies, Distributed by Mazda Publishers, 1991. pg 49
  6. ^ Igor M. Diankonoff. The Paths of History, Cambridge University Press, 1999, p. 100, ISBN 0521643988
  7. ^ Shahnameh:a new translation by Dick Davis, Viking Adult, 2006. [www.amazon.com/Shahnameh-Persian-Kings-Abolqasem-Ferdowsi/dp/0670034851]
  8. ^ Jalal Khaleqi Mutlaq, "Iran Garai dar Shahnameh" (Iran-centrism in the Shahnameh), Hasti Magazine, Vol 4. 1993. Tehran, Bahman Publishers.
  9. ^ (Shahnameh:a new translation by Dick Davis, Viking Adult, 2006.
  10. ^ Von David Levinson, Karen Christensen, Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, Charles Scribner's Sons. 2002 pg 48
  11. ^ Josef Wiesehofer, "Ancient Persia". I. B. Tauris; New Ed edition (August 18, 2001). Introduction page
  12. ^ Farideh Motakef, Iranian art and poetry in the works of European [2]
  13. ^ Doctor Mahdi Nurian, "Afarin Ferdowsi az Zaban Pishinian"(The praises of Ferdowsi from the tongue of the ancients), Hasti Magazine, Vol 4. 1993. Tehran, Bahman Publishers.
  14. ^ A. Shapur Shahbazi, "Ferdowsi: A Critical Biography", Hardvard University Center For Middle Eastern Studies, Distributed by Mazda Publishers, 1991.
  15. ^ Doctor Mahdi Nurian, "Afarin Ferdowsi az Zaban Pishinian"(The praises of Ferdowsi from the tongue of the ancients), Hasti Magazine, Vol 4. 1993. Tehran, Bahman Publishers. All the verses are taken from this article.
  16. ^ actual Persian: آفرين بر روان فردوسی آن همايون نهاد و فرخنده او نه استاد بود و ما شاگرد او خداوند بود و ما بنده
  17. ^ که فردوسی طوسی پاک مغز بدادست داد سخنهای نغز به شهنامه گیتی بیاراستست بدان نامه نام نکو خواستست
  18. ^ که از پیش گویندگان برد گوی
  19. ^ زنده رستم به شعر فردوسی است ور نه زو در جهان نشانه کجاست؟
  20. ^ چه نکو گفت آن بزرگ استاد که وی افکند نظم را بنیاد
  21. ^ سخن گوی دانای پیشین طوس که آراست روی سخن چون عروس
  22. ^ شمع جمع هوشمندان است در دیجور غم// نکته ای کز خاطر فردوسی طوسی بود// زادگاه طبع پاکش جملگی حوراوش اند// زاده حوراوش بود چون مرد فردوسی بود//
  23. ^ باز کن چشم و ز شعر چون شکر در بهشت عدن فردوسی نگر
  24. ^ چه خوش گفت فردوسی پاکزاد که رحمت بر آن تربت پاک باد میازار موری که دانه کش است که جان دارد و جان شیرین خوش است
  25. ^ Doctor Mahdi Nurian, "Afarin Ferdowsi az Zaban Pishinian"(The praises of Ferdowsi from the tongue of the ancients), Hasti Magazine, Vol 4. 1993. Tehran, Bahman Publishers.
  26. ^ see also: [3]
  27. ^ Dr. Ali Asghar Seyed Gohrab. "Layli and Majnun: Love, Madness and Mystic Longing",Brill Studies in Middle Eastern literature, Jun 2003. pg 276.
  28. ^ (Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's , Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149)
  29. ^ M.B. Dickson and S.C. Welch, The Houghton Shahnameh 2 vols (Cambridge Mmssachusetts and London. 1981. See: pg 34 of Volume I)
  30. ^ R.M. Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition
  31. ^ See: [4] [5]
  32. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "Shahnama Translations in Georgian", Jamshid Sh. Giunshvili

The Encyclopedia of Islam (EI) is a scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of Islamic civilization and history. ...

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Mohammad TaqÄ« Bahār Mohammad-TaqÄ« Bahār (MTB) (محمد تقی بهار in Persian) (December 8, 1886 - April 22, 1951), widely known as Malek o-Å o`arā (ملک‌ الشعراء), is considered as the greatest Twentieth Century Iranian (Persian) poet and scholar, who was also a politician, journalist, professor of literature and historian. ... Sadegh (or Sadeq) Hedayat (in Persian: صادق هدایت; February 17, 1903, Tehran — 4 April 1951, Paris, France) was Irans foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories. ... Forough Farrokhzad Forough Farrokhzad (Persian: فروغ فرخزاد) (January 5, 1935 — February 13, 1967) was an Iranian poetess and film director. ... Ahmad Shamlou (Persian: ‎ ) (December 12, 1925 — July 24, 2000) was a Persian poet, writer, and journalist. ... Khalilollah Khalili on the cover of Deewaan-e Khalilullah Khalili Khalilullāh KhalÄ«lÄ« (1908-1987; Persian: ‎ ; alternative spellings: Khalilollah, Khalil Ullah) was Afghanistans foremost 20th Century poet as well as a noted historian, university professor, diplomat and royal confidant. ... Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Persian: سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی)‎ (1906-September 18, 1988), chiefly known by his pen name as Shahriar (or Shahryar / Shahriyar شهریار), was an Iranian Azeri poet, writing in Persian and Azerbaijani. ... Layeq Shir-Ali (born 1940)(Tajiki/Persian: Лоиқ Шералӣ/لایق شیرعلی) was a Tajik poet, Iranologist and one of the most cellebrated Persian literary figures of Tajikistan and central Asia. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Parvin Etesami is one of Irans greatest poetesses. ... Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Ebrahim Poordavood (February 9 1885 - November 17 1968)),(also written as pourdavoud , Poordavoud) was born in Rasht. ... Mirzadeh Eshghi was an emotional political poet. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Dr. Javad Nurbakhsh is the present master of the Nimatullahi Sufi Order. ... Gholam Hossein Saedi (January,1935 –- November,1985) was an Iranian socialist novelist and playwright best known for the screenplay of the famous Iranian movie Gaav. ...

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The Shahnameh | The Shahnameh (928 words)
The Shahnameh is considered to be the Persian national epic, to which he gave its final and enduring form, although he based his poem mainly on an earlier prose version.
The Shahnameh was written aproximately 1,000 years ago and is written in the Pahlavi original, or Parsi, which is pure Persian and a record of pre-Islamic influence Iran.
The Shahnameh is a poem of nearly 60,000 couplets, taking Ferdowsi some 30 years to complete, and is based mainly on a prose work of the same name compiled in the poet’s early manhood in his native Tus, a region in modern day Iran.
The Shahnameh (539 words)
The language used in composing the Shahnameh is pure Persian with only the slightest admixture of Arabic.
The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, an epical poem book of over 55,000 couplets, is based mainly on a prose work of the same name compiled in the poet's earlier life in his native Tous.
After studying the Shahnameh, one can clearly see that Ferdowsi must have had a solid command of the Pahlavi langauge[?] (Middle Persian) as well, with an astonishing linguistic understanding of the transitional patterns from Middle Persian to Modern Persian.
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