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Encyclopedia > Shahi
This article is about the Hindu dynasty. For the city formerly known as Shahi, see Qa'em Shahr.
For a a town in Bareilly District, India see Shahi, Uttar Pradesh.
Coin of Shahi Kings of Kabul & Gandhara : Spalapati Deva , circa 750 AD -900 AD . Obv: Recumbent bull facing left ,trishula on bulls rump,Devnagari Legends : Sri Spalapati Deva. Rev: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.
Coin of Shahi Kings of Kabul & Gandhara : Spalapati Deva , circa 750 AD -900 AD .
Obv: Recumbent bull facing left ,trishula on bulls rump,Devnagari Legends : Sri Spalapati Deva. Rev: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.
Coin of Shahi Kings of Kabul & Gandhara : Samanta Deva , circa 850 AD -1000 AD . Obv: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.Devnagari Legends : 'bhi '?. Rev:Recumbent bull facing left ,trishula on bulls rump,Devnagari Legends : Sri Samanta Deva.
Coin of Shahi Kings of Kabul & Gandhara : Samanta Deva , circa 850 AD -1000 AD .
Obv: Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right.Devnagari Legends : 'bhi '?. Rev:Recumbent bull facing left ,trishula on bulls rump,Devnagari Legends : Sri Samanta Deva.

The Shahi (Devanagari शाही) [1], Sahi [2], also called Shahiya [3] [4] dynasties ruled portions of the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan and Kashmir) from the decline of the Kushan Empire in third century to the early ninth century [4]. The kingdom was known as Kabul-shahan or Ratbel-shahan from (565 - 670 CE) when they had their capitals in Kapisa and Kabul, and later Udabhandapura (also known as Hund) [5] for its new capital. In ancient time, the title Shahi appears to be a quite popular royal title in Afghanistan and north-western province of Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent. It has been used by Achaemenids [6], Sakas [7], Kushanas [8], Hunas [9], Bactrians [10], as also by the rulers of Kapisa/Kabul [11] as well as of Gilgit etc[12]. In Persian form, the title appears as Kshathiya, Kshathiya Kshathiyanam, -Shao of the Kushanas and the Ssaha of Mihirakula (Huna chief) [13]. The Kushanas are stated to have adopted the title Shah-in-shahi ("Shaonano shao") in imitation of Achaemenid practice [14]. Ancient Jaina work Kalakacarya-kathanaka says that the rulers of the Sakas who had invaded Ujjaini/Malwa in 62 BCE also wore the titles of Sahi and Sahnusahi [15]. Since the title Shahi was used by the rulers of Kapisa/Kabul or Gandhara also in imitation of Kushana "Shao", it has been speculated by some writers that the Shahi dynasty of Kapisa/Kabul or Gandhara was a foreign dynasty and had descended from the Kushans or Turks (Turushkas).[4] However, the title has been used by several rulers irrespective of any racial connotations and this may refute the above speculation. The Shahis of Kabul/Gandhara are generally split up into two eras -- the so-called Buddhist Turk-Shahis and the so-called Hindu-Shahis, with the change-over thought to have occurred sometime around 870 AD. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Qaem Shahr, also spelt Qaemshahr, is a city in the Mazandaran province of Iran. ... Image File history File links Coin of the Shahi. ... Image File history File links Coin of the Shahi. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Events On the death of his brother Clotaire, Childeric II becomes king of all of the Frankish kingdoms -- Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. ... BCE redirects here. ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... A subcontinent is a large part of a continent. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... Mihirkula was the most important ruler of the Hun era in Indian history. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

Contents

On the lineage of Shahis

Asia in 565 AD, showing the Shahi kingdoms and their neighbors.

The affinities of the earlier Shahi rulers of Kapisa/Kabul who are believed to have probably ruled from early 5th century till 870 AD are still not clear. The confused accounts of 11th century Persian Muslim scholar Alberuni, "which bear the impress of folklore for the early history of the Kabul Shahi rulers" [16] [17] state that: (1) Hindu kings residing in Kabul were Turks (2) they were said to be of Tibetan origin (3) first of them was a Barahatakin, (founder of the dynasty) who came (from Tibet) into the country (Kabul), entered a cave and after few days, started to creep out of it in the presence of people who looked upon him as a "new born baby", clothed in Turkish dress. People honored him as a being of miraculous birth, destined to be a king. And he brought those countries under his sway and ruled under the title of Shahiya of Kabul (5) the rule remained among his descendants the number of which is said to be about sixty generations till it was supplanted by a Brahmana minister and (6) in this series of his descendant rulers, one was Kanik (Kanishaka?) who is said to have built Vihara in Purushapura which is called Kanika Caitya [18] [19] [20]. Based on Alberuni's accounts, V. A. Smith speculates that the earlier Shahis were a cadet branch of the Kushanas who ruled both over Kabul and Gandhara until the rise of Saffarids. H. M. Elliot relates the early Kabul Shahis to the Kators and further connects the Kators with the Kushanas. Charles Fredrick Oldham also traces the Kabul Shahi lineage to the Kators-- whom he identifies with the Kathas or Takkhas-- Naga worshipping collective tribal groups of solar (Sun-worshiping) lineage. He further speaks of the Urasas, Abhisaras, Daradas, Gandharas and Kambojas etc as allied tribal groups of the Takkhas belonging to the Naga-worshipping and Sun-worshipping race of the north-west frontiers [21] [22]. D. B. Pandey traces the affinities of the early Kabul Shahis to the Hunas. Bishan Singh and K. S. Dardi connect the Kabul Shahis to the ancient Ksatriya clans of the Kambojas/Gandharas. George Scott Robertson [23] writes that the Kators/Katirs of Kafiristan belong to the well known Siyaposh tribal group of the Kams, Kamoz and Kamtoz tribes [24]. Numerous scholars now also agree that the Siyaposh tribes of Hindukush are the modern representatives of the ancient Kambojas. According to Olaf Caroe, the earlier Kabul Shahis in some sense were the inheritors of the Kushana-Hephthalite chancery tradition and had brought in more hinduised form with time. There does not yet exist in the upper Kabul valley any documentary evidence or any identifiable coinage which can establish the exact affinities of these early Shahis who ruled there during the first two Islamic centuries [25]. Obviously, the affinities of the early Shahis of Kapisa/Kabul are still speculative, and the inheritance of the Kushan-Hephthalite chancery tradition and political institutions by Kabul Shahis do not necessarily connect them to the preceding dynasty i.e. the Kushanas or Hephthalites. Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... Tibetan can refer to: A place or item from Tibet. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Daradas were a people who lived north and north-east to the Kashmir valley. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Sir George Scott Robertson (October 22, 1852 - January 1, 1916) was an British soldier, author, and administrator who was best known for his arduous journey to the remote and rugged region of Kafiristan in what is now northeastern Afganistan. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


It appears that from start of 5th century till 793-94 AD, the capital of the Kabul Shahis was Kapisa. In the wake of Muslim invasions of Kabul and Kapisa in second half of seventh century (664 AD), the Kapisa/Kabul ruler called by Muslim writers as Kabul Shah (Shahi of Kabul) made an appeal to the Ksatriyas of the Hind who had gathered there in large numbers for his assistance and drove out the Muslim invaders as far as Bost [26]. This king of Kapisa/Kabul who faced the Muslim invasion was undoubtedly a Ksatriya [27] [28]. In subsequent years, the Muslim armies returned with large reinforcements and Kabul was swept when the Shahi ruler agreed to pay tribute to the conquerors. For strategical reasons, the Shahis, who continued to offer stubborn resistance to Muhammadan on-slaughts finally moved their capital from Kapisa to Kabul in about 794 AD. The fact that Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang (644 AD) specifically addresses the ruler of Kapisa as Ksatriya [29] and that of Zabul at this time being known as Shahi [30], casts serious doubt about the speculated connections of the first Shahis of Kabul/Kapisa to the Kushanas or the Hephthalites. Neither the Kushanas nor the Hunas/Hephthalites nor the Turks (or Turushakas) have ever been designated or classified as Ksatriyas in any ancient Indian tradition. Therefore, the identification of the first line of Shahi kings of Kapisa/Kabul with the Kushanas, Hunas or Turks obviously seems to be in gross error [31]. Once the political clout of the invaders like the Kushanas or the Hephthalites had declined, some native chieftain from the original dominant clans of this region seeems to have attained ascendancy in political power and established an independent kingdom on the ruins of the Kushanas and/or the Hephthalites empire [32]. The powerful evidence from Hiuen Tsang (644 AD) attesting that the ruler of Kabul/Kapisa was a devout Buddhist and belonged to Ksatriya caste would rather connect this ruling dynasty either to the erstwhile Gandharas or more probably to Ashvaka clan of the Kambojas, the eminent Ksatriya clan of the Mauryan times from this very region [33] [34] [35]. Song Yun, the Chinese Ambassador to the Huna kingdom of Gandhara, in 520 AD writes that the Yethas (Hephthalites) had invaded Gandhara two generations prior to him and had completely destroyed this country. The then Yetha ruler was extremely cruel, vindictive and Anti-Buddhist and had engaged in a three years border war with the king of Ki-pin (Cophene or Kapisa), disputing the boundaries of that country [36]. The Yetha king referred to by Song Yun may have been Mihirakula (515 - 540/547AD) or his governor. This evidence also proves that the Kapisa kingdom was well-established prior to the Huna/Hephthalite invasion of Gandhara (~477 AD) and that it did not submit to the Yethas but had survived and continued to maintain its independence. It is also a known fact of history that from second century BCE onwards (much prior to the Huna ascendancy), the Tukharas had settled in considerable numbers in the ancient Kamboja land [37] and thus the culture of the Kambojas undoubtedly underwent some changes and due to the interaction of two cultures, the Kambojas of Kapisa were also substantially influenced by Tukharas [38] [39] who remained quite for a time the ruling power in this region. This fact is also verified by Hiuen Tsang who records that the literature, customary rules, and currency of Bamiyan were same as those of Tukhara; the spoken language is little different and in personal appearance the people closely resembled those of the Tukhara country. On the other hand, the literature and written language of Kapisa (=Kamboja) was like that of Tukharas but the social customs, colloquial ideom, rules of behavior (and their pesonal resemblance) differed somewhat from those of Tukhara country [40] which means that the original and dominant community of Kapisa had imbibed the Tukharan culture and customs but to a limited extent and the penetration of the Tukharas in the Kapisa territory appears to have therefore been also limited. The Kambojas and the Tukharas (Turks) are mentioned as immediate neighbors in north-west as late as 8th century AD as Rajatarangini of Kalhana demonstrates [41]. Evidence also exists that some medieval age Muslim writers have confused the Kamboja clans of Pamirs/Hindukush with the Turks and invested the former with Turkic ethnicity. For example, 10th century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi, refers to the Kumiji (=Kamoji/Kamboja) tribesmen of Buttaman mountains (Tajikstan) [42], on upper Oxus, and calls them of Turkic race [43] [44] [45] [46] [47]. According to the confused accounts recorded by Alberuni which are chiefly based on folklore [48] [49] [50], the last king of the first Shahi dynasty, Lagaturman (Katorman) was overthrown and imprisoned by his Brahmin vizier Kallar, thus resulting in the change-over of dynasty. The name (Katorman or Lagaturman) of the last king of the so-called first Shahi line of Kabul/Kapisa simply reveals a trace of Tukhara cultural influence in the Kamboja (Kapisa) region, as hinted in above discussion. Thus, the first ruling dynasty of Kapisa and Kabul, designated as Ksatriya dynasty by Hiuen Tsang, may indeed have been a Kamboja dynasty [51] [52]. It is also very remarkable that Kalhana (c. 12th century), the author of Rajatarangini (written in 1147-49 AD) also refers to the Shahis and does not maintain any any difference or distinction between the earlier Shahis (RT IV.143) and the later Shahis or does not refer to any supplanting of the dynasty at any stage as Alberuni does in his Tarikh-al-Hind [53]. Furthermore, Kalhana takes the dynasty of the ancestors of the Hindu Shahi rulers Lallya (Kallar), Kamala Toramana, Bhimadeva, Jaipala, Anandapala, Trilochanpala, Bhimapala [54] etc.,unbroken, to as far as or earlier than 730 AD [55]. It is also remarkable that Rajatrangini and all other sources refer to the Shahi rulers of Udabhandapura/Waihind as belonging to the Kshatriya lineage [56] [57] in contrast to Alberuni who designates the earlier Shahi rulers as Turks and the later as Brahmins [58] [59] [60] [61]. The system of naming the kings of the so-called Turki Shahi dynasty and the Hindu Shahi dynasty is also similar for which reason it is very likely that the caste of the two might also have been same i.e Ksatriya [62]. Thus, if we follow Kalhana, then the ancestors of Shahi kings Lallya, Toramana, Kamalu, Bhimadeva, Jaipala, Anandapala, Trilochanapala etc may be traced back to the Ksatriya ruler of Kapisa/Kabul (644-45 AD) mentioned by Hiuen Tsang and also probably to prince Guna Varman (424 AD), a princely scion of the Ksatriya rulers ruling at the start of 5th century in Kapisa (Ki-pin) as mentioned in the Chinese Buddhist records [63]. In addition, one ancient inscription and several ancient Buddhist manuscripts found from Gilgit area between upper Indus and river Kabul shed some light on three kings who ruled in Gilgit region in 6-7th c AD. They also wore Shahi titles and their names are mentioned as Patoladeva alias Navasurendradiyta Nandin, Srideva alias Surendra Vikrmadiyta Nandin and Patoladeva alias Vajraditya Nandin. It is very relevant to mention here that each of the Shahi rulers mentioned in the above list of Gilgit rulers has Nandin as his surname or last name [64]. It is more than likely that the surname Nandin refers to their clan name. It is also very remarkable that the modern Kamboj tribe of northern Punjab still has Nandan (Nandin) as one of their important clan names. It is therefore, very likely that these Gilgit rulers of upper Indus may also have belonged to the Kamboja lineage [65] [66]. Furthermore, "Shahi" as a septal name is still carried by a section of the Punjab Kambojs which appears to be a relic from the Shahi title of their Kabul/Kapisa princes [67]. Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Categories: Afghanistan geography stubs | Provinces of Afghanistan ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Kalhana (c. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... Kalhana (c. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Look up Kamboj in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... The term lineage can refer to several things. ...


Conclusion

In conclusion, it appears more than likely that, rather than the Kushanas or Hunas or the Turks, the Shahi rulers of Kabul/Kapisa and Gandhara had a descent from the native warlike Ksatriya clans of the Kambojas known as Ashvakas (q.v.), who in the fourth century, had offered stubborn resistance to Macedonian invader, Alexander the Great and later, had helped Chandragupta Maurya found the Mauryan empire of India[68]. They were the same bold and warlike people whom king Asoka Maurya had thought it wise and expedient to bestow autonomous status [69] and give eminent place in his Rock Edicts V and XIII. They were fiercely independent warlike people who had never easily yielded to any foreign overlord [70]. They were the people who, in fifth c AD, had formed the very neighbors of the Bactrian Ephthalites of Oxus and whom Chandragupta II of Gupta dynasty had campaigned against and had obtained tribute from about the start of 5th century AD [71]. The Bhishma Parva of the Mahabharata, supposed to have been edited around the 4th or 5th century AD, in one of its verses mentions the Hunas with the Parasikas and other Mlechha tribes of the northwest including the Kambojas, Yavanas, Chinas, Darunas, Sukritvahas, Kulatthas etc [72]. Dr V. A. Smith says that this epic verse is reminiscent of the times when the Hunas first came into contact with the Sassanian dynasty of Persia [73]. And the Monghyr grant of king Devapala of the Pala dynasty of Bengal attests that the great king had led his war expedition (810 AD - 850 AD) into the northwest against the Hunas (in western Punjab) and then the Kambojas (in the Kabul/Gandhara valleys) [74]. Sata-pañcāśaddesa-vibhaga of the medieval era Tantra book Saktisamgma Tantra [75] locates Kambojas (Kabul Shahis?) to the west of South-west Kashmir (or Pir-pañcāla), to the South of Bactria and to the east of Maha-Mlechcha-desa (=Mohammadan countries i.e Khorasan/Iran) and likewise, locates the Hunas (Zabul Shahis?) to the south of Kama valley (or Jallalabad/Afghnaistan) and to the north of Marudesa (or Rajputana) towards western Punjab [76]. Kavyamimasa of Rajshekhar also lists the Sakas, Kekayas, Kambojas, Vanayujas, Bahlikas, Hunas, Pahlvas, Limpakas, Harahuras, Hansmaragas (Hunzas) etc [77] in the north-west. Since Rajshekhar (880-920 AD) was contemporary with Hindu Shahis, he identifies people called Kambojas (Kabul/Kapisa), Vanayujas (Bannus), Limpakas (Lamghanis), Hunas (Zabul), Pahlvas (Persians--Maha-mlechchas), Harahuras (Red Hunas located in Herat) etc almost exactly in the same localities which were occupied by Kabul Shahi and Zabul Shahi kingdoms respectively. The above referred to pieces of evidence again spotlight on the Kambojas and the Hunas together and places them near the environs of the Muslim Persians in north-west. During first century AD and later in 5th century (~477 AD), the cis-Hindukush Kambojas and Gandharas partially came under the sway of foreign invaders like the Kushanas and the Hephthalites (Hunas). These warlike people were temporarily overpowered by the numerous hordes but they did not become extinct; and once the political tide of the foreign hordes ebbed down, someone from the native chieftains from the original dominant clans (i.e. the Ksatrya Ashvakas) of this region asserted his authority and attained ascendancy in political power and had established himself as Ksatriya overlord of an independent kingdom on the ruins of the erstwhile Kushana and/or the Hephthalites empire [78]. Having been exposed to the foreign environs for a while and having also, in a sense, inherited the Kushana-Hephthalite chancery tradition of their predecessors, these native Kabul/Kapisa native rulers had also adopted their political institutions and regal titles such as "shahi" and "tegin" etc in the same way as the Sakas, Kushanas and Hunas had earlier adopted a form of Kshayatiya title from their predecessors, the Achamenids of Persia. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... http://www. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... The Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Devapala (rule: 810 AD - 850 AD) was a powerful king of Pala dynasty of Bengal. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Ordinal directions are the four compass directions: northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest, located halfway between the cardinal directions. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Look up Horde in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–338 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


Hindu Shahi

Asia in 800 AD, showing Shahi lands.

The first Hindu Shahi dynasty was founded in 870 AD by Kallar (see above). The kingdom was bounded on the north by the Hindu kingdom of Kashmir, on the east by Rajput kingdoms, on the south by the Muslim Emirates of Multan and Mansura, and on the west by the Rashidun Caliphate. In 671 AD Muslim armies seized Kabul and the capital was moved to Udabhandapura[79], where they became known as the Rajas of Hindustan. Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Multan shown on a 1669 world map   (Urdu: ملتان) is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. ... Mansura (Arabic: منصورہ) was the capital of the Arab empire in Pakistan. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to certain of the Caliphs. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


The Hindu Shahi's became engaged with the Yamini Turks of Ghazni[80] over supremacy of the eastern regions of Afghanistan initially before it extended towards the Punjab region. They briefly recaptured the Kabul Valley from the Samanid successors of the Saffarids, until a general named Alptigin drove out the Samanid wali of Zabulistan and established the Ghaznavid dynasty at Ghazna.[81] Under his general and successor Sabuktigin the Ghaznavids had begun to raid the provinces of Lamghan[82] and Multan.[81] This precipated an alliance first between the then King Jayapala and the Amirs of Multan, and then in a second battle in alliance with Delhi, Ajmer, Kalinjar and Kannauj which saw the Hindu Shahi lose all lands west of the Indus River.[81] His successor Anandapala arrived at a tributary arrangement with Sebuktigin's successor, Mahmud of Ghazni, before he was defeated and exiled to Kashmir in the early 1000s. Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , ÄžaznÄ«) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Alptigin (Turkic for Brave Prince) was the grandfather of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Zabulistan (Persian: ) or Zabolestan is a historical region in the border area of todays Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan. ... Jayapala Shahi, the son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasty. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... , Ajmer   (Hindi: अजमेर ) is a city in Ajmer District in Indias Rajasthan state. ... Kalinjar is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand region of central India. ... Kannauj (Hindi कन्नौज), sometimes improperly spelt Kanauj, is an ancient city lying in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... ‹ The template below (Citations missing) is being considered for deletion. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ...


Al-Idirisi (1100 AD -1165/1166 AD) testifies that until as late as the 12th century, a contract of investiture for every Shahi king was performed at Kabul and that here he was obliged to agree to certain ancient conditions which completed the contract [83]. Kalhana remarked: "To this day, the appellation Shahi throws its lustre on a numberless host of kshatriya abroad who trace their origin to that family" [84]. Al-Idrisis world map from 1154. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...

See also: History of Arabs in Afghanistan

Ethnic Arab fighters who battled or migrated to the area now known as Afghanistan during conflicts dating back from the 7th century[1] till the recent Soviet-Afghan War when they assisted fellow Muslims in fighting the Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans. ...

Etymology

The Hindu Shahi, a term used by history writer Al-Biruni[85] to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty[86] that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the tenth and eleventh centuries. A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


The term Hindu Shahi was a royal title of this dynasty and not its actual clan or ethnological name. Al-Biruni used the title Shah for many other contemporary royal houses in his descriptions as well. (Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, xxxvi, Dr N Ahmad, 1988, i, NWF Regions of Pakistan Geographical tribes and Historical perspective, p53)


Historical Record

Archeological sites of the period, including a major Hindu Shahi temple north of Kabul and a chapel in Ghazni, contain both the pre-dominant Buddhist and Hindu statuary, suggesting that there was a close interaction between the two religions. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , Ğaznī) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


When the Chinese visitor Hsuan-tsang visited Kapisa (about 60 km north of modern Kabul) in 7th century, the local ruler was a Kshatriya king Shahi Khingala. A Ganesha idol has been found near Gerdez that bears the name of this king, see Shahi Ganesha. Xuanzang, Dunhuang cave, 9th century. ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ...


Several 6th or 7th century A.D Buddhist manuscripts were found out from a stupa at Gilgit. One of the manuscripts reveals the name of a Shahi king Srideva Sahi Surendra Vikramaditya Nanda. See Gilgit Manuscripts For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ...


Dynasty

The kings of Kashmir were related to the Shahis through marital and political alliance. Didda, a famous queen of Kashmir was a granddaughter of the Brahmin Shahi Bhima, who was married to Kshema Gupta (r. 951 - 959). Bhima had visited Kashmir and built the temple Bhima Keshava.


The initial Hindu Shahi dynasty, was the House of Kallar, but in 964 AD the rule was assumed from Bhima upon his death by the Janjua emperor Maharajadiraja Jayapala, son of Rai Asatapala Janjua and a descendant of Emperor Janamejaya (Coins of Medieval India, A.Cunningham, London, 1894, p56, p62, ''The Last Two Dynasties of The Sahis, A Rehman, 1988, Delhi, p131, p48, p49, p3001, Chronicles of Early Janjuas Dr H.Khan, 2003 iUniverse, p3, p5, p8, p9). Epithets from the Bari Kot inscriptions record his full title as "Parambhattaraka Maharajadhiraja Paramesvara Sri Jayapala deva" the first Emperor of the Janjua Shahi phase. He is celebrated as a hero in his struggles in defending his Kingdom from the Turkic rulers of Ghazni. The Janjua Rajput (Punjabi ਜਨ੍ਜੁਅ, Urdu: جنجوعہ) (also spelt Janjuha, Janjuah) is a highly dominant royal warrior clan of Northern India and Pakistan. ... Jayapala Shahi, the son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasty. ... Janamejaya, was the son of Arjunas (Mahabharata)grandson Parikishit. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Ghazni (Persian: غزنی , Ğaznī) is a city in eastern Afghanistan, with an estimated population of 149,998 people. ...


Emperor Jayapala was challenged by the armies of Sultan Sabuktigin and later by his son Sultan Mahmud. According to the Minháj ad-Dīn in his chronicle Tabaqát-i Násiri (H. G. Raverty's trans., Vol.1, p.82), he bears a testament to the political and powerful stature of Maharaja Jayapala Shah, "Jayapála, who is the greatest of all the ráis (kings) of Hind..." Misra wrote on Jaypala: "(He) was perhaps the last Indian ruler to show such spirit of aggression, so sadly lacking in later Rajput kings." (Indian Resistance to Early Muslim Invaders Up to 1206 AD, R.G Misra, Anu Books, repr.1992) Jayapala Shahi, the son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasty. ... Abu Mansur Sebük Tigin (ca 942 - August 997) was the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire and dynasty in todays Afghanistan. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Henry George Raverty (1825-1906) was a British Indian Army officer and linguist. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ...


Prince Anandapala who ascended his father's throne (in about March/April 1002AD) already proved an able warrior and General in leading many battles prior to his ascension. According to 'Adáb al-Harb' (pp.307-10) in about 990, it is written, "the arrogant but ambitious Raja of Lahore Bharat, having put his father in confinement, marched on the country of Jayapála with the intention of conquering the districts of Nandana, Jailum (Jehlum) and Tákeshar" (in an attempt to take advantage of Jayapala's concentrated effort with defence against the armies of Ghazna). "Jayapala instructed Prince Anandapala to repel the opportunist Raja Bharat. Anandapala defeated Bharat and took him prisoner in the battle of Takeshar and marched on Lahore and captured the city and extended his father's kingdom yet further." However, during his reign as emperor many losses were incurred on his kingdom by the Ghaznavids. During the battle of Chach between Mahmud and Anandapala, it is stated that "a body of 30,000 Gakhars fought alongside as soldiers for the Shahi Emperor and incurred huge losses for the Ghaznavids" . However, despite the heavy losses of the enemy, he lost the battle and suffered much financial and territorial loss. This was Anandapala's last stand against Sultan Mahmud. He eventually signed a treaty with the Ghaznavid empire in 1010AD and shortly a year later passed away a peaceful death. R.C Majumdar (D.V. Potdar Commemoration Volume, Poona 1950, p.351) compared him ironically to his dynastic ancient famous ancestor "King Porus, who bravely opposed Alexander but later submitted and helped in subduing other Indian rulers". And Tahqíq Má li'l-Hind (p.351) finally revered him in his legacy as "noble and courageous" . For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... The location of Hazara relative to surrounding areas Gakhar (also Gakkhar or Ghakhar or Ghakkar) (Urdu: ) are an ancient aristocratic and warlike clan now located in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Jhelum, Kashmir, Gilgit, Baltistan (Tibet), Chitral, and Khanpur (NWFP) regions in modern day Pakistan. ... Mahmud of Ghazni (971-April 30, 1030), also know as Yamin ul-Dawlah Mahmud (in full: Yamin ul-Dawlah Abd ul-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Sebük Tigin) was the ruler of Ghazni from 997 until his death. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, The state falls with in the territory of Trigata Kingdom of Katoch Rulers i. ...


Prince Tirlochanpála, the son of Anandapala, ascended the Imperial throne in about 1011AD. Inheriting a reduced kingdom, he immediately set about expanding his kingdom into the Siwalik Hills, the domain of the Rai of Sharwa. His kingdom now extended from the River Indus to the upper Ganges valley. According to Al-Biruni, Tirlochanpála "was well inclined towards the Muslims (Ghaznavids)" and was honourable in his loyalty to his father's peace treaty to the Ghaznavids. He eventually rebelled against Sultan Mahmud and was later assassinated by some of his own mutinous troops in 1021-22AD, an assassination which was believed to have been instigated by the Rai of Sharwa who became his arch-enemy due to Tirlochanpala's expansion into the Siwalik ranges. He was romanticised in Punjabi folklore as the Last Punjabi ruler of Punjab. The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...


Prince Bhímapála, son of Tirlochanpala, succeeded his father in 1021-22AD. He was referred to by Utbí as "Bhīm, the Fearless" due to his courage and valour. Considering his kingdom was at its lowest point, possibly only the control of Nandana, he admirably earned the title of "fearless" from his enemy's own chronicle writer. He is known to have led the battle of Nandana personally and seriously wounding the commander of the Ghaznavid army Muhammad bin Ibrahim at-Tāī ('Utbi, vil.ii, p.151.) He ruled only five years after his father before meeting his death in 1026AD. He was final Shahi Emperor of the famed dynasty.


His sons Rudrapal, Diddapal, Kshempala and Anangpala served as generals in Kashmir. They gained prominence in the Kashmiri Royal court where they occupied influential positions and intermarried with the royal family. They are mentioned frequently in Rajatarangini of Kalhana written during 1147-1149. Rudrapal was mentioned by the writer Kalhana as a valiant general in the campaigns he led to quell resistance to the Kashmiran kings to whom they served whilst in exile. His later descendants fell out of the favour of the royal court were exiled to the Siwalik Hills retaining control of the Mandu fort. After a brief period, they rose again to take control of Mathura under Raja Dhrupet Dev in the 12th century before the campaigns of the Ghorid Empire. Rajtarangini (River of Kings), a book written in Sanskrit by Kalhana, contains an account of the life and history of Kashmir. ... Kalhana (c. ... The Siwalik Hills (also spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are the southernmost and geologically youngest foothills running parallel to the main Himalayas. ... The Janjua Rajput (Punjabi ਜਨ੍ਜੁਅ, Urdu: جنجوعہ) (also spelt Janjuha, Janjuah) is a highly dominant royal warrior clan of Northern India and Pakistan. ...


Alberuni, in spite of the fact that he lived under Mahmud, praises the Shahis:
"The Hindu Shahiya dynasty is extinct and of the whole house there is not the slightest remnant in existence. We must say that in all their grandeur, they never slackened in the ardent desire of doing that which is good and right, that they were men of noble sentiment and noble bearing." Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ...


Kalhana writes about the sad fate of the Shahis:
"Where is the Shahi dynasty with its ministers, its kings, and its great grandeur? ... The very name of the splendor of Shahi kings has vanished. What is not seen in dream, what even our imagination cannot conceive, that dynasty accomplished with ease"


The Janjua Rajputs of Punjab are the descendants of the House of Jayapala (Chronicles of Early Janjuas, 2003, iUniverse, Dr H Khan, p2-10) (Coins of Medieval India, A.Cunningham, London, 1894, p56, p62) (''The Last Two Dynasties of The Sahis, A Rehman, 1988, Delhi, p131,p48, p49)(Gazeteer of the Jhelum District, Lahore, 1904, p93) The Janjua Rajput (Punjabi ਜਨ੍ਜੁਅ, Urdu: جنجوعہ) (also spelt Janjuha, Janjuah) is a highly dominant royal warrior clan of Northern India and Pakistan. ... This article is about the geographical region. ...


Shahi rulers

  • Khingala of Kapisa (7th c.)
  • Patoladeva alias Navasurendradiyta Nandin of Gilgit (6-7th c.)
  • Srideva alias Surendra Vikrmadiyta Nandin of Gilgit (6-7th c.)
  • Patoladeva alias Vajraditya Nandin of Gilgit (6-7th c.)
  • Kallar alias Lalliya (c. 890-895) of Kabul
  • Kamaluka (895-921)
  • Bhima (921-964), son of Kamaluka
  • Ishtthapala (?)
  • Jayapala (964-1001)
  • Anandapala (1001-c.1010), son of Jayapala
  • Trilochanapala (ruled c.1010-1021-22; assassinated by mutinous troops)
  • Bhímapála (died in 1022-1026)
Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

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 1st century CE


 2nd century
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11th century Jayapala Shahi, the son of Asatapala, succeeded the last Brahmin Hindu Shahi Bhima and thus began the start of the Janjua Rajput phase of Shahiya Dynasty. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... Extent of Hoysala Empire, 1200 CE Capital Belur, Halebidu Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 1026 – 1047 Nripa Kama II  - 1292 – 1343 Veera Ballala III History  - Earliest Hoysala records 950  - Established 1026  - Disestablished 1343 The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (pronunciation: in Kannada) was a prominent South Indian empire that... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

  • Shahi

(Islamic empires) During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...

See also

  • List of Indian monarchs
  • Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan (Before 650 AD)
  • Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanians
  • Hephthalites
  • Kushano-Hephthalite or Kabul Turk-Shahi Dynasty (565-870 AD)
  • Janjua
  • Gandhara

The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan disrupted it in December of 1979. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... The Janjua Rajput (Punjabi ਜਨ੍ਜੁਅ, Urdu: جنجوعہ) (also spelt Janjuha, Janjuah) is a highly dominant royal warrior clan of Northern India and Pakistan. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ as in: Rajatarangini, IV, 140-43, Kalahana.
  2. ^ as in inscriptins: See: Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1972, p 111, Yogendra Mishra.
  3. ^ as in: Tarikh-al-Hind, trans. E. C. Sachau, 1888/1910, vol ii, pp 10, Abu Rihan Alberuni; Sehrai, Fidaullah (1979). Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara, p. 1. Peshawar Museum Publications New Series, Peshawar.
  4. ^ a b c "Shahi Family." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 Oct. 2006 [1].
  5. ^ Sehrai, Fidaullah (1979). Hund: The Forgotten City of Gandhara, p. 2. Peshawar Museum Publications New Series, Peshawar.
  6. ^ Darius used titles like "Kshayathiya, Kshayathiya Kshayathiyanam" etc.
  7. ^ Sakas used titles like "Sahi and Sahanusahi".
  8. ^ The Kushanas used the grandiloquent title like "daivaputra-sahi.sahanu.sahi", "Shaonano shao" & "Shao".
  9. ^ The Hunas had the title " Shāhi" .
  10. ^ Title "Shahi" appears on Indo-Bactrian coins.
  11. ^ "Shahi of Kalhana's Rajatrangini, Shahiya of Alberuni and Sahi of the inscriptions".
  12. ^ The Shahi Afghanistan and Punjab, 1973, pp 1, 45-46, 48, 80, Dr D. B. Pandey; The Śakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture, 1976, p 80, Vishwa Mitra Mohan - Indo-Scythians; Country, Culture and Political life in early and medieval India, 2004, p 34, Daud Ali.
  13. ^ Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1954, pp 112 ff; The Shahis of Afghanistan and Punjab, 1973, p 46, Dr D. B. Pandey; The Śakas in India and Their Impact on Indian Life and Culture, 1976, p 80, Vishwa Mitra Mohan - Indo-Scythians.
  14. ^ India, A History, 2001, p 203, John Keay.
  15. ^ J.B.B.R.A.S., 139ff; J.B.O.R.S, xvi, 233, 293;; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 383, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury; Zeitschrif0 der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft 34, pp 247ff, 262; Indiana Antiquary, X, 222; Jaina Journal, V-22, 1987-88, p 107; The Śakas in India, 1981, p 23, Satya Shrava; Mālwa in Post-Maurya Period; 1981, 41, Manika Chakrabarti - Malwa (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan, India).
  16. ^ The Pathans, 1958, p 108, 109, Olaf Caroe.
  17. ^ Cf: That the first dynasty of Kabul was Turki is plainly based on the vulgar tradition which Alberuni himself remarked was clearly absurd. The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang knew well enough what a Turk was since he had come to Kabul through their country..... Against the contemporary evidence of Hiuen Tsang, an absurd tradition related by Alberuni after 400 years and with evident reluctance and disbelief in it cannot, therefore, be taken for history.....Hiuen Tsang clearly addresses the ruler of Kapisa/Kabul, whom he had personally met, as devout Buddhist and a Kshatriya and not a Tu-kiue/Tu-kue (Turk) (Ref: History of Mediaeval Hindu India, 1979, p 200, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya.
  18. ^ Tarikh-al-Hind, trans. E. C. Sachau, 1888/1910, vol ii, pp 10-14, Abu Rihan Alberuni.
  19. ^ It is interesting to note that the folklore accounts recorded by Alberuni connect the earlier Shahis of Kabul/Kapisa to Turkish extraction and also claim their descent from Kanik (or Kanishaka of Kushana lineage). At the same time it is also claimed that 'their first king Barahatigin (Vrahitigin?) had originally came from TIBET and concealed in a narrow cave in Kabul area (and here is given a strange legend which we omit). One can easily see the above account of Shahi origin as totally fanciful and fairy-like tale. These statements taken together are very confusing, inconsistent and bear the express marks of a folklore and vulgar tradition, hence unworthy of inspiring any confidence in the early history of Shahis. Barhatigin is said to be the founder of the dynasty which is said to have ruled for 60 generations until 870 AD. This, if true, would take Barahatigin, the founder of the early Shahi dynasty to about 20X60 = 1200 years i.e to about fourth century BCE if we take the average generation of 20 years; and to seventh century BCE if average generation is taken as 25 years. It is well neigh impossible that a single dynasty could have ruled for 1200 (or 1500 ) years at a stretch. Moreover, king Kanik (if Kanishaka) who ruled (78 AD to 101 AD) not over Kabul but over Purushapura/Gandhara and his descendants could not have ruled for almost 900 years as a single dynasty over Kapisa/Kabul especially in a fronter region called the gateway of India. Based on fragmentary evidence of coins, there seems to be one king named Vrahitigin (Barhatigin?) who belonged to Sixth or Seventh century AD, rather than pre-Christian times as Alberuni's accounts would tend to establish. If Kanik is same as Kanishaka of Kushana race as is often claimed, then the second claim that the ancestors of the early Shahis came from Tibet (which incidently is the Kamboja-desa of the Nepali Traditions) becomes incompatible to known facts of history. It is very interesting that Alberuni calls the early Shahi rulers as Turks which however should be interpretted as Turkised rather than Turkic.
  20. ^ "The view that Nepali Traditions apply name Kamboja Desha to Tibet is based on the statement made by Foucher (Ref: Étude sur l'Iconographie bouddhique de l'Inde, pp 134-135, A. Foucher) on the authority of Ranga Nath, Pandit to B.H. Hodgson. But it is also supported by two manuscripts [No 7768 & 7777] described in the Catalogue of Sanskrit and Prakrit Mss in the library of India Office Vol II, Part II" (Refs: History of Bebgal, I, 191, Dr R. C. Majumdar; Dist Gazeteer [Rajashahi], 1915, p 26; Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, Dr B. C. Sen, p 342, fn 1.
  21. ^ The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 113-126, Charles Frederick Oldham - Serpent worship.
  22. ^ Important Note: Urasa, Rajauri/Poonch and Abhisara were off-shoots of ancient Kamboja (See: Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, 219/220, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; A History of India, p 269-71, N. R. Ray, N. K. Sinha; Journal of Indian History, 1921, P 304, University of Allahabad, Department of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala).
  23. ^ The Kafirs of the Hindukush, 1896, pp 75-85; A Passage to Nurestan explaining the mystries of Afghan Hinterland, 2006, p 80, I. B. Tauris, Nicholars Barrington , Jojeph T. Kenderick, Reinhard Schlangitweit, Sardy Gall.
  24. ^ The Káfirs of the Hindu-Kush, 1896, pp 71-77, George Scott Robertson - Nuristani (Asian people).
  25. ^ The Pathans, 1958, p 101, Olaf Caroe.
  26. ^ The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham - Serpent worship.
  27. ^ Comments Charles Frederick Oldham: "Whether this king of Kabul was same Ksatriya chief who had entertained Chinese pilgrim is uncertain; but he too must have been a Ksatriya, or the warriors (Ksatriyas) of Hind would have taken little notice of his appeal for assistance (Op cit, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham.
  28. ^ NOTE: According to Persiacs-9, , in 7th century, the Kabol area (i.e Kabol, Kapisa, Lamghan etc) were the strong hold of the Indo-Iranians Kambojas whose influence extended as far as Archosia/Kandhahar (See: Early East Iran and Arthaveda, 1981, p 92 sqq, Dr Michael Witzel).
  29. ^ Si-Yu-KI V1: Buddhist Records of the Western World, Edition 2006, p 54-55, Hiuen Tsiang; The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 120, Charles Frederick Oldham - Serpent worship; The Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1973, p 17, Deena Bandhu Pandey ; The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 165, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar - India.
  30. ^ The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 165, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
  31. ^ History of Mediaeval Hindu India, 1979, p 200, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya - India.
  32. ^ Commenting on the rise of Shahi dynasty in Kabul/Kapisa, Charles Frederick Oldham observes: "Kabulistan must have passed through many vicissitudes during the troublous times which followed the overthrow of the great Persian empire by the Alexander. It no doubt fell for a time under the sway of foreign rulers (Yavanas, Kushanas, Hunas etc). The great mass of the population, however, must have remained Hindu. And probably too, the native chiefs retained some shadow of authority, and asserted themselves when the opportunity arose.." (See: The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick). In other words, the author rightly claims that the Kabul Shahi dynasty had emerged not from the invaders like Kushanas/Hunas or the Turks but from the subordinate native chiefs of the local populations --which means from the original clans of the Gandharas/Kambojas etc who had asserted themselves as the opportunity became conducive and favorable on decline of foreign invaders' political influence.
  33. ^ For example: King Asoka's Rock Edicts at Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra lists the Kambojas among the Yonas and Gandharas as the most eminent clan of this region i.e Kabul/Kapisa/Swat.
  34. ^ Even, as early as 424 AD, the prince of Kapisa (Ki-pin of the Chinese) was known as Guna Varman (See: The Maha-Bodhi, p 181, Maha Bodhi Society, Calcutta - Buddhism; Ancient Indian History and Culture, 1974, p 149, Shripad Rama Sharma - India; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, April, 1903, p 369, M Anesaki; The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick Oldham - Serpent worship). It is important to note that the name ending "Varman" is used after the name of a Ksahriya only (See entry Varman in Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary; See also entry Varman in: Cologne Digital Sanskrit English Dictionary). Thus the line of rulers whom Hiuen Tsang refers to in his chronicles appears to be an extension of the Ksatriya dynasty whom this Guna Varman of Ki-pin or Kapisa (424 AD) belonged. Thus this Ksatriya dynasty was already established prior to 424 AD and it was neither a Kushana nor a Hephthalite dynasty by any means.
  35. ^ From the account of Guna Varman as referenced in Chinese Buddhist Records, it would seem that there were Hindu (Ksatriya) kings in Kabul/Kapisa more than two centuries before Hiuen Tsang's arrival in 631 AD (644/45 in Kapis) when he found a Ksatriya king upon the throne (See: The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick).
  36. ^ See: Si-yu-ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, 1906, p c (Introduction), Samuel Beal.
  37. ^ Bhartya Itihaas ki Ruprekha, p 534, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 129, 300 Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  38. ^ Cf: The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 165 sqq, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar - India.
  39. ^ It is also important to note that "History and Culture of Indian People", Vol II, and several other noted authorities identify Kapisa kingdom a part of ancient Kamboja Mahajanapada (See: The History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol II, 1977, p 122, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Achut Dattatraya Pusalker, Dr Asoke Kumar Majumdar - India.
  40. ^ Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, 1906 edition, pp 50, 54, Samuel Beal.
  41. ^ Rajatarangini 4.164-166.
  42. ^ For identification of Kumijis with Kambojas, see: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; Prācīna Kamboja, Jana aur Janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, People and Country, 1981, pp 300, 401, Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Satyavrat Śāstrī. The tribal name Kumiji may also be compared to Camoji/Caumojee or Kamoje Kafir tribes of the Hindukush as referred to by Elphinstone (An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul) and Kams/Kamoz as mentioned by George Scott Robertson (The Kafirs of the Hindukush). The Kafir tribes Kamojis/Kamozis of the Hindukush represent the relics of the Ancient Kambojas. For Kamoj/Kamoji people of Hindukush and their relations with ancient Kambojas, See: Wishnu Purana, p 374, fn, H. H. Wilson; The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 127,Charles Frederick Oldham; Peter weiss: Von existentialistischen Drama zum marxistischen Welttheater ..., 1971, Otto F. Best; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 131, Moti Chandra; The Living Age, 1873, p 781;Mountstuart Elphinstone, "An account of the kingdom of Caubol", fn p 619; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1843, p 140; Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874, p 260 fn; Die altpersischen Keilinschriften: Im Grundtexte mit Uebersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar, 1881, p 86, Friedrich Spiegel; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, fn, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Banerjee; The Achaemenids and India, 1974, p 13, Dr S Chattopadhyaya.
  43. ^ Quoted in: India and Central Asia, p 25, Dr P. C. Bagchi; The Achamenids in India, p 7 by Dr S. Chattopadhya, where the author identifies the Kambojas as of Turko-Iranian stock; Cf also: The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 192, India; Cf: Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1928, pp 130,138, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, which connects the Kambhojas with Tartar ethnics.
  44. ^ Some writers have gone to the extent of designating these eleventh century Pamirian Kumijis (the remnants of ancient Kambojas of Pamirs/Hindukush) as extractions from the Hephthalites (See: History of Civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 102, Dr Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco - Asia, Central.
  45. ^ There are numerous references to Kambojas and Tukharas (Turukshakas) being bracketed together as allied tribes or as neighboring tribes located in Central Asia. See: Tukhara Kingdom. The Tukharas/Tusharas had also joined the Kamboja army and fought the Kurukshetra war under the supreme command of Kamboja Sudakshina (MBH 5.19.21-23; The Nations of India at the Battle Between the Pandavas and Kauravas, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1908, pp 313, 331, Dr F. E. Pargiter, (See: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland). As noted above, as late as 8th century AD, the Kambojas and Tukharas are attested to be immediate neighbors in around Oxus (Rajatarangini 4.164-166).
  46. ^ IMPORTANT COMMENT: As noted above, the Kambojas and the Tukharas/Turukshakas, for long time, had co-existed in the former Kamboja/Tukharistan country and thus, their culture, customs, mannerism and dress had become shared over the time. Thus, it is but natural that some writers make mistakes in identifying these remnants of ancient Kambojas of the Pamirs/Hindukush with the Turks or the Hephthalites.
  47. ^ There are even some noted scholars who identify the Kambojas as a branch of the Tukharas (See for example: Buddhism in Central Asia, 1987, p 90, Dr B. N. Puri - Buddhism).
  48. ^ Tarikh-al-Hind, trans Sachau, 1910, vol ii, p 13, Abu Rihan Alberuni.
  49. ^ The Pathans, 1958, pp 108-09, Olaf Caroe; Cf: Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 135, Dr Buddha Prakash.
  50. ^ NOTE: Alberuni also records in "Tarikh-al-Hind" that the Kabul Shahi rulers claimed descent from Kanik (believed by some to be Kanishka of Kushana dynasty) and further also boast of their Tibetan origin (sic) (See: Alberuni's Indica, A Record of the Cultural History of South Asia, 1973, p 38, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī, Eduard Sachau; History of Mediaeval Hindu India, 1979, p 199, Chintaman Vinayak Vaidya; The Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1973, p 51, D. B. Pandey). Here it is interesting to note that there is numerous evidence that a branch of Kambojas was living in Tibet around fourth/fifth century AD as is evidenced by Brahma Purana (53.19). Many scholars like Charles Elliot, Dr Foucher, Dr G. G. Gokhale, V.A. Smith etc locate the Kambojas in Tibet. Nepalese traditions also apply name Kamboja-desa to Tibet (See refs: Iconographie bouddhique, p 132); History of the Koch Kingdom, C. 1515-1615, 1989, P 10, D. Nath. Even otherwise also, the ancient Kambojas of Kafiristan are said to have extended as far as little Tibet and Ladak (See Refs: Peter weiss: Von existentialistischen Drama zum marxistischen Welttheater ..., 1971, Otto F. Best; The Devi Bhagavatam, Vol. 2 of 3, p 117, Swami Vijnanannanda; Historical Mahākāvyas in Sanskrit, Eleventh to Fifteenth Century A.D., 1976, 373, Chandra Prabha; Kāmarūpaśāsanāvalī, 1981, p 137,Dimbeswar Sarma, P. D. Chowdhury, R. K. Deva Sarma - Assam (India; Cf: The Early History of India, 1904, p 165, Vincent Arthur Smith); The Khamba province of Tibet still carries the vestigiges of ancient Kamboja in it. The above tradition recorded by Alberuni may also go in favor of "Shahi origin from Tibetan Kambojas" rather than from Kushanas, Hunas or Turks.
  51. ^ From the Grant Charters of Pala kings of Bengal, we learn that a Kamboja dynasty was ruling in Kabol valley in north-west India in 9th century AD. Pala king Devapala (reign 810-850 AD) had led his war expedition sometime after 810 AD against the Hunas (probably located south west Punjab...which probably formed a part of the kingdom of Zabulistan) and the Kambojas (probably Kabul/Kapisa Shahi dynasty), as is amply testified by Pala king Devapala’s Monghyr Charter (B-8, i.e: Kambojesu cha yasya vajiyuvbhih …kantashchiran dikshitah: see Epigraphia Indica, XVII p 305). These were the people who have also been known by different names like the Kabulis/Gandharas or Kambojas but they were of the Kamboja lineage/race, ethically speaking.
  52. ^ According to Sata-pañcāśaddesa-vibhaga of Saktisamgma Tantra, Book III, Ch VII, v 24-28 (a medieval era Tantra text), the Kambojas are said to be located to west of South-west Kashmir (Pir-pañcāla ), to South of Bactria and to east of Maha-Mlechcha-desa (Mohammadan countries i.e Khorasan/Iran). Likewise verse 42-44 of the same reference locates the medieval era Huna-desa to the north of Maru-desa (Rajputana) and to the south of Kama-giri (Kama hills) (See Ref: Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 100-102, 108, Dr D. C. Sircar). The Kama/kamma is the name of hilly territory of eastern Afghanistan, lying between Jallabad and Khyber pass. Hence, the general location of Huna-desa may indeed have comprised south-western Punjab and parts of Southern and Central Afghanistan which territory again was same as the Zabulistan of Arab writers.
  53. ^ Refs: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 291, Dr D. C. Sircar; Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1972, p 5, Yogendra Mishra.
  54. ^ NOTE: Some scholars arbitrarily assume, without presenting any evidence that the line of Shahi princes with names ending in -pala represents a change-over in royal dynasty. But but this view is refuted by well-known examples of similar changes in royal names in the same family (See ref: The History and Culture of the Indian People, 1977, p 114, Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, Dr A. K. Majumdar - India). For instance, in the Pratihara dynasty of Kanauj, king Nagabhata I was followed by kings Kakkuka, Devaraja, Vatsaraja, Nagabhata II, Ramabhadra, Mihirabhoja, Mahendrapala, Bhoja II, Mahipala, Devapala, Vijayapala, Rajyapala etc. There was no change-over of dynasty here and all kings belonged to the same Pratihara royal family though there have been frequent changes in name endings.
  55. ^ Cf: Rajatrangini, IV, 140-43, Kalhana; Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 292, 293, Dr D. C. Sircar.
  56. ^
    Adyapi dyotate sahevahvayena digantare,
    Tatsantana bhavonantah samuhah Ksatrajanamanam ||
    (Kalahana's Rajatrangini, New Delhi, 1960, VIII, 3230, M. A. Stein (Editor).
  57. ^ The Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, A.D. 865-1026: A phase of Islamic advance into India, 1972, p 3, Yogendra Mishra; Cf: Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 2002, p 125-26, André Wink.
  58. ^ Dr D. C. Sircar: "It will be seen that the Kashmirian who knew the Shahis from before 730 AD down to 12th c AD regarded them as Ksatriyas, although Alberuni refers to the Hindu Shahis of Turko-Tibetan origin and their successors of Brahmana origin. That the early Shahis were regarded, inspite of foreign origin, as Ksatriyas in India is also indicated by another evidence. In 645 AD, when Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang was passing through the Uttarapatha, Udabhanda or Udabhandapura was the place of residence or secondary capital of emperor of Kapisa which then dominated over 10 neighboring states comprising Lampaka, Nagara, Gandhara and Varna (Bannu) and probably also Jaguda. About Gandhara, the pilgrim says that its capital was Purushapura; the royal family was extinct and country was subject to Kapisa; the towns and villages were desolate and the inhabitants were very few. It seems that under pressure from Arabs in the southwest and the Turks in the north, the kings of Kapisa had left their western possessions in the hands of their viceroys and made Udabhanda their principal seat of residence. The reason why Udabhandapura was selected in preference to Peshawar is at present unknown but it is possible that the new city of Udabhanda was built by Kapisa rulers for strategic reasons (See: The Geography of Ancioent and Medieval India, 1971, p 292-93, Dr D. C. Sircar.
  59. ^ Dr D. C. Sircar continues: "The fact that Kalhana speaks of the Shahis with reference to the period earlier than that of Lalitaditya (c 730 - 66 AD) and of Udabhanda as the capital of the Shahis at least from the time of king Lalliya of Kashmir (C 875 - 90 AD) and that Chinese evidence refers to the city as the residence of the emperor of Kapisa about 645 AD would indicate that Hiuen Tsang's king of Kapisa was a Shahi ruler. It is very interesting that this king has been called by Hiuen Tsang as a Kshatriya (See: Udabhanda in The Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 293, Dr D. C. Sircar).
  60. ^ It is a well known fact that the religion of these non-Muslim chiefs of Kapisa/Kabul was originally Buddhism. Buddhism, Brahmanism and Naga-worship were all practiced among the population in the south of Hindukush, between Indus and river Kabul (See: The Pathans, 1958, p 101, Olaf Caroe). This is also verified by Hiuen Tsang who observed in 644 AD that the Shahi king of Kapisa kingdom was a devout Buddhist and belonged to the Ksatriya caste. Evidence also exists that with time, Buddhism lost its ground to Brahmanism in this very region, especially in the wake of the religious intenerary by Hindu Acharya Adi Shankara (788AD-820AD), who is said to have visited this kingdom and held religious seminars in Bahlika, Gandhara and Kamboja in north-west little before 820 AD. It is stated that he had defeated all the Buddhist monks of this region in the religious discourses and debates (See: Sankara-Dig-Vijaya: The Traditional Life of Sri Sankaracharya by Madhava-Vidyaranya, 2002, pp 160-185, Swami, Tapasyananda, India: Sri Ramakrishna Math (ISBN 81-7120-434-1). Thus, we can notice a downfall of Buddhism and revivalism of the Brahmanical faith in the Kamboja/Gandhara region soon after 820 AD. Alberuni's reference to the supplanting of the Kabul Shahi dynasty in about 870 AD by Brahmin called Kallar may actually imply that the religious faith of the royal family had changed from Buddhism to Brahmanism by about 870 AD and it might not have actually involved any physical supplanting of the existing Kabul Shahi dynasty as is stated by Alberuni whose account of early Shahis is indeed is based on telltale stories. Since the change of Shahi capital from Kabul to Waihind or Uddhabhandapura had also occurred precisely around this period, it is probable that the narrator of the folklore/tellatale to Alberuni had confused the "change of capital" issue with the "supplanting of Kabul Shahi dynasty" since the incidence of shift had occurred remotely about 200 years prior to Alberuni's writing (1030 AD). There is no doubt, as the scholars also admit, that the change in dynasty is effected by "a common legend of eastern story", which sure bears the express mark of folklore for the previous history of Kabul Shahis, hence obviously speculative and not much worthy of serious history.
  61. ^ Note: No systematic excavation of the area has so far been made in the Kabul Shahi realm, but the sporadic finds made in the region affirm the spread of Hindu influence at the cost of Buddhism during the period spanning 600-900 AD. The replacement of Buddhist kingship with Brahmanical kingship around 870 AD seems to symbolize the Brahmanization of the so-called Turk kings as well as the population south of the Hindukush. A brahmanised king named Kallar started the so-called Hindu Shahi dynasty of Gandhara (Cf: The Afghans, 2002, p 183, W Vogelsang.
  62. ^ Hindu Sahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1972, p 5, Yogendra Mishra.
  63. ^ For Chinese Buddhist records referencing Guna Varman, see reference: J.R.A.S., April, 1903, p 369, M. Anesaki.
  64. ^ The Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab, 1973, p 1, Dr Deena Bandhu Pandey.
  65. ^ The former Kafirs like Aspins of Chitral and Ashkuns or Yashkuns of Gilgit are identified as the modern representives of the Paninian Aśvakayanas (Greek: Assakenoi); and the Asip/Isap or Yusufzai (from Aspa.zai) in the Kabul valley (between river Kabul and Indus) are believed to be modern representatives of the Paninian Aśvayanas (Greek: Aspasioi) respectively (See: The Quarterly Review, 1873, p 537, William Gifford, George Walter Prothero, John Gibson Lockhart, John Murray, Whitwell Elwin, John Taylor Coleridge, Rowland Edmund Prothero Ernle, William Macpherson, William Smith; An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, 1893, p 75, Henry Walter Bellew; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1864, p 681, by Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great, 1896, p 334, John Watson M'Crindle; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, p 72; History of Punjab, Publication Bureau Punjabi University Patiala, 1997, p 225, Dr Buddha Prakash; A Comprehensive History of India, Vol II, p 118, Dr Nilkantha Shastri; See also: Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, 1981, p 278, These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119-20, K. S. Dardi etc.
  66. ^ NOTE: The Aspasios and Assaekoi clans of Kunar/Swat valleys are stated to be sub-sections of the Kambojas who were especially engaged in horse-culture and were expert horsemen (Asva.yuddhah-kushalah). See: Ashvakas. See also: Mahabharata 12.101.5, Kumbhakonam Ed.; See also: Hindu Polity, 1955, p 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal).
  67. ^ See: Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North West Frontier Province, 1910, Voll III, p 524, H. A. Rose.
  68. ^ Mudrarakshasa act II; History of Poros, 1967, p 89, Dr Buddha Prakash.
  69. ^ A History of Zoroastrianism, 1991, p 136, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet; Mauryan Samrajya Ka Itihaas, Hindi, , 1927, p 665-67 by Dr. Sataketu Vidyalankar; Hindu Polity, A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times, 1978, p 117-121, Dr K. P. Jayswal; Ancient India, 2003, pp 839-40, Dr V. D. Mahajan; Northern India, p 42, Dr Mehta Vasisitha Dev Mohan etc.
  70. ^ History of Punjab, Vol I, 1997, p 225, Dr Buddha Prakash; Raja Poros, 1990, p 9, Publication Bureau, Punjabi University Patiala.
  71. ^ Raghuvamsa, 4.67-70, Kalidasa.
  72. ^
    HrishIvidarbhah kantikasta~Nganah parata~Nganah. |
    uttarashchapare mlechchhA jana bharatasattama. || 63 ||
    YavanAshcha sa Kamboja Daruna mlechchha jatayah. |
    Sakahaddruhah Kuntalashcha Hunah Parasikas saha.|| 64 ||
    Tathaiva maradhAahchinastathaiva dasha malikah. |
    Kshatriyopaniveshashcha vaishyashudra kulani cha.|| 65 ||
    (Mahabharata 6.9.63-65) .
  73. ^ Early History of India, p 339, Dr V. A. Smith; See also Early Empire of Central Asia (1939), W. M. McGovern.
  74. ^ Devapala’s Monghyr Charter (B-8),Epigraphia Indica, XVII p 305; The History of the Gurjara-Pratihāras, 1957, p 62, Dr B. N. Puri; Ancient India, 2003, p 650, Dr V. D. Mahajan; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 50, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
  75. ^ Book III, Ch VII, v 24-28.
  76. ^ Book III, Ch VII, v 42-44.
  77. ^ Raj Shekhar Chapter 17, Kavy Mimansa.
  78. ^ Cf: The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 125, Charles Frederick.
  79. ^ Modern day Und, also called Waihind by Al Biruni. (Wink pg. 125)
  80. ^ The Ghaznavids or Turushkas by Kalhana.
  81. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wink
  82. ^ This was the westernmost extent of the Hindu Shahi, and last foothold in the Kabul/ Gandhara region. (Wink. pg. 125-126)
  83. ^ Al-Idrisi, p 67, Maqbul Ahmed; Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, 1991, p 127, Andre Wink.
  84. ^ Kalhana's Rajatangini, VIII, 3230; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Punjab, 1971, p 147, Dr Buddha Prakash.
  85. ^ Kalhana Rajatarangini referred to them as simply Shahi and inscriptions refer to them as sahi.(Wink, pg 125)
  86. ^ Al Biruni refers to the subsequent rulers as "Brahman kings" however most other references such as Kalahan refer to them as kshatriyas. (Wink, pg 125)

Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya and Culla-Niddesa frequently mention sixteen great nations (solasa Mahajanapadas), which existed before the time of the Buddha. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Tusharas are a Mlechcha tribe, with their kingdom located in the north west of India. ... Fought for 18 days, the Battle of Kurukshetra was one of the great battles fought in ancient India. ... Sudakshina Kamboja is the third king of the Kambojas referred to in the Mahabharata. ... // Turks and Turkish may refer to: Ethnic Turks Citizens or residents of Turkey in historical contexts, all Turkic peoples collectively Turk one of any of the peoples speaking any of the Turkic languages Turkic peoples A native or inhabitant of Turkey, or a member of Turkic speaking minorities in neighboring... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Ancient Buddhist and Brahmanical texts reveal that Uttarapatha was the name of northern division of Jambudvipa of ancient Indian traditions. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... This article is about the town of Chitral. ... For other uses, see Gilgit (disambiguation). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The Yusufzai (also Yousafzai, Esapzey, or Yusufi) (Urdu: یوسف زئی) are one of the largest Pashtun tribe. ... The Indus is a river; the Indus River. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans (Paninian Ashvakayans) are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan , including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India (Punjab). ... Henry Walter Bellew MRCP (1834-1892) was an Indian-born British medical man and author. ... The Ashvakas or Ashvakans are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan (Nuristan), modern Pakistan, including the Chitral-Valley and north-west India . ... The University of North Dakota (UND) is a comprehensive institute of higher learning in Grand Forks, North Dakota. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 977 to 1186. ... Kalhana (c. ... For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is one of the four varnas, or castes, in Hinduism. ...

References

  • Wink, Andre,"Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World", Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8
  • [2] Coinage of the Hindu Shahi period from Mardan, Pakistan. Treasures of Kashmir Smast.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Shahi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1263 words)
The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and northwestern India known as Gandhara from the mid-seventh century to the early eleventh century.
The Hindu Shahi were the last Hindu dynasty to rule predominantly Buddhist Afghanistan and the western Punjab before the Muslim conquest of the tenth and eleventh centuries.
In 870, Kabul was captured by the Muslims, and the Shahi capital shifted east to Hund or Ohind, near Attock in the Punjab.
Adil Shahi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (947 words)
The Adil Shahi of Adilshahi were a dynasty of Indian sultans, who ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur from 1490 to 1686.
The Adil Shahis were originally provincial rulers of the Bahmani Sultanate, but with the breakup of the Bahmani state after 1518, Ismail Adil Shah established an independent sultanate, one of the five Deccan sultanates that were the successors to the Bahmani Sultanate.
The contribution of the Adil Shahi kings to the architecture, painting, language, literature and music of Karnataka is unique.
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