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Encyclopedia > Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan the Magnificient
Mughal Emperor
"Shah Jahan on a globe" from the Smithsonian Institution
"Shah Jahan on a globe" from the Smithsonian Institution
Reign 1628 - 1658
Full name Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan
Born January 5, 1592
Lahore
Died January 22, 1666 (age 74)
Agra
Buried Taj Mahal
Predecessor Jehangir
Successor Aurangazeb
Wife/wives Akbarabadi Mahal (d. 1677)
Kandahari Mahal (b. 1594, m. 1609)
Mumtaz Mahal (b. 1593, m. 1612, d. 1631)
Hasina Begum Sahiba (m. 1617)
Muti Begum Sahiba
Qudsia Begum Sahiba
Fatehpuri Mahal Sahiba (d. after 1666)
Sarhindi Begum Sahiba (d. after 1650)
Shrimati Manbhavathi Baiji Lal Sahiba (m. 1626)
Issue Jahanara Begum, Dara Shukoh, Shah Shuja, Roshanara Begum, Aurangzeb, Murad Baksh, Gauhara Begum
Dynasty Timurid
Father Jehangir
Mother Princess Manmati[1]

Shabuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan (also spelled Shah Jehan, Shahjehan. Urdu: شاه ‌جهان), (January 5, 1592January 22, 1666) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent from 1628 until 1658. The name Shah Jahan comes from Persian meaning "King of the World." He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir. While young, he was a favourite of Akbar. Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 410 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (458 × 670 pixel, file size: 135 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)The Emperor Shah Jahan standing upon a globe mid-17th century Hashim Mughal dynasty Color and gold on paper H: 25. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... Nuruddin Jahangir (August 31, 1569 - October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. ... Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir (November 3, 1618 - March 3, 1707), also known as Alamgir I, was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until 1707. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... Shahzadi (Imperial Princess) Jahanara Begum (April 2, 1614–September 16, 1681) was the eldest daughter of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. ... Shāh Shujā (June 23, 1616 – 1660) was the second son of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal. ... Roshanara Begum was the younger daughter of the Mughal Ruler Shah Jahan (real name Khurram). ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Murad Baksh (died 1658) was the youngest son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and empress Mumtaz Mahal. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nuruddin Jahangir (August 31, 1569 - October 28, 1627) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1605 until 1627. ... Manmati Bai (b. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Even while very young, he could be pointed out to be the successor to the Mughal throne after the death of Jahangir. He succeeded to the throne upon his father's death in 1627. He is considered to be one of the greatest Mughals and his reign has been called the Golden Age of Mughals. Like Akbar, he was eager to expand his empire. The chief events of his reign were the destruction of the kingdom of Ahmadnagar (1636), the loss of Kandahar to the Persians (1653), and a second war against the Deccan princes (1655). In 1658 he fell ill, and was confined by his son Aurangzeb in the citadel of Agra until his death in 1666. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Ahmednagar was twice in its history an independent state. ... Year 1636 (MDCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ...


The period of his reign was the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, built as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal (birth name Arjumand Banu Begum). The Pearl Mosque at Agra and the palace and great mosque at Delhi also commemorate him. The celebrated Peacock Throne, said to be worth millions of dollars by modern estimates, also dates from his reign. He was the founder of Shahjahanabad, now known as 'Old Delhi'.The important buildings of Shah Jahan were the Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas in the fort of Delhi , the Jama Masjid , the Moti Masjid and the Taj.It is pointed out that the Palace of Delhi is the most magnificent in the East.[2] For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... The Pearl Mosque is a name given to certain structures in more than one country. ... The Peacock Throne, called Takht-e-Tavous (Persian: تخت طائوس) in Persian, is the name originally of a Mughal throne, later used to describe the thrones of the Persian emperors from Nader Shah Afshari to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. ... Shahjahanabad was a city on the present site of Delhi, India, established by Shah Jahan from 1638 to 1649, containing the Lal Qila and the Chandni Chowk. ... Divan (like the ministerial title, the word derives from the furniture type) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or metonymically its . ... Divan (like the ministerial title, the word derives from the furniture type) was a high governmental body in a number of Islamic states, or metonymically its . ... The Jama Masjid is a mosque near Crawford Market in the South Mumbai region of Mumbai, India. ... The Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) is a small mosque made of white marble built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb at the Red Fort complex in Delhi, India. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Biography

Birth And Early Years

Shah Jahan was born as Prince Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad, in 1592 in Lahore as the third and favourite son of the emperor Jahangir[3], his mother being a Rajput Princess, known as Princess Manmati who was Jahangir's wife. The name Khurram - Persian for 'joyful' - was given by his grandfather Akbar. His early years saw him receive a cultured, broad education and he distinguished himself in the martial arts and as a military commander while leading his father's armies in numerous campaigns - Mewar (1615 CE, 1024 AH), the Deccan (1617 and 1621 CE, 1026 and 1030 AH), Kangra (1618 CE, 1027AH). He was responsible for most of the territorial gains during his father's reign.[4] He also demonstrated a precocious talent for building, impressing his father at the age of 16 when he built his quarters within Babur's Kabul fort and redesigned buildings within Agra fort.[4]   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... n ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mewar is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Kangra is a town in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh state in northern India, and lends its name to the district of the same name. ...


Marriage

In 1607 CE (1025 AH) Khurrum was betrothed to Arjumand Banu Begum, the grand daughter of a Persian noble, who was just 14 years old at the time. She would become the unquestioned love of his life. They would, however, have to wait five years before they were married in 1612 CE (1021 AH). After their wedding celebrations, Khurram "finding her in appearance and character elect among all the women of the time," gave her the title Mumtaz Mahal (Jewel of the Palace).[5] The intervening years had seen Khurrum take two other wives known as Akbarabadi Mahal (d.1677 CE, 1088 AH), and Kandahari Mahal (b. c1594 CE, c1002 AH), (m.1609 CE, 1018 AH). By all accounts however, Khurrum was so taken with Mumtaz, that he showed little interest in exercising his polygamous rights with the two earlier wives, other than dutifully siring a child with each. According to the official court chronicler Qazwini, the relationship with his other wives "had nothing more than the status of marriage. The intimacy, deep affection, attention and favor which His Majesty had for the Cradle of Excellence [Mumtaz] exceeded by a thousand times what he felt for any other."[6][7][5] Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal The Taj Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل; pronunciation //; meaning beloved ornament of the palace) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April, 1593 in Agra, India. ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ...


Accession

Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. This often led to rebellions and wars of succession. As a result, a complex political climate surrounded the Mughal court in Khurram's formative years. In 1611 his father married Nur Jahan, the widowed daughter of a Persian immigrant.[8] She rapidly became an important member of Jahangir's court and, together with her brother Asaf Khan, wielded considerable influence. Arjumand was Asaf Khan's daughter and her marriage to Khurrum consolidated Nur Jahan and Asaf Khan's positions at court. Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... For other persons named Noor Jahan, see Noor Jahan (disambiguation). ... Asaf Khan, from Akbarnama Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan (Persian: عبد الحسان آصف خان) was the father of Arjumand Banu Begum, also known as Mumtaz Mahal, who was the wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. ...


Khurram's military successes of 1617 CE (1026 AH) against the Lodi in the Deccan effectively secured the southern border of the empire and his grateful father rewarded him with the prestigious title 'Shah Jahan Bahadur' (Lord of the World) which implicitly sealed his inheritance.[9] Court intrigues, however, including Nur Jahan's decision to have her daughter from her first marriage wed Shah Jahan's youngest brother and her support for his claim to the throne led Khurram, supported by Asaf Khan, into open revolt against his father in 1622. Lodi (pronounced LOW-die) is the name of several places and a dynasty in India: in the United States of America: Lodi, California Lodi, New Jersey Lodi (village), New York Lodi (town), New York Lodi, Ohio Lodi, New Jersey Lodi, Wisconsin Lodi (town), Wisconsin Lodi Township, Michigan Lodi Township, Minnesota... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Prince Shahryar (شاهزاد شهريار) (b. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ...


The rebellion was quelled by Jahangir's forces in 1626 and Khurram was forced to submit unconditionally.[10] Upon the death of Jahangir in 1627, Khurram succeeded to the Mughal throne as Shah Jahan, King of the World and Lord of the Auspicious Conjunctions, the latter title alluding to his pride in his Timurid roots.[4] Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ...


Despite her frequent pregnancies, Mumtaz Mahal travelled with Shah Jahan's entourage throughout his earlier military campaigns and the subsequent rebellion against his father. Mumtaz Mahal was utterly devoted — she was his constant companion and trusted confidante and their relationship was intense.[9] She is portrayed by Shah Jahan's chroniclers as the perfect wife with no aspirations to political power. This is in direct opposition to how Nur Jahan had been perceived.[9]


Rule

Shah Jahan's court
Shah Jahan's court

Although his father's rule was generally peaceful, the empire was experiencing challenges by the end of his reign. Shah Jahan reversed this trend by putting down a [Islamic] rebellion in Ahmednagar, repulsing the Portuguese in Bengal, capturing the Rajput kingdoms of Baglana and Bundelkhand to the west and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. Shah Jahan's military campaigns drained the imperial treasury.[citation needed] Under his rule, the state became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, as did the demands for more revenue from the peasantry. It was however a period of general stability — the administration was centralised and court affairs systematised. Historiography and the arts increasingly became instruments of propaganda, where beautiful artworks or poetry expressed specific state ideologies which held that central power and hierarchical order would create balance and harmony. The empire continued to expand moderately during his reign but the first signs of an imperial decline were seen in the later years.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (446 × 627 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Shah Jahan (Mughal Emperor of India 1627-1657/58) holding a durbar in the public audience hall of his palace miniature painting by an unknown Mughal... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (446 × 627 pixel, file size: 98 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Shah Jahan (Mughal Emperor of India 1627-1657/58) holding a durbar in the public audience hall of his palace miniature painting by an unknown Mughal... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ... Bundelkhand is a geographic region of central India. ... The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...


His political efforts encouraged the emergence of large centres of commerce and crafts — such as Lahore, Delhi, Agra, and Ahmedabad — linked by roads and waterways to distant places and ports. He moved the capital from Agra to Delhi.   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... , Ahmedabad (Gujarati: , Hindi: अहमदाबाद ) is the largest city in the state of Gujarat and the seventh-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population of almost 51 lakhs (5. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


Under Shah Jahan's rule, Mughal artistic and architectural achievements reached their zenith. Shah Jahan was a prolific builder with a highly refined aesthetic. He built the legendary Taj Mahal in Agra as a tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other surviving buildings are the Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi, the Shalimar Gardens of Lahore, sections of the Lahore Fort and his father's mausoleum. For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Mumtāz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل, meaning beloved ornament of the palace; pronunciation //) is the common nickname of Arjumand Banu Begum, who was born in April of 1593 in Agra, India. ... The Delhi Fort, also known as the Red Fort, is one of the popular tourist destinations in Delhi. ... The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa مسجد جھان نمہ, commonly known as Jama Masjid of Delhi is the principal mosque of Old Delhi in India. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... Jahangirs mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. ...


Legend has it that Shah Jahan wanted to build a black Taj Mahal for himself, to match the white one he reportedly loved much more.[12] There is no reputable scholarship to support this hypothesis, however.[13][14][15] For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ...


Fate

His son Aurangzeb led a rebellion when Shah Jahan became ill in 1657 CE (1067 AH) and publicly executed his brother and the heir apparent Dara Shikoh. Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort.[11] Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Dara Shikoh (1615–1659) was the eldest son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Jahanara Begum Sahib voluntarily shared his 8-year confinement and nursed him in his dotage. In January of 1666 CE (1076 AH), Shah Jahan fell ill with strangury and dysentery. Confined to bed, he became progressively weaker until, on January 22, he commanded the ladies of the imperial court, particularly his consort of later year Akrabadi Mahal, to the care of Jahanara. After reciting the Kalima and verses from the Qu'ran, he died. Jahana planned a state funeral which was to include a procession with Shah Jahan's body carried by eminent nobles followed by the notable citizens of Agra and officials scattering coins for the poor and needy. Aurangzeb refused to accommodate such ostentation and the body was washed in accordance with Islamic rites, taken by river in a sandalwood coffin to the Taj Mahal and was interred there next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.[16] Shahzadi (Imperial Princess) Jahanara Begum Sahib (April 2, 1614–September 16, 1681) was the eldest daughter of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. ... Strangury is a frequent need to urinate but with slow urine production. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... Kalima does not render you a Muslim- it is a bunch of words meaning nothing. ...


Legacy

Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal over the tomb of his wife Mumtaz Mahal
Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal over the tomb of his wife Mumtaz Mahal

Shah Jahan's legacy was one of the most profound of all the Mughals. A patron of the fine arts, he continued the Mughal patronage of painting, although his passion was architecture, with the highlight being undoubtedly the Taj Mahal. Painting during his reign reflected the serene prosperity that the Mughals enjoyed with many scenes reflecting Shah Jahan's interest in romance. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 605 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 1015 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Taj Mahal Author: Amal Mongia. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ...


Notable structures associated with Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan has left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. The most famous of these is the Taj Mahal in Agra built to hold the tomb for his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Upon his death, his son Aurangazeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other construction contributions are Delhi Fort also called the Red Fort or Lal Quila (Hindi) in Delhi, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid (Grand Mosque), Delhi, the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan, the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque), Lahore, the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, sections of the Lahore Fort, Lahore, the Jahangir mausoleum — his father's tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan and the Shahjahan Mosque, Thatta, Pakistan. He also had the Peacock Throne,Takht e Taus made to celebrate his rule. The Delhi Fort, also known as the Red Fort, is one of the popular tourist destinations in Delhi. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa The Masjid-i-Jahan Numa مسجد جھان نمہ, commonly known as Jama Masjid of Delhi is the principal mosque of Old Delhi in India. ... The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... The Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) is a small mosque made of white marble built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb at the Red Fort complex in Delhi, India. ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... Jahangirs mausoleum in Shahdara, Lahore Tomb of Jahangir, is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. ... For other persons named Noor Jahan, see Noor Jahan (disambiguation). ... Shah Jahan Mosque was built in the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. ... Thatta or Thatto (Urdu: ٹھٹہ, Sindhi:ٺٽو) is a historic town of 22,000 inhabitants in the Sindh province of Pakistan, near Lake Keenjhar, the largest freshwater lake in the country. ... Former Prime Minister of India Vajpayee viewing the throne at Topkapi The Peacock Throne also known as Takht-e-Tavous (Urdu: تخت طائوس) was made for the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the 17th century. ...


There is a crater named after Shah Jahan on the minor planet 433 Eros. Craters on Eros are named after famous fictional and real-life lovers. Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... The asteroid 433 Eros (eer-os) was named after the Greek god of love Eros. ...


European accounts of Shah Jahan's personal life

Numerous accounts of Shah Jahan's personal life were recounted by contemporary European writers.


Shah Jahan's family

Like all his ancestors, Shah Jahan's court included many wives, concubines, and dancing girls. Several European chroniclers have noted this. Niccolao Manucci wrote that "it would seem as if the only thing Shah Jahan cared for was the search for women to serve his pleasure" and "for this end he established a fair at his court. No one was allowed to enter except women of all ranks that is to say, great and small, rich and poor, but all handsome."[17] When he was detained in the Agra Fort, Aurangzeb permitted him to retain "the whole of his female establishment, including the singing and dancing women."[18] Manucci notes that Shah Jahan didn't lose his "weakness for the flesh" even when he had grown very old[19]. However, most of the European travellers in India had access to such information primarily through bazaar gossip. For other uses, see Harem (disambiguation). ... Niccolao Manucci (1639 – 1717) was an European writer and traveller. ... Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. ...


See also

For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Muhammad Saleh Kamboh (Urdu: ) also found written as Inayat Khan (Urdu: ), Salih Kamboh, Kanbo,Kanboh, Kanbuh, Kambuh[1] was the author of the Amal-i-Salih/ShahJahan Nama. ... For other persons named Noor Jahan, see Noor Jahan (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Shah Jahan. Britannica Concise.
  2. ^ Mahajan, Vidya Dhar (1970). Muslim Rule In India, 286. 
  3. ^ Hebbar, Neria Harish (2002 June). King of the World: Shah Jahan (English). History of Islam in India. Boloji Media Inc. Retrieved on 2007-07-23.
  4. ^ a b c Asher, p.170
  5. ^ a b Koch, p.18
  6. ^ Qazwini. fol. 233a translated by Begley and Desai (1984), p.14
  7. ^ Bloom, J. and Blair, S. (1994). "The Art and Architecture of Islam: 1250-1800". New Haven and London: Yale University Press
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography on Shah Jahan
  9. ^ a b c Koch, P.19
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Rebellion of Khurram
  11. ^ a b Asher, p.171
  12. ^ History of Taj Mahal
  13. ^ Black Taj Mahal Myths
  14. ^ Black Taj Mahal Story
  15. ^ Black Taj Mahal Spirituality
  16. ^ Koch, p.101
  17. ^ Manucci, I, p.195
  18. ^ Bernier, p.166 and p. 21
  19. ^ Manucci, I, p.240

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Asher, Catherine Ella Blanshard [2003]. The New Cambridge History of India, Vol I:4 - Architecture of Mughal India (Hardback), First published 1992, reprinted 2001,2003 (in English), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 368. ISBN 0-521-26728-5. 
  • Padshah Nama, a book written by Abdul Hamid Lahori
  • Shah Jahan Nama/Amal-i-salih by Inayat Khan/Muhammad Saleh Kamboh
  • Nushka i Dilkhusha by Bhimsen
  • Bernier, Francois, Travels in the Mogal Empire (1656-68), revised by V.A. Smith, Archibald Constable, Oford 1934.
  • Tavernier, Jean Baptiste, Travels in India, trs. and ed. by V.Ball, 2 Vols. Macmillan, 1889, 1925.
  • De Laet, Joannes, The Empire of the Great Mogol, trs. byHoyland and Banerjee, Bombay 1928.
  • Peter Mundy. Travels of Peter Mundy in Asia, ed. R.C. Temple, Hakluyt Society, London 1914.
  • Manucci, Niccolao, Storia do Mogor, Eng. trs. by W. Irvine, 4 vols. Hohn Murray, London 1906.
  • Manrique, Travels of Frey Sebastian Manrique, trs. by Eckford Luard, 2 Vols. Hakluyt Society, London 1927.
  • Lal, K.S. (1988). The Mughal Harem. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-85179-03-4. 
  • Begley, W, The Symbolic Role of Calligraphy on Three Imperial Mosques of Shah Jahan, Kaladarsana, 1978, pp. 7 - 18
  • Koch, Ebba [Aug 2006]. The Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra (Hardback), First (in English), Thames & Hudson Ltd, 288 pages. ISBN 0500342091. 

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... A page from the Padshah Nama showing a hunting scene Padshah Nama is a book written by Abdul Hamid Lahauri that is a major source of information about the Shah Jahans period. ... A page from the Padshah Nama showing a hunting scene Abdul Hamid Lahori was a traveller during the period of Shah Jahan who later became a court historian of Shah Jahan. ... Muhammad Saleh Kamboh (Urdu: ) also found written as Inayat Khan (Urdu: ), Salih Kamboh, Kanbo,Kanboh, Kanbuh, Kambuh[1] was the author of the Amal-i-Salih/ShahJahan Nama. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ...

External links

Preceded by
Jahangir
Mughal Emperor
1628–1658
Succeeded by
Aurangzeb
n ... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... The Mughal Empire was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent between the mid-16th century and the end of the 17th century. ... Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area... Combatants Mughal dynasty Delhi Sultanate Commanders Babur Sultan Ibrahim Lodhi Strength 10,000 Mughals & Pathans 5,000 allied Indian troops 30,000-40,000 troops 100 war elephants Casualties Low 15,000 - 20,000 The first battle of Panipat took place in northern India, and marked the beginning of the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Maratha Empire Durrani Empire Commanders Sadashivrao Bhau, Ibrahim Khan Gardi Ahmed Shah Durrani, Najib-ud-Daula, Shuja-ud-Daula Strength 40,000 cavalry, 200 pieces of artillery, 15,000 infantry, 15,000 Pindaris accompanied by 300,000 non-combatants (pilgrims and camp-followers 41,800 cavalry, 120-130 pieces... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... Humayuns tomb is a complex of buildings of Mughal architecture located in Nizamuddin east, New Delhi. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... View from Minto Park The Badshahi Mosque (Urdu: بادشاھی مسجد), or the Emperors Mosque, was built in 1673 by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. ... Alamgiri Gate - Main Entrance to Lahore Fort, with Hazuri Bagh Pavilion in foreground The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila (شاہى قلعه) is the citadel of the city of Lahore, in modern day Pakistan. ... The Delhi Fort also known as Lal Qilah, or Lal Qila, meaning the Red Fort, located in Delhi, India is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... For other uses, see Taj Mahal (disambiguation). ... The Shalimar Gardens (Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, were built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. ... The Pearl Mosque is a name given to certain structures in more than one country. ... Bibi Ka Maqbara Bibi Ka Maqbara was built by Prince Azam Shah, son of Emperor Aurangzeb, in the late 17th century as a loving tribute to his mother, Dilras Bano Begam. ... Ibrahim Lodhi (died April 21, 1526) was the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross, see Sher Shah (VC). ... MAHARANA PRATAP(1540-1597) The Grandson of the illustrious Rana Sanga. ... Hemuchandra or Hemu was an Indian military leader. ... // The early life Gokula or Gokul Singh was a Jat chieftain of village Sinsini near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजीराजे भोसले) (Born:February 19, 1627, Died: March 4, 1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Reign of Shah Jahan, 1628-1658 (1561 words)
Shah Jahan was an active patron of palaces and mosques.
From Shah Jahan to the end of the Mughal line the famous Red Fort was heart of the empire and the principal residence of the emperors.
Shah Jahan returned north to concentrate on his new capital at Shahjahanabad, while his son, the young prince Aurangzeb, was appointed viceroy and commander-in-chief of Mughal forces in the Deccan.
Shah Jahan (1181 words)
Shah Jahan was a Mogul emperor of India from 1628, till his son forced him to advocate the throne in 1658.
Shah Jahan was the son of the previous ruler of India Jahangir.
Shah Jahan is mostly remembered for his architecture contributions including the red fort, his gem studded peacock throne, Jama Masjid of Delhi and the most famous is the mausoleum to his wife the Taj Mahal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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