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Encyclopedia > Shah

Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. It is either actually used as a princely style or to render original Near Eastern styles. It also appears in various derived titles. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Turkey, Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria). ...

Contents

Word history

Shāh (شاه), Modern and Middle Persian Šāh (شاه), is descended from Old Persian xšāyaθiya, "king", cognate with Sanskrit क्षत्रिय (kšatriya) "noble warrior-king" or "dominion" and Greek krasthai "to acquire". No direct cognate of this word is known in Avestan, but the results in this case xši- "govern, rule" is found there. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ...


"Shah" is the third most common language in india, following singh 1singh,patel 2patel.it is mostly seen in ( Gujarat,Maharashtra )India. Singh is an ancient Indian name meaning Lion, dating back over 2000 years to ancient India. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


It was the title of coolness, including the Achaemenid dynasty which unified Persia and conquered it a vast intercontinental empire till it was overrun by Alexander of Macedon. The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was xšāyaθiya xšāyaθiyānām, "King of Kings", corresponding to Middle Persian šāhān šāh, literally "kings' king", and modern Persian shāhanshāh (شاهنشاه). In Greek this phrase was translated as "βασιλεύς τῶν βασιλέων (basileus tōn basilēōn)", "king of kings", in rank rather equivalent to Emperor. The Indian counterpart of Shahenshah was Rajadhiraja. Both were often shortened to their root, Shah viz. Basileus. King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ... King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ...


From the related word kshathra "realm, province" also descends kshathrapavan, literally "guardian of the realm", which in western languages became Satrap 'governor' via the Greek and Latin Satrapes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In English its use as title for the king of Persia is recorded since 1564, as shaw, and for long it remained common to render it in European languages by kingly rather than imperial titles. Via its Arabic form (also Shah) it was the root of the western words for chess and check. Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ...


Ruling Shahs

Nominal Shahs

Various Iranian monarchies, and other imitating that example, used the royal title Shah.


This has been the case in Afghanistan, but in great confusion- the style was used by local rulers, e.g. in Herat, or by the national King, by each time inconsistently alternating with other styles (for the central throne including Malik, rather equivalent Arabic for King, and Badshah, a Persian-language imperial title). Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Melik. ... Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a title sometimes applied to to a several historic monarchs, notably the rulers of Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and the Moghul Empire. ...


Subsidiary use

Shah-i-Bangalah was a subsidiary title, adopted by Sultan Shamsuddin Ilyas shah (1342-1357 AD), the Sultan of Bengal who united that state (the use of shah in the name itself, as here, is not titular, and rarely significant). Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Shah has predominatly been used in countries where words like "King" are used, but where English is not spoken.


Even non-Muslim dynasties could adopt this royal style. Thus Shah (or Shaha) is a title borne by the Hindu Maharajadhiraja (King of Kings) of Nepal and his male-line descendants, which was originally conferred as a title by the Muslim Sultan of Delhi on Kulananda Khan, after he made himself ruler of Kaski. Also borne by several families descended from rulers of certain Nepali vassal principalities. The word Maharaja (also spelled maharajah) is Hindi as well as ancient Sanskrit for high king (a karmadharaya from maha great and rajan king). Its use is primarily for Hindu potentates (ruler or sovereign). ... Kaski district, a part of Gandaki zone, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. ...


The following derived or compound titles designate an even higher rank than just Shah:


Shahanshah

Main article: Shahanshah

In western languages, the term Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Shāhanshāh (meaning King of Kings), usually shortened to Shāh is the term for an Iranian monarch and was used by most of the former rulers of the Iranian empires many nationalities of Iranian origin or under cultural influence. Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ...


The term of Shah or Shahanshah has roughly corresponded to Persia since the Achaemenid Persian Empire (which had succeeded and absorbed the Mede state) or properly Iranian Empire, after its conquest by Alexander the Great transposed in Greek as Basileus ton basileon, also often shortened to Basileus. Motto (official) Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (ancient) Kerdār-e nÄ«k, pendār-e nÄ«k, goftār-e nÄ«k (Persian) Noble deeds, noble thoughts, noble words Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Term used for Persia, Persian Empire or Iran. ...


The title is roughly equivalent in rank to a Western Emperor and is hence often translated as such in English and its equivalent in other languages. The Monarch of Persia (internally always called Iran) was technically the Emperor of the Persian Empire (later the Empire of Iran, as Iran was officially known until 1935). However until the Napoleonic era, when Persia was an enviable ally for Western powers eager to make the Ottoman Great Sultan release his hold on various -mainly Christian, European- parts of the Turkish empire, and Western (Christian) Emperors had obtained the Ottoman acknowledgement that their Western imperial styles were to be rendered in Turkish as Padishah, the Western practice was to consider 'King of Kings' a particular but royal title. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ...


The last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Shâhanshâh (literally "King of Kings") and in Western languages the rendering as "Emperor", during his coronation. He also styled his wife شاهبانو Shahbânu ("Empress"). One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until... Shahbanu (in Persian: شهبانو) means Empress in Persian. ...

  • In orthodox Georgia, Giorgi III, grandson of King Bagrat III (who expelled the Turks from the Eastern provinces, threw off his allegiance to Byzantium and unified all Georgia, establishing its rule over the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians,), was the first to assume the subsidiary titles of Shahanshah (like the Persian King of Kings) and Master of all the East and West. His reign, and that of his successor, his daughter Thamar the Great, are seen as the 'golden age' of Georgia; the titles of the following Georgian rulers varied significantly from reign to reign, especially while under Muslim and Russian domination, but the last enjoying the traditional titles, was "The Most High King (Mepe-Umaglesi) Irakli I, by the will of our Lord, Mepe-Mepeta ('King of Kings') of the Abkhazis, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and the Armenians, Shirvanshah and Shahanshah and Master of all the East and West", with the style of His Majesty (or His Splendour). However after (also orthodox) imperial Russia had established a protectorate over the 'Transcaucasian' kingdom of Georgia, the Emperor recognised the following Russified styles and titles as of 24 September 1783 old style for its Hereditary Sovereign and Prince (now in fact a Russian vassal): The Most Serene Tsar (i.e. King) (reign name), by the will of our Lord, King (Tsar) of Kartli, King of Kakheti, Hereditary Prince of Samtzkhé-Saatabago, Ruling Prince of Kazakh, Borchalo, Shamshadilo, Kak, Shaki, and Shirvan, Prince and Lord of Ganja and Erivan, with the style of His Majesty, but without the now too imperial subsidiary titles.

Giorgi III (გიორგი III) (d. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm... King of Kings or some literal parallel in various languages is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...

Shah bahadur

In the Mughal tradition, the addition of bahadur raises any title one rank, so this means something untranslatable such as 'King first class'. Yet this title was adopted as part of the full style of the former Nawab (vassal 'governor') of Awadh (the richest remaining province in the Mughal empire, and geographically close to its Delhi capital; often Oudh in English) and Mughal 'regent plenipotentiary (de facto Viceroy) when he followed the British advice to declare himself independent from the completely weakened Mughal court- only to become the political toy of the eager coloniser. However the crucial element is his majestic full style -Hazrat Khalid, (personal reign name and titles) Shah Bahadur, Padshah-i-Oudh- is the imperial title Padishah, which could not conceivably be allowed to be assumed by a vassal. Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... Location of Awadh Awadh (Devanagari अवध) (also known in various British historical texts as Oudh, Oundh or Oude) is a region in the center of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before Independence known as the United Provinces of Oudh and Agra. ...


Related and subsidiary princely titles

Ruler styles

  • The title Padishah 'Great King' (see both articles) was also adopted from Iranians (Persians) by the Ottomans (the 'Great Sultan' was the Sunni counterpart of the Shiah Shahanshah) for their Emperor, and by various other Islamic Monarchs claiming imperial rank, such as the Indian Mughal (among them only the Ottomans would also claim the caliphate, full sovereign authority over universal (or at least Sunni) Islam, like the prophet).
  • The Turkish title Hünkar is a contraction of the Middle Persian Khudavendigar, originally an epithet of semi-divine status. It must have been highly respected not to be swept away by Islam before the Ottomans could adopt it as a subsidiary title in the full style of their Great Sultan (following directly after Padishah)
  • Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman Sultan Khan was Shah-i-Alam Panah 'King, refuge of the world'.
  • Some Monarchs were known by a contraction of the kingdom's name with Shah, such as Khwarezmshah, ruler of the shortly mighty Muslim realm of Khwarezmia, or the more modest Azeiri Shirvanshah of Shirvan (later a modest khanate).

History of Islamic monarchies Padishah, Badishah, or Badshah is a very prestigious title derived from the Persian word Pādishāh, which is based on the better-known title Shāh King, assumed by several Islamic monarchs, notably these rulers, the first three commanding major Muslim empires: The Shahanshah of... Myst franchise Games Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Myst V: End of Ages Uru: Ages Beyond Myst Ages of: Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru Novels Myst: The Book of Atrus   Tiana   Dni Comic Books #0   #1 Miscellaneous Dni Ages   The... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran; for Central Asian Persians, see Tajiks. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilaafah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ...

Shahzade

'Shahzade (Persian شاهزاده Šāhzādé) in the realm of a Shah (or a more lofty derived ruler style), a prince of blood were logically called Shahzada as the term is derived from Shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -zāde or -zāda, "son, descendant"; see "Prince" article for other uses of the suffix. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...


However the precise full styles can differ 'creatively' in the court traditions of each Shah's 'kingdom'.

  • Thus in Oudh, only Sons of the Sovereign Shah bahadur (see above) were by birth-right styled Shahzada (personal title), Mirza (personal name) Bahadur, though this style could also nominatim extended to individual grandsons and even further relatives; other male descendants of the sovereign, in the male line were merely styled Mirza (personal name) or (personal name) Mirza.

Furthermore the title was also used for princes of the blood of a ruler who used an alternative royal style, e.g. the Malik (Arabic for King, so equivalent) of Afghanistan In the Ottoman dynasty of imperial Turkey, it was part of two styles: Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Melik. ...

  • male descendants of a Sovereign in the male line: Daulatlu Najabatlu Shahzada Sultan (given name) Hazretleri Effendi; except the crown prince (style Daulatlu Najabatlu Vali Ahad-i-Sultanat (given name) Effendi Hazlatlari), who was however addressed as Shahzada Hazratlari (or Shahzade Hazretleri) 'Imperial Highness'.
  • sons of Imperial Princesses: Sultanzada (given name) Bey-Effendi.

This could even apply to non-Muslim dynasties, e.g. the younger sons of the ruling Sikh Maharaja of Punjab (in Lahore; a Maharajadhiraja): Shahzada (personal name) Singh Bahadur, while the heir Apparent was styled Tika Sahib Bahadur

  • The corruption Shahajada 'Shah's son', taken from the Mughal title Shahzada, is the usual princely title borne by the grandsons and male of a Nepalese sovereign (a Hindu Maharajadhiraja; but cfr. Shaha above), in the male line.
For the Heir to a 'Persian-style' Shah's royal throne, more specific titles were used, containing the key element Vali Ahad, usually in addition to Shahzada where his junior siblings enjoyed this style.

The word Maharaja (also spelled maharajah) is Hindi as well as ancient Sanskrit for high king (a karmadharaya from maha great and rajan king). Its use is primarily for Hindu potentates (ruler or sovereign). ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ...

Shahbanu

'Shahbanu (Persian شهبانو, Šāhbānū): Persian term using the word Shah and the Persian suffix -banu ("lady"): Empress, in modern times official title of Empress Farah Pahlavi. Shahbanu (in Persian: شهبانو) means Empress in Persian. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Farah Pahlavi Empress Farah of Iran during the visit of U.S. president Richard Nixon to Iran on May 30, 1972. ...


Shahdokht

'Shahdokht (Persian شاهدخت Šāhdoxt, is also another term derived from Shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -dokht "daughter, female descendant", to address the Princess of the imperial households (see: Princess). Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Princess is the feminine form of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). ...


Other princely compound

  • the title of Shah-i-Buland Iqbal and a seat on a gold throne by the side of the Emperor 's throne were awarded on 3 February 1655 to Shahzada Dara Shikuh, eldest son of the Padshah Khurram Shah Jehan I (d. 22 October 1666 ), at various times Subahdar (governor) of Allahabad, Punjab, Gujarat, Multan and Kabul; yet he did not succeed as he was put to death on the night of 30-31 August 1659 in Delhi

Subahdar was a title given to governors of provinces in the times of the Mughal dynasty, now bestowed upon native officers in the Indian army holding rank equivalent to an English captaincy. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...

Other uses

As many titles, the word Shah is also often used in names this usage almost always has political and aristocratic meaning attached.


It is also a popular West Indian surname.


See also

  • Aryamehr Pahlavi additional imperial title
  • Iranian monarchy
  • Shahanshah, the correct title for what is often wrongfully reffered to in Western Languages as the 'Shah'
  • Mirza, also a princely style, but generally awarded to further relatives of the ruler then Shahzada
  • Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Last Shah of Iran

Aryamehr (Persian: آریامهر) was the title used in the Pahlavi dynasty by Shahanshah Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of the Persian Empire to the establishment of modern day Iran. ... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Mirza Sayeef Mirza exists in the united states. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎ Moḥammad Rez̤ā Pahlavī) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16...

Sources and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Reign of Shah Jahan, 1628-1658 (1561 words)
The expenditures resulting from Shah Jahan's failed attempts at frontier expansion, as well as his insatiable appetite for new and grand architecture, were appreciable factors in the empire's eventual financial crisis.
From Shah Jahan to the end of the Mughal line the famous Red Fort was heart of the empire and the principal residence of the emperors.
Shah Jahan returned north to concentrate on his new capital at Shahjahanabad, while his son, the young prince Aurangzeb, was appointed viceroy and commander-in-chief of Mughal forces in the Deccan.
Shah - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1345 words)
Thus Shah (or Shaha) is a title borne by the Hindu Maharajadhiraja (King of Kings) of Nepal and his male-line descendants, which was originally conferred as a title by the Muslim Sultan of Delhi on Kulananda Khan, after he made himself ruler of Kaski.
In western languages the term Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Shāhanshāh (meaning King of Kings), usually shortened to Shāh is the term for an Iranian monarch and was used by most of the former rulers of the Iranian empires many nationalities of Iranian origin or under cultural influence.
Shah is a common Indian surname (family name), especially in the Gujarati language and Kutchi language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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