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Encyclopedia > Sexually transmitted disease
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A64.
ICD-9 099.9
DiseasesDB 27130
MeSH D012749

A sexually transmitted disease (STD) or venereal disease (VD), is an illness that has a significant probability of transmission between humans or animals by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. Increasingly, the term sexually transmitted infection (STI) is used, as it has a broader range of meaning; a person may be infected, and may potentially infect others, without showing signs of disease. Some STIs can also be transmitted via use of an IV drug needle after its use by an infected person, as well as through childbirth or breastfeeding. Sexually transmitted infections have been well known for hundreds of years. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Look up needle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Suckling redirects here. ...

Contents

Classification and terminology

Until the 1990s, such afflictions were commonly known as venereal diseases: Veneris is the Latin genitive form of the name Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Social disease was another euphemism. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli c. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


Public health officials originally introduced the term sexually transmitted infection, which clinicians are increasingly using alongside the term sexually transmitted disease in order to distinguish it from the former. According to Ethiopian Aids Resource Center FAQ - Are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) different from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?, "Sometimes the terms STI and STD are used interchangeably. This can be confusing and not always accurate, so it helps first to understand the difference between infection and disease. Infection simply means that a germ — virus, bacteria, or parasite — that can cause disease or sickness is present inside a person’s body. An infected person does not necessarily have any symptoms or signs that the virus or bacteria is actually hurting his or her body; they do not necessarily feel sick. A disease means that the infection is actually causing the infected person to feel sick, or to notice something is wrong. For this reason, the term STI — which refers to infection with any germ that can cause an STD, even if the infected person has no symptoms — is a much broader term than STD." The distinction being made, however, is closer to that between a colonization and an infection, rather than between an infection and a disease. Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Germ can mean: Microorganism, especially a pathogenic one; see Germ theory of disease. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


Specifically, the term STD refers only to infections that are causing symptoms. Because most of the time people do not know that they are infected with an STD until they start showing symptoms of disease, most people use the term STD, even though the term STI is also appropriate in many cases. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Moreover, the term sexually transmissible disease is sometimes used since it is less restrictive in consideration of other factors or means of transmission. For instance, meningitis is transmissible by means of sexual contact but is not labeled as an STI because sexual contact is not the primary vector for the pathogens that cause meningitis. This discrepancy is addressed by the probability of infection by means other than sexual contact. In general, an STI is an infection that has a negligible probability of transmission by means other than sexual contact, but has a realistic means of transmission by sexual contact (more sophisticated means — blood transfusion, sharing of hypodermic needles —are not taken into account). Thus, one may presume that, if a person is infected with an STI, e.g., chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, it was transmitted to him/her by means of sexual contact. Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... Chlamydia is a common term for Chlamydiae. ... The clap redirects here. ... The Herpes simplex virus infection (common names: herpes, cold sores) is a common, contagious, incurable, and in some cases sexually transmitted disease caused by a double-stranded DNA virus. ...


The English language has short words for two of the most common: "pox" (syphilis) and "the clap" (gonorrhea). Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... The clap redirects here. ...


Pathology

Many STIs are (more easily) transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis, vulva, and (less often)[citation needed] the mouth. The visible membrane covering the head of the penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of the mouth). Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain pathogens into the body. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The vulva (from Latin, vulva, plural vulvae or vulvas; see etymology) is the region of the external genital organs of the female, including the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, bulb of the vestibule, vestibule of the vagina, greater and lesser vestibular glands, and vaginal orifice. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... The glans penis (or simply glans) is the sensitive tip of the penis. ... Mucus cells. ... For other uses, see Lip (disambiguation). ... This article is about the organ. ...


This is one reason that the probability of transmitting many infections is far higher from sex than by more casual means of transmission, such as non-sexual contact—touching, hugging, shaking hands—but it is not the only reason. Although mucous membranes exist in the mouth as in the genitals, many STIs seem to be easier to transmit through oral sex than through deep kissing. According to this chart [1], many infections that are easily transmitted from the mouth to the genitals or from the genitals to the mouth, are much harder to transmit from one mouth to another. With HIV, genital fluids happen to contain much more of the pathogen than saliva. Some infections labeled as STIs can be transmitted by direct skin contact. Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples. KSHV, on the other hand, may be transmitted by deep-kissing but also when saliva is used as a sexual lubricant, which is common among gay men engaging in anal intercourse. The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... This article is about the organ. ... This article is about the disease. ... HPV is an initialism that can mean : Human Powered Vehicle Human papillomavirus a type of STD High Production Volume Chemicals Health Purchasing Victoria Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ...


Depending on the STD, a person may still be able to spread the infection if no signs of disease are present. For example, a person is much more likely to spread herpes infection when blisters are present (STD) than when they are absent (STI). However, a person can spread HIV infection (STI) at any time, even if he/she has not developed symptoms of AIDS (STD). ... For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


All sexual behaviors that involve contact with another person or the bodily fluids of another person should be considered to contain some risk of transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Most attention has focused on controlling HIV, which causes AIDS, but each STD presents a different situation. This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


As may be noted from the name, sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted from one person to another by certain sexual activities rather than being actually caused by those sexual activities. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa or viruses are still the causative agents. It is not possible to catch any sexually transmitted disease from a sexual activity with a person who is not carrying a disease; conversely, a person who has an STD got it from contact (sexual or otherwise) with someone who had it, or his/her bodily fluids. Some STDs such as HIV can be transmitted from mother to child either during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Although the likelihood of transmitting various diseases by various sexual activities varies a great deal, in general, all sexual activities between two (or more) people should be considered as being a two-way route for the transmission of STDs, i.e., "giving" or "receiving" are both risky.


Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered an absolute safeguard. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such as doctors, haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk. Safe sex (also called safer sex) is a term describing practices designed to reduce the risk of sustaining or imparting sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) (also known as sexually-transmitted diseases or STDs in the US). ... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... -1... Haemophilia (also spelled as hemophilia, from the Greek haima blood and philia to love[1]) is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the bodys ability to control blood clotting or coagulation. ...


Recent epidemiological studies have investigated the networks that are defined by sexual relationships between individuals, and discovered that the properties of sexual networks are crucial to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, assortative mixing between people with large numbers of sexual partners seems to be an important factor. Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... A sexual network is a social network that is defined by the sexual relationships within a set of individuals. ... Assortative mixing is a kind of sexual network characteristic that influences epidemic spread, mainly HIV. It simply means the extent to which individuals choose sexual partners who are similar in age, race, sexual orientation, marital status, socioeconomic status, religion, or locale. ...


It is possible to be an asymptomatic carrier of sexually transmitted diseases. In particular, sexually transmitted diseases in women often cause the serious condition of pelvic inflammatory disease. A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. ...


Prevalence

STD incidence rates remain high in most of the world, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances that can rapidly render patients with many STDs noninfectious and cure most. In many cultures, changing sexual mores and oral contraceptive use have eliminated traditional sexual restraints, especially for women, and both physicians and patients have difficulty dealing openly and candidly with sexual issues. Additionally, worldwide dissemination of drug-resistant bacteria (eg, penicillin-resistant gonococci) reflects misuse of antibiotics and spread of resistant clones by mobile populations. The effect of travel is most dramatically illustrated by the rapid spread of the AIDS virus (HIV-1) from Africa to Europe and the Americas in the late 1970s.[1] For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ...


Commonly reported prevalences of STIs among sexually active adolescent girls both with and without lower genital tract symptoms include chlamydia trachomatis (10 to 25%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (3 to 18%), syphilis (0 to 3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (8 to 16%), and herpes simplex virus (2 to 12%).[citation needed] Among adolescent boys with no symptoms of urethritis, isolation rates include C. trachomatis (9 to 11%) and N. gonorrhoeae (2 to 3%).[citation needed] Chlamydia is a common term for Chlamydiae. ...


In 1996, WHO estimated that more than 1 million people were being infected daily. About 60% of these infections occur in young people <25 years of age, and of these 30% are <20 years. Between the ages of 14 and 19, STDs occur more frequently in girls than boys by a ratio of nearly 2:1; this equalizes by age 20. An estimated 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis occurred throughout the world in 1999.[2][3] Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Prevention

Main article: Safe sex

The most effective way to prevent sexual transmission of STIs is to avoid contact of body parts or fluids which can lead to transfer, not necessarily any sexual activity with an infected partner. No contact equals no risk, not all sexual activities involve contact, such as cybersex, phonesex or masturbation from a distance are methods of avoiding contact. Ideally, both partners should get tested for STIs before initiating sexual contact, or if a partner engaged in contact with someone else, but even then, certain STIs, particularly certain persistent viruses like HPV, may be impossible to detect with current medical procedures as they may be asymptomatic. Prevention is also key in addressing viral STIs such as HIV & herpes, as they are currently incurable. Many diseases that establish permanent infections can so occupy the immune system that other diseases become more easily transmitted. Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... Webcam Cybersex, computer sex, internet sex or net sex is a virtual sex encounter in which two or more persons connected remotely via a computer network send one another sexually explicit messages describing a sexual experience. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ...


Vaccines are available that protect against some viral STIs, such as Hepatitis B and some types of HPV. Vaccination before initiation of sexual contact is advised to assure maximal protection.


The Innate immune system led by defensins against HIV can prevent transmission of HIV when viral counts are very low, but if busy with other viruses or overwhelmed, HIV can establish itself. Certain viral STI's also greatly increase the risk of death for HIV infected patients. The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. ... Defensins are anti-microbial peptides, consisting of 28-42 amino acids including six to eight conserved cysteine residues. ...


Condoms

Condoms only provide protection when used properly as a barrier and to and from the area that it covers. Uncovered areas are still susceptible to many STD's. In the case of HIV, sexual transmission routes almost always involve the penis, as HIV cannot spread through unbroken skin, thus properly shielding the insertive penis with a properly worn condom from the vagina and anus effectively stops HIV transmission. An infected fluid to broken skin borne direct transmission of HIV would not be considered "sexually transmitted", but can still theoretically occur during sexual contact, this can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when having open bleeding wounds. Other STI's, even viral infections, can be prevented with the use of latex condoms as a barrier. Some microorganisms and viruses are small enough to pass through the pores in natural skin condoms, but are still too large to pass through latex condoms. A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ...


Condoms are designed, tested, and manufactured to never fail if used properly. There has not been one documented case of an HIV transmission due to an improperly manufactured condom.[dubious ] However, there have been cases of condom recall, as in a case in South Africa.[4]


Proper usage entails:

  • Not putting the condom on too tight at the end, and leaving 1.5 cm (3/4 inch) room at the tip for ejaculation. Putting the condom on snug can and often does lead to failure.
  • Wearing a condom too loose can defeat the barrier.
  • Avoiding inverting, spilling a condom once worn, whether it has ejaculate in it or not, even for a second.
  • Avoiding condoms made of substances other than latex or polyurethane, as they don't protect against HIV.
  • Avoiding the use of oil based lubricants (or anything with oil in it) with latex condoms, as oil can eat holes into them.
  • Using flavored condoms for oral sex only, as the sugar in the flavoring can lead to yeast infections if used to penetrate.

Not following the first five guidelines above perpetuates the common misconception that condoms aren't tested or designed properly. Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ...


In order to best protect oneself and the partner from STI's, the old condom and its contents should be assumed to be still infectious. Therefore the old condom must be properly disposed of. A new condom should be used for each act of intercourse, as multiple usage increases the chance of breakage, defeating the primary purpose as a barrier. Defeated barrier equals potential transmission.


Testing

Main article: STD testing

An STD test is a medical test for the presence of any of a number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ...

Treatment History

American poster propaganda targeted at World War II soldiers and sailors appealed to their patriotism in urging them to protect themselves. The text at the bottom of the poster reads, "You can't beat the Axis if you get VD." Images of women were used to catch the eye on many VD posters.
American poster propaganda targeted at World War II soldiers and sailors appealed to their patriotism in urging them to protect themselves. The text at the bottom of the poster reads, "You can't beat the Axis if you get VD." Images of women were used to catch the eye on many VD posters.
Spanish Civil War poster, produced by the Republican government, saying "Avoid venereal diseases ... As dangerous as enemy bullets"
Spanish Civil War poster, produced by the Republican government, saying "Avoid venereal diseases ... As dangerous as enemy bullets"

Prior to the invention of modern medicines, sexually transmitted diseases were generally incurable, and treatment was limited to treating the symptoms of the disease. The first voluntary hospital for venereal diseases was founded in 1746 at London Lock Hospital.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1032x1381, 681 KB) Summary Source URL: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1032x1381, 681 KB) Summary Source URL: http://www. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Stdspain. ... Image File history File links Stdspain. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... The London Lock Hospital was the first venereal disease clinic, being the most famous and first of the Lock Hospitals opening on January 31st 1747. ...


The first effective treatment for a sexually transmitted disease was salvarsan, a treatment for syphilis. With the discovery of antibiotics, a large number of sexually transmitted diseases became easily curable, and this, combined with effective public health campaigns against STDs, led to a public perception during the 1960s and 1970s that they have ceased to be a serious medical threat. Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


During this period, the importance of contact tracing in treating STIs was recognized. By tracing the sexual partners of infected individuals, testing them for infection, treating the infected and tracing their contacts in turn, STI clinics could be very effective at suppressing infections in the general population. In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. ...


In the 1980s, first genital herpes and then AIDS emerged into the public consciousness as sexually transmitted diseases that could not be cured by modern medicine. AIDS in particular has a long asymptomatic period — during which time HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes AIDS) can replicate and the disease can be transmitted to others — followed by a symptomatic period, which leads rapidly to death unless treated. Recognition that AIDS threatened a global pandemic led to public information campaigns and the development of treatments that allow AIDS to be managed by suppressing the replication of HIV for as long as possible. Contact tracing continues to be an important measure, even when diseases are incurable, as it helps to contain infection. The Herpes simplex virus infection (common names: herpes, cold sores) is a common, contagious, incurable, and in some cases sexually transmitted disease caused by a double-stranded DNA virus. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ...


Types and their pathogenic causes

Most of the diseases on this list are most commonly transmitted sexually. Some are commonly transmitted in other ways as well; for example, HIV/AIDS is also commonly transmitted through the sharing of infected needles by drug users, while SARS, which can be spread through casual contact such as coughing and sneezing, is very often not associated with sexual activity. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sars may refer to any of the following: Severe acute respiratory syndrome, commonly abbreviated as SARS Michael Sars, a Norwegian biologist, father of Georg Sars Georg Sars, a Norwegian biologist, son of Michael Sars Special Administrative Regions, commonly abbreviated as SARs Sars, Perm Krai, an urban settlement in Perm Krai...


Bacterial

Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Binomial name Haemophilus ducreyi A chancroid is an STD characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ... Binomial name Neisseria gonorrhoeae Zopf, 1885 Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the disease gonorrhoea. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Chlamydia is a common term for Chlamydiae. ... Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is an inflammation of the urethra which is not caused by gonorrheal infection. ... Binomial name Ureaplasma urealyticum Shepard et al. ... Mycoplasma hominis is a bacteria present in the vagina that is thought to be a cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus (pronounced , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ...

Fungal

Jock itch, or in medical Latin officially tinea cruris (vermin of the crotch), is a fungal infection of the groin region. ... Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a fungal infection of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is probably the most common. ...

Viral

  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) through skin to skin contact, saliva, not only sexually.
  • Hepatitis B.
    (Note: Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E are transmitted via the fæcal-oral route, not sexually; Hepatitis C is rarely sexually transmittable,[7]and the route of transmission of Hepatitis D is uncertain, but may include sexual transmission.[8] [9] [10])

Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... “HBV” redirects here. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Many diseases can be passed when the stool (or remnants thereof) of one host ends up in someone elses mouth. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... This article is about the disease. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2) This article is about the virus. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a frequently mutating retrovirus that attacks the human immune system and which has been shown to cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... HPV redirects here. ... Genital warts or (or condyloma) is a very contagious sexually transmitted disease. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... Infectious mononucleosis (also known as mono, the kissing disease, Pfeiffers disease, and, in British English, glandular fever) is a disease seen most commonly in adolescents and young adults, characterized by fever, sore throat and fatigue. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ...

Parasites

Phthirus pubis Pubic lice (Phthirus pubis), also known as crabs , are one of the many varieties of lice (singular louse) specialized to live on different areas of different animals. ... ... Binomial name De Geer, 1778 Sarcoptes scabiei is a parasitic arthropod which burrows into human skin and causes scabies. ...

Protozoal

Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Binomial name Trichomonas vaginalis (Donné 1836) Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries. ...

Sexually transmitted enteric Infections

Various bacterial (Shigella, Campylobacter, or Salmonella), viral (Hepatitis A), or parasitic (Giardia or amoeba) pathogens are transmitted by sexual practices that promote anal-oral contamination. Sharing sex toys without washing or multiple partnered barebacking can promote anal-anal contamination. Although the bacterial pathogens may coexist with or cause proctitis, they usually produce symptoms (diarrhoea, fever, bloating, nausea, and abdominal pain) suggesting disease more proximal in the GI tract. Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ... Species C. fetus C. jejuni Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... For other uses, see Amoeba (disambiguation). ... Bareback is a term that originated in gay slang to describe acts of unprotected anal sex. ... Proctitis (Noun) Inflammation of the rectum. ...


Sexually transmissible oral infections

Common colds, influenza, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Oral Herpes and the yeast Candida albicans can all be transmitted through the oral route. For the Codename: Kids Next Door character with this name, see Common Cold. ... Flu redirects here. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus (pronounced , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... Binomial name Candida albicans (C.P. Robin) Berkhout 1923 Synonyms Candida stellatoidea [1] Candida albicans is a diploid asexual fungus (a form of yeast), and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and vaginal infections in humans. ...


See also

A microbicide is any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the infectivity of microbes, viruses or bacteria. ... Within the framework of WHOs definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life. ... A reproductive system disease is any disease that impairs the ability to reproduce. ... A sexual health clinic is a clinic that specializes in treatment of sex-related problems. ... In medicine, transmission is the passing of a disease from an infected individual or group to a previously uninfected individual or group. ... The STD Wizard is an publicly available expert system for determining which screening tests, vaccinations, and evaluations are recommended, related to sexually transmitted diseases. ... Vulvovaginal health is the health and sanitation of the human female vulva and vagina. ... Scanning electron microscope of a number of Leptospira sp. ...

References

  1. ^ Mary-Ann Shafer, Anna-Barbara Moscicki (2006). "Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2006.": 1–8. 
  2. ^ STD Statistics Worldwide
  3. ^ U.S. Medicine Information Central
  4. ^ Condom recall hits South African AIDS campaign - CNN.com
  5. ^ Archives in London and the M25 area (AIM25) London Lock Hospital records
  6. ^ Cook H, Furuya E, Larson E, Vasquez G, Lowy F (2007). "Heterosexual transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". Clin Infect Dis 44 (3): 410–3. doi:10.1086/510681. PMID 17205449. 
  7. ^ Workowski K, Berman S (2006). "Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006.". MMWR Recomm Rep 55 (RR-11): 1–94. PMID 16888612. 
  8. ^ Wu J, Chen C, Sheen I, Lee S, Tzeng H, Choo K (1995). "Evidence of transmission of hepatitis D virus to spouses from sequence analysis of the viral genome.". Hepatology 22 (6): 1656–60. PMID 7489970. 
  9. ^ Farci P. "Delta hepatitis: an update.". J Hepatol 39 Suppl 1: S212–9. PMID 14708706. 
  10. ^ Shukla N, Poles M (2004). "Hepatitis B virus infection: co-infection with hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.". Clin Liver Dis 8 (2): 445–60, viii. PMID 15481349. 
  11. ^ Alzheimer's linked to cold sores: study - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ... The New Zealand Dermatological Society is a medical organization best known outside New Zealand for its DermNet website, which provides photographs and descriptions of many skin conditions. ... The cover of the 2005 edition, calling itself a new edition for a new era. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This list of sex positions includes descriptions of various forms of sexual intercourse and other sexual acts between people. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... A person performing anilingus. ... Peter Fendi, 1835 Carvings at Khajuraho, an ancient Hindu Temple near Delhi, India This content has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. ... Sexual sublimation, also known as sexual transmutation, is a method used to reportedly transform the sexual energy into higher creative outlets in order to faciliate spiritual awakening. ... Bareback is a term that originated in gay slang to describe acts of unprotected sex, especially anal sex. ... Saucy Postcard 1905 - 1915 Dirty talk is a dysphemism for a lovers practice of using graphic word imagery to heighten sexual pleasure before and during the sex act. ... In a sexual context, a facial or facial cumshot is the slang term for the sexual activity in which one person directs an ejaculation of semen onto the face of another person, often following oral sex, intercourse, or other stimulation. ... For other uses, see Fingering (disambiguation). ... Fisting or fist fucking (FF) is a sexual activity that involves inserting the hand and forearm into the vagina or anus. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... Johann Nepomuk Geiger, watercolor, 1840. ... Non-penetrative sex (also known as outercourse) is sexual activity without vaginal, anal, and possibly oral penetration, as opposed to intercourse. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Intercrural sex. ... Adult entertainment is entertainment restricted from people under a specified age in by a community, religious group, or government. ... An artificial vagina used to collect semen from horses for use in artificial insemination An artificial vagina is a device designed to simulate the female sex organ. ... For other uses, see Dildo (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Personal lubricants are specialized lubricants which serve to reduce friction with the vagina, the anus, or other body parts. ... A spanking paddle is a usually wooden instrument with a long, flat face and narrow neck, so called because it is roughly shaped like the homonymous piece of sports equipment, but existing in more varied sizes and dimensions, (length, width and thickness) used to administer a spanking to the buttocks... Porn redirects here. ... Sex dolls should not be confused with anatomically precise dolls. ... A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ... Front window of a Tokyo sex shop advertising adult toys A sex shop is a shop that sells products such as sex toys, pornography, erotic lingerie, erotic books, and safer sex products such as condoms and dental dams. ... Adult video games are video games which have significant sexual content (like adult movies), and are therefore intended for an adult audience. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Satyriasis redirects here. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Roman oil lamp depicting coitus more ferarum Erotic depictions include paintings, sculpture, photographs, dramatic arts, music and writings that show scenes of a sexual nature. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Sexual identity is a term that, like sex, has two distinctively different meanings. ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any... Obscenity in Latin obscenus, meaning foul, repulsive, detestable, (possibly derived from ob caenum, literally from filth). The term is most often used in a legal context to describe expressions (words, images, actions) that offend the prevalent sexual morality of the time. ... This article is about a form of sexual violence. ... Bad Touch redirects here. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... This article is about human physiological erection. ... Insemination is the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female. ... An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and may be experienced by both males and females. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Turn on redirects here. ... Collars are a commonly used symbol of BDSM and can be ornamental or functional. ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Look up paraphilia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Whore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Religion and sexuality (disambiguation). ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... Sexual abstinence is the practice of voluntarily refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity. ... In a species that reproduces sexually, sexual attraction is an attraction to other members of the same species for sexual or erotic activity. ... Sexual ethics is a sub-category of ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of human sexual behavior, sexual intercourse in particular. ... Sexual objectification is objectification of a person. ... A sex surrogate is a member of a sex therapy team who will engage in intimate physical and often sexual relations with a client. ... Sex tourism is travel to engage in sexual intercourse or sexual activity with prostitutes, and is typically undertaken internationally by tourists from wealthier countries. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... Sexual slang is any slang term which makes reference to sex, the sexual organs, or matters closely related to them. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... Binomial name Haemophilus ducreyi A chancroid is an STD characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. ... The term Chlamydia refers to an infection by any one of the species in the bacterial genus, Chlamydia—Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia suis or Chlamydia muridarum—but of these, only C. trachomatis is found in humans. ... Binomial name Chlamydia trachomatis Busacca, 1935 Chlamydia trachomatis is a species of the chlamydiae, a group of obligately intracellular bacteria. ... Granuloma inguinale or Donovanosis is a bacterial disease caused by the organism Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. ... Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), also known as lymphopathia venerea, tropical bubo, climatic bubo, strumous bubo, poradenitis inguinales, Durand-Nicolas-Favre disease and lymphogranuloma inguinale, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... The clap redirects here. ... Binomial name Neisseria gonorrhoeae Zopf, 1885 Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the disease gonorrhoea. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Binomial name Ureaplasma urealyticum Shepard et al. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as trich, is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects 7. ... Binomial name Trichomonas vaginalis (Donné 1836) Trichomonas vaginalis, an anaerobic, parasitic flagellated protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, and is the most common pathogenic protozoan infection of humans in industrialized countries. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ... Binomial name (L., 1758, originally Pediculus pubis) The pubic or crab louse (Phthirus pubis) is a parasitic insect which spends its entire life on human hair and feeds exclusively on blood. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... HPV redirects here. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This article is about the disease. ... Species Herpes simplex virus 1 (HWJ-1) Herpes simplex virus 2 (HWJ-2) This article is about the virus. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... Inflammation of the tissues of the cervix is known as cervicitis. ... Epididymitis is a medical condition in which the epididymis becomes inflamed. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is an inflammation of the urethra which is not caused by gonorrheal infection. ... Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... Proctitis (Noun) Inflammation of the rectum. ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
STD Facts - Genital Herpes (1111 words)
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2).
The surest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact, or to be in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and is known to be uninfected.
Genital ulcer diseases can occur in both male and female genital areas that are covered or protected by a latex condom, as well as in areas that are not covered.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (3624 words)
Sexually transmitted diseases have been troubling human beings for thousands of years, for example in the times of the New Testament genital warts were known as figs.
It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and in the female the organism affects the cervix and then spreads up in to the fallopian tubes where it severely scars and blocks the fallopian tubes leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy.
Sexual transmission of this disease is promoted by certain factors such as being a female sexual partner of a male who is infectious or being homosexual and having anal sex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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mustaphajakema@yahoo.com
5th May 2011
This type of topics is really educative.

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