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Encyclopedia > Sexual revolution

The sexual revolution refers to the well documented changes in sexual morality and sexual behavior throughout the Western world that continue to evolve. Macy Gray (born Natalie Renee McIntyre on September 6, 1967[1]) is an American Grammy Award winning R&B, soul, and neo soul singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress, famed for her raspy voice and a singing style heavily influenced by Billie Holiday and Betty Davis. ... Sexual Revolution was the second and final single release from singer Macy Grays second studio album The Id, released in 2001. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Occident redirects here. ...


The Feminist Movement and The Gay Rights Movement are both closely related - if not the founding basis, and most enduring and successful elements of the sexual revolution.


Prior to the Sexual Revolution, Gay Civil Marriage in Massachusetts and Sexual Orientation/Affectional protections in the workplace may not have been realized.


The Sexual Revolution spurred the equality gains of women in the worlds dating and marriage.


In general use, the sexual revolution is attributed to the changing trends in social thought, witnessed from the 1960s into the early 1970s. [citation needed] Although the term has been used at least since the late 1920s.[1]


One suggested trigger for the modern revolution was the development of the birth control pill in 1960, which gave women access to easy and reliable contraception. Another likely factor was vast improvements in obstetrics, which greatly reduced the number of women who die in childbirth and thus increases the life expectancy of women. Other data suggest the "revolution" was more directly influenced by the financial independence gained by many women who entered the workforce during and after World War II, making the revolution more about individual equality rather than biological independence. Many people, however, feel that one specific cause cannot be selected for this large phenomenon.[2] Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Parturition redirects here. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Counter forces such as Fraenkel (1992) claim that the "sexual revolution" that the experiences of the West since the late 60s, is indeed a misconception and that sex is not actually enjoyed freely, it is just observed in all the fields of culture (that's a repressive desublimation [3]). In his writing Marcuse explores the concept that Establishment sanctioned forms of sensual release, what he calls "repressive desublimation", complete our enslavement on the instinctual level. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Vicarious enjoyment of violence (through TV and movies), relaxed social mores and commercialized forms of mass culture (professional sports, concerts, etc.) tie us libidinally to the Establishment capitalist system. After a weekend of such sensual release we return docilely to our work stations. We sin for pleasure and work for redemption,2 all within the parameters established by our “institutional fathers”:


The relaxation of sexual taboos alleviates the sense of guilt and binds (though with considerable ambivalence) the “free” individuals libidinally to the institutionalized fathers. They are powerful but also tolerant fathers, whose management of the nation and its economy delivers and protects the liberties of the citizens.


Marcuse expanded the Freudian concept of the “internalization of authority” from the individual to a cultural scale to explain how our instinctual erotic drives are transformed both through sublimation and repressive desublimation until the work ethic and altered "Pleasure Principle" of the consumer society have become second nature: “biological.”


In order to move from that to an actual sexual liberation, it is necessary a change in our mental structures and our moral inhibitions. Social inhibition is what keeps humans from becoming involved in potentially objectionable actions and/or expressions in a social setting. ...


The Judeo-Christian morals still basically hold, and the small social changes are exaggerated because they are seen in that light. Many atheists, find that they have secularized and internalized the same old morals.[4] Jacob wrestling an angel, by Gustave Doré (1832-1883), a shared Judeo-Christian story. ... Secularization is a process of transformation as a state slowly migrates from close identification with the local institutions of religion to a more clearly separated relationship. ... Internalized: meaning to internalize a behaviour or problem. See externalized in Narrative Therapy. ...


Historians argue that the ongoing Sexual Revolution in the new century is continued liberalization after a conservative period that existed between the 1930s and 1950s. They note that the Cold War sparked a socially conformist identity which tended to be self-conscious of its appearance to the outside world. Within the United States, this conformity took on puritanical overtones which contradicted natural or even culturally-established human sexual behaviors. It was this period of Cold War puritanism, some say, which led to a cultural rebellion in the form of the "sexual revolution". Despite this, however, before the 1920s the Victorian era was much more conservative than even the 1930s and 1950s. Due to the invention of TV and the increasingly wide use of it in the 50s, by the 1960s a vast majority of Americans had television. This mass communication device, along with other media outlets such as radio and magazines, could broadcast information in a matter of seconds to millions of people, while only a few wealthy people would control what millions of people would watch. Some have now theorized that perhaps that these media outlets helped spread new ideas among the masses. A prime example of this occurred during the early 1960s when the Beatles (virtually unknown at the time) came to America and were introduced on the Ed Sullivan show. Once the show was over they were an instant hit. Forty million Americans had watched it that night and thus morals in one perspective changed instantly; although obviously it would take longer for this to occur. The mass media's broadcasting of new ideas to the population was radical, and during the late 1960s the counterculture was becoming well known on radio, newspapers, TV and other media outlets. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran from June 20, 1948, to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by Ed Sullivan. ...


While the extent to which the sexual revolution involved major changes in sexual behavior is debated, many observers suggest that the main change was not that people had more sex or different types of sex, it was simply that they talked about it more openly than previous generations had done - which in itself can be described as revolutionary by supportive historians.


Historian David Allyn argues it was a time of "coming-out": about premarital sex, masturbation, erotic fantasies, pornography use, and sexuality.[5] Although this may be true, some historians have doubts on this due to the lack of contraceptives en masse before the common era. This would have made it extremely difficult to cover up pre-marital relations due to extremely high risk of pregnancy. David Allyn, Ph. ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...


It is clear that sexual behavior did change radically for the vast majority of women, but only a generation after the "revolution" had begun. Women reaching sexual maturity after about 1984 have behaviors much more in common with the men of a generation earlier. Some had more partners (two to three times), starting at an earlier age (by three to five years), than women of the 1970s. Nevertheless this rather radical change in actual behavior is rarely reported on, being regarded as no longer newsworthy.

Contents

Historical development

The sexual revolution can be seen as an outgrowth of a process in recent history, though its roots may be traced back as far as the Enlightenment (Marquis de Sade) and the Victorian era (A. C. Swinburne's scandalous Poems and Ballads of 1866). It was a development in the modern world which saw the significant loss of power by the values of a morality rooted in the Christian tradition and the rise of permissive societies, of attitudes that were accepting of greater sexual freedom and experimentation that spread all over the world and were captured in the phrase free love. 18th century philosophy redirects here. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 _ April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The permissive society is a label given to a society where social norms are becoming increasingly liberal. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ...


Throughout the 1960s and 1970s Sweden was an international leader in what is now referred to as the "sexual revolution," with gender equality particularly promoted during this time. Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ...


Modern revolutions

The Industrial Revolution during the nineteenth century and the growth of science and technology, medicine and health care, resulted in better contraceptives being manufactured. Advances in the manufacture and production of rubber made possible the design and production of condoms that could be used by hundreds of millions of men and women to prevent pregnancy at little cost. Advances in steel production and immunology made abortion readily available. Advances in chemistry, pharmacology, and knowledge of biology, and human physiology and all sorts of new drugs led to the discovery and perfection of the first oral contraceptives also known as "The Pill". New drugs like Viagra helped impotent men have an erection and increased the potency of others. Purchasing an aphrodisiac and various sex toys became "normal". Sado-masochism ("S&M") gained popularity, and "no-fault" unilateral divorce became legal and easier to obtain in many countries during the 1960s and 1970s. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pill redirects here. ... // ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... An aphrodisiac is an agent which is used to increase sexual desire [1]. The name comes from the Greek goddess of Sensuality Aphrodite. ... A sex toy is a term for any object or device that is primarily used in facilitating human sexual pleasure. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ...


All these developments took place alongside and combined with an increase in world literacy and decline in religious observances. Old values such as the biblical notion of "be fruitful and multiply" for example, were cast aside as people continued to feel alienated from the past and adopted the life-styles of modernizing westernized cultures. This article is about the ability to read and write. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


Another thing that helped bring about this more modern revolution of sexual freedom was the writing of Herbert Marcuse and Wilhelm Reich, who took the philosophy of Karl Marx and other such philosophers, and mixed together this chant for freedom of sexual rights and release in our modern culture. Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ...


However when speaking of sexual revolution, historians make a distiction between the first and the second sexual revolution. In the first sexual revolution(1870-1910)the victorian morality lost its universal appeal. It did however not lead to the rise of a "permissive society". examplary for this period is the rise and differentation in forms of regulating sexuality.


Freudian school

Doctor Sigmund Freud of Vienna believed the roots of human behavior were in the libido. Psychoanalysis revolutionized an entire culture's self image. Victorian prudishness was shoved aside by a new consciousness of a sex drive. Men had an Oedipus complex and women had penis envy according to Freud. The mother's breast was the source of all later erotic sensation. This new philosophy was the new intellectual and cultural underpinning ideology of the new age of sexual frankness. Nonetheless, much of his research is widely discredited by professionals in the field. Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria (reigned 1837 - 1901) in particular, and to the moral climate of Great Britain throughout the 19th century in... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For the Peruvian rock group, see Libido (band). ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... For the Crass album, see Penis Envy (album). ... Eroticism is an aesthetic focused on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ...


Anarchist Freud scholars Otto Gross and Wilhelm Reich (who famously coined the phrase "Sexual Revolution") developed a sociology of sex in the 1920s and 1930s. Anarchist redirects here. ... Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ...


Kinsey and Masters & Johnson

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Alfred C. Kinsey published two surveys of modern sexual behavior. In 1948, Alfred C. Kinsey and his co-workers, responding to a request by female students at Indiana University for more information on human sexual behavior, published the book Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. They followed this five years later with Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. These books began a revolution in social awareness of, and public attention given to, human sexuality. For the 2004 movie about Alfred Kinsey see Kinsey . ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... The Kinsey Reports are two books on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others. ... The Kinsey Reports are two books on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others. ...


It is said that at the time, public morality severely restricted open discussion of sexuality as a human characteristic, and specific sexual practices, especially sexual behaviors that did not lead to procreation. Kinsey's books contained studies about controversial topics such as the frequency of homosexuality, and the sexuality of minors ages two weeks to thirteen years. Scientists working for Kinsey reported data which led to the conclusion that we are capable of sexual stimulation from birth. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


These books laid the groundwork for Masters and Johnson's life work. A study called Human Sexual Response in 1966 revealed the nature and scope of the sex practices of young Americans. Time magazine, May 25, 1970 The Masters and Johnson research team, made up of William Masters and Virginia E. Johnson, pioneered research into the nature of human sexual response and the diagnosis and treatment of sexual disorders and dysfunctions from 1957 until the 1990s. ... Sexual arousal is the process and state of an animal being ready for sexual intercourse. ...


Lady Chatterley's Lover, Tropic of Cancer, and Fanny Hill

In the United States in the years 1959 through 1966, bans on three books with explicit erotic content were challenged and overturned.


Prior to this time, a patchwork of regulations (as well as local customs and vigilante actions) governed what could and could not be published. For example the United States Customs Service "banned" James Joyce's Ulysses by refusing its importation into the USA. The Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum carried great weight among Catholics and amounted to an effective and instant boycott of any book appearing on it. Boston's Watch and Ward Society, a largely Protestant creation inspired by Anthony Comstock, made "banned in Boston" a national by-word. The United States Customs Service (now part of U.S. Customs and Border Protection or CBP) was the portion of the US Federal Government dedicated to keeping illegal products outside of US borders. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Venetiis, M. D. LXIIII. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and the faith of its members. ... The Watch and Ward Society was a Boston, Massachusetts organization involved in the censorship of books and the performing arts from the late 19th Century to the middle of the 20th Century. ... Portrait of Anthony Comstock Anthony Comstock (March 7, 1844 - September 21, 1915) was a former United States Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to ideas of Victorian morality. ... Banned in Boston was a phrase employed from the late 19th century through the Prohibition-Era to describe a literary work, motion picture, or play prohibited from distribution or exhibition in Boston, Massachusetts. ...


In 1959, Grove Press published an unexpurgated version of Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. H. Lawrence. The U.S. Post Office confiscated copies sent through the mail. Lawyer Charles Rembar sued the New York city postmaster, and won in New York and then on federal appeal. In 1965, Tom Lehrer was to celebrate the erotic appeal of the novel in his cheerfully satirical song "Smut" with the couplet "Who needs a hobby like tennis or philately?/I've got a hobby: rereading Lady Chatterley." Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1951. ... This article is about the novel. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was a very important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism and personal letters. ... USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Ç ... Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... Close examination of the Penny Red, left, reveals a 148 in the margin, indicating that it was printed with plate #148. ...


Henry Miller's 1934 novel, Tropic of Cancer, had explicit sexual passages and could not be published in the United States; an edition was printed by the Obelisk Press in Paris and copies were smuggled into the United States. (As of 2003, used book dealers asked $7500 and up for copies of this edition.) In 1961, Grove Press issued a copy of the work, and lawsuits were brought against dozens of individual booksellers in many states for selling it. The issue was ultimately settled by the U.S. Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Miller v. California. In this decision, the court defined obscenity by what is now called the Miller test. Henry Miller photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer and, to a lesser extent, painter. ... Tropic of Cancer is a novel by Henry Miller, first published in 1934 by Obelisk Press in Paris and still in print (Grove Press 1987 paperback: ISBN 0-8021-3178-6). ... Obelisk Press was an English-language press based in Paris, France, founded by Jack Kahane. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding Obscene materials are defined as those that the average person, applying contemporary community standards, find, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest; that depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law; and that, taken as a whole, lack serious... The Miller test is the United States Supreme Courts test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeled obscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited. ...


In 1965, Putnam published John Cleland's 1750 novel Fanny Hill. This was the turning point, because Charles Rembar appealed a restraining order against it all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court and won. In Memoirs v. Massachusetts, 383 U.S. 413, the court ruled that sex was "a great and mysterious motive force in human life," and that its expression in literature was protected by the First Amendment. Only books primarily appealing to "prurient interest" could be banned. In a famous phrase, the court said that obscenity is "utterly without redeeming social importance" — meaning that, conversely, any work with redeeming social importance was not obscene, even if it contained isolated passages that could "deprave and corrupt" some readers. John Cleland (baptised September 24, 1709 – January 23, 1789) was an English novelist most famous and infamous as the author of Fanny Hill: or, the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure. ... Illustration by Édouard-Henri Avril Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, also known as Fanny Hill, is a novel by John Cleland. ... Ç ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


This decision was especially significant, because, of the three books mentioned, Fanny Hill has by far the largest measure of content that seems to appeal to prurient interest, and the smallest measures of literary merit and "redeeming social importance". Whereas an expurgated version of Lady Chatterley's Lover had actually once been published, no expurgated version of Fanny Hill has ever been (and it is difficult even to imagine what such a work could possibly consist of). By permitting the publication of Fanny Hill, the Supreme Court set the bar for any ban so high that Rembar himself called the 1966 decision "the end of obscenity." Literary Merit a written text has Liteary Merit if it is a work of quality, that is if it has some aesthetic value. ...


Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa

The publication of renowned anthropologist and student of Franz Boas, Margaret Mead's "Coming of Age in Samoa" brought the sexual revolution to the public scene, as her thoughts concerning sexual freedom pervaded academia. Published in 1928, Mead's ethnography focused on the psychosexual development of adolescent children on the island of Samoa in French Polynesia. She recorded that their adolescence was not in fact a time of "storm and stress" as Erikson's stages of development suggest, but that the sexual freedom experienced by the adolescents actually permitted them an easy transition from childhood to adulthood. Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ... Coming of Age in Samoa, first published in 1928, is a book by Margaret Mead based upon the youth in Samoa and lightly relating to youth in America. ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ...


Her findings were later challenged by anthropologist Derek Freeman who later investigated her claims of promiscuity and conducted his own ethnography of Samoan society. Mead called for a change in suppression of sexuality in America and her work directly resulted in the advancement of the sexual revolution in the 1930s. John Derek Freeman (b. ...


Nonfiction sex manuals

The court decisions that legalized the publication of Fanny Hill had an even more important effect: freed from fears of legal action, nonfiction works about sex and sexuality started to appear.


In 1962, Helen Gurley Brown published Sex and the Single Girl: The Unmarried Woman's Guide to Men, Careers, the Apartment, Diet, Fashion, Money and Men. The title itself would have been unthinkable a decade earlier. (In 1965 she went on to transform Cosmopolitan magazine into a life manual for young career women). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sex and the Single Girl is a best-selling book by Helen Gurley Brown, published in 1962. ...


In 1969, Joan Garrity, identifying herself only as "J.", published The Way to Become the Sensuous Woman, replete with everything from exercises for improving the dexterity of the tongue, to how to have anal sex. Joan Theresa Garrity, (fl. ... Is a 1971 book by Joan Garrity under the pseudonym J. The book is a detailed instruction manual on sensuality for women. ...


The same year saw the appearance of Dr. David Reuben's book Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask). Despite the dignity of Reuben's medical credentials, this book was light-hearted in tone. For many readers, it delivered quite literally on its promise. Despite the book's one-sided and predjudiced statements about gay men, one middle-aged matron from a small town in Wisconsin was heard to say "Until I read this book, I never actually knew precisely what it was that homosexuals did". Dr. David Reuben is a physician, sex expert, and author of several books, most famously Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid to Ask). ... Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Sex* (*But Were Afraid to Ask) is a book (1969, updated 1999) by U.S. physician Dr. David Reuben. ...


In 1970, the Boston Women's Health Collective published Women and their Bodies (which became far better known a year later under its subsequent title, Our Bodies, Ourselves). Not an erotic treatise or sex manual, the book nevertheless included frank descriptions of sexuality, and contained illustrations that could have caused legal problems just a few years earlier. Our Bodies, Ourselves is the title of a book about womens health and sexuality produced by the Boston Womens Health Book Collective. ...


Alex Comfort's The Joy of Sex: A Gourmet Guide to Love Making. appeared in 1972. In later editions though, Comfort's libertarianism was tamed as a response to AIDS. Alexander Comfort (February 10, 1920 - March 26, 2000) was a medical professional, anarchist, pacifist and writer, best known for The Joy of Sex, which played a part in what is often called the sexual revolution. ... The Joy of Sex was a ground-breaking illustrated sex manual by Alex Comfort, M.D., Ph. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


In 1975 Will McBride's Zeig Mal!, Show Me!, written with psychologist Helga Fleichhauer-Hardt for children and their parents, appeared in bookstores on both sides of the Atlantic. Appreciated by many parents for its frank depiction of pre-adolescents discovering and exploring their sexuality, it scandalized others and eventually it was pulled from circulation in the United States and some other countries. It was followed up in 1989 by Zeig Mal Mehr! ("Show Me More!"). Will McBride (born 1931, St. ... Zeig Mal! (Show Me!) Cover of 2nd German language edition (1990) which included new material on the AIDS epidemic Show Me! is a controversial sex education book by photographer Will McBride. ...


These books had a number of things in common. They were factual and, in fact, educational. They were available to a mainstream readership. They were stacked high on the tables of discount bookstores, they were book club selections, and their authors were guests on late-night talk shows. People were seen reading them in public. In a respectable middle-class home, Playboy magazine and Fanny Hill might be present but would usually be kept out of sight. But at least some of these books might well be on the coffee table. Most important, all of these books acknowledged and celebrated the conscious cultivation of erotic pleasure. For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...


The contribution of such books to the sexual revolution cannot be overstated. Earlier books such as What Every Girl Should Know (Margaret Sanger, 1920) and A Marriage Manual (Hannah and Abraham Stone, 1939) had broken the utter silence in which many people, women in particular, had grown up. By the 1950s, in the United States, it had finally become rare for women to go into their wedding nights literally not knowing what to expect. But the open discussion of sex as pleasure, and descriptions of sexual practices and techniques, was truly revolutionary. There were practices which, perhaps, some had heard of. But many adults did not know for sure whether they were realities, or fantasies found only in pornographic books. Were they "normal," or were they examples of psychopathology? (When we use words such as fellatio we are still using the terminology of Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis). Did married ladies do these things, or only prostitutes? The Kinsey report revealed that these practices were, at the very least, surprisingly frequent. These other books asserted, in the words of a 1980 book by Dr. Irene Kassorla, that Nice Girls Do -- And Now You Can Too. Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, an advocate of negative eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Fellatio is oral sex performed upon the male human penis. ... Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing with his wife Marie Luise Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing[1] (August 14, 1840 – December 22, 1902) was an Austro-German psychiatrist who wrote Psychopathia Sexualis (1886), a famous study of sexual perversity, and remains well-known for his coinage of the term sadism (after... Psychopathia Sexualis may refer to: Psychopathia Sexualis (book), a psychology book on sexuality by Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing Psychopathia Sexualis (album), an album by Whitehouse An album by The Makers (American band) Psychopathia Sexualis (play), a play by John Patrick Shanley A controversial comic by Miguel Ángel Martín...

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Medicine and sex

The development of antibiotics in the 1940s made most of the severe venereal diseases of the time curable, reducing the threat of sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis. Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ...


In the early 1960s, The Pill became available; at first for married women only, but demand and changes in attitudes later led to it becoming available to unmarried women as well. Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ...


With the twin threats of disease and pregnancy removed, many of the traditional constraints on sexual behavior were disregarded.


With the notion that sexually transmitted diseases were easily treatable, much of the post-WW2 baby boom generation experimented with sex without the need for marriage. A US postage stamp depicting the increase in birth rate that country experienced after World War II. As is often the case with a large war, the elation of victory and large numbers of returning males to their country triggered a baby boom after the end of World War II... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


Contraception

As birth control become more available, men and women gained unprecedented control of their reproductive capabilities. The 1916 invention of thin, disposable latex condoms for men led to widespread affordable condoms by the 1930s; the demise of the Comstock laws in 1936 set the stage for promotion of available effective contraceptives such as the diaphragm and cervical cap; the 1960s introduction of the IUD and oral contraceptives for women gave a sense of freedom from barrier contraception. For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... The symbol of Comstocks Society for the Suppression of Vice. ... The diaphragm is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... The cervical cap is a cervical barrier type of birth control. ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil( this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ... The Pill redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


The sexual revolution in the UK

In the UK the new generation growing up after the Second World War had grown tired of the rationing and austerity of the 1940s and 1950s and the Victorian values of their elders, so the 1960s were a time of rebellion against the fashions and social mores of the previous generation. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


An early inkling of changing attitudes came in 1960, when the government of the day tried unsuccessfully to prosecute Penguin Books for obscenity, for publishing the D.H. Lawrence novel Lady Chatterley's Lover, which had been banned since the 1920s for its racy (for the time) content. It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 - 2 March 1930) was one of the most important, certainly one of the most controversial, English writers of the 20th century, who wrote novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. ... This article is about the novel. ...


As evidence of how old-fashioned the attitudes of the establishment were, the prosecution counsel Mervyn Griffith-Jones famously stood in front of the jury and asked, in his closing statement: "Is it a book you would wish your wife or servants to read?". John Mervyn Guthrie Griffith-Jones, CBE MC QC (1 July 1909 - 13 July 1979)[1] was a British Judge and former barrister. ...


When the case collapsed, the novel went on to become a best seller, selling 2 million copies. The Pill became available free of charge on the National Health Service in the 1960s, at first restricted to married women, but late in the decade its availability was extended to all women. “NHS” redirects here. ...


Free love

Beginning in San Francisco in the mid 1960s, a new culture of "free love" emerged, with thousands of young people becoming "hippies" who preached the power of love and the beauty of sex as part of ordinary student life. This is part of a counterculture that exists to the present. By the 1970s it was acceptable for colleges to allow co-educational housing where male and female students mingled freely. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ...


Free love continued in different forms throughout the 1970s and into the early 1980s, but its more assertive manifestations ended abruptly (or disappeared from public view) in the mid 1980s when the public first became aware of AIDS, a deadly sexually transmitted disease. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Explicit sex on screen

Swedish filmmakers like Ingmar Bergman and Vilgot Sjöman contributed to sexual liberation with sexually themed films that challenged conservative international standards. The 1951 film Hon dansade en sommar (She Danced a Summer AKA One Summer of Happiness) starring Ulla Jacobsson and Folke Sundquist depicted scenes that were at the time considered too sexual, but by today's standards would be fairly mild. This film, as well as Bergman's Sommaren med Monika (The Summer with Monika), caused an international uproar, not least in the US where the films were charged with violating standards of decency. Vilgot Sjöman's film I Am Curious (Yellow), also created an international uproar, but it was very popular in the United States. Another of his films, 491, highlighted homosexuality among other things. Kärlekens språk, (The Language of Love), was an informative documentary about sex and sexual techniques that featured the first real act of sex in a mainstream film, and inevitably it caused intense debate around the world, including in the US. From these films the concept of "the Swedish sin", (licentiousness) developed, even though Swedish society was at the time still fairly conservative regarding sex, and the international concept of Swedish sexuality was and is largely exaggerated. The films caused debate there as well. The films eventually helped the publics attitudes toward sex progress, especially in Sweden and other northern European countries, which today tend to be more sexually liberal than others.   (IPA: in Swedish; usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... (David Harald) Vilgot Sjöman (December 2, 1924 - April 9, 2006) was a Swedish writer and film director. ... One Summer of Happiness (Swedish: ) is a 1951 Swedish film based on the novel Sommardansen by Per Olof Ekström. ... Ulla Jacobsson (born 23 May 1929 in Gothenburg, Sweden – died 20 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who is perhaps best known for playing the only female role in the film Zulu. ... Summer with Monika (orig. ... I Am Curious (Yellow) is a Swedish film (Jag är nyfiken - en film i gult) of 1967, directed by Vilgot Sjöman and starring Lena Nyman as herself. ... DVD cover of Kärlekens SprÃ¥k Kärlekens sprÃ¥k (US title: Language of Love) is a 1969 Swedish film directed by Torgny Wickman. ...


Explicit sex on screen and acceptance of frontal nudity by men and women on stage became the norm in many American and European countries, as the twentieth century ended. Special places of entertainment offering striptease and lap dancing proliferated. The famous Playboy Bunnies set a trend. Men came to be entertained by topless women at night-clubs which also hosted "peep shows." Nudity or nakedness is the state of wearing no clothing. ... For other uses, see Striptease (disambiguation). ... For the book or movie Striptease see Striptease (book) and Striptease (movie) A striptease is a performance, usually a dance, in which the performer gradually removes their clothing for the purposes of sexually arousing the audience, usually performed in nightclubs. ... Playboy Bunny at the Karma Foundation Inaugural Gala hosted at the Playboy Mansion, October 2005 A Playboy Bunny was a waitress at the Playboy Clubs (open 1960–1988). ... “Topless” redirects here. ... A peep show or peepshow is an exhibition of pictures or objects viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass. ...


Pre-marital sex

Once heavily stigmatized, pre-marital sex became more widespread during the sexual revolution. The increased availability of birth control (and the quasi-legalization of abortion in some places) helped reduce the chance that pre-marital sex would result in unwanted children. By the mid 1970s the majority of newly married American couples had experienced sex before marriage. This article is primarily about religious attitudes to sexual morality. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ...


The politics of sex

Politics in the USA has become intertwined with sexually related issues, called the "politics of sex". A woman's desire for an abortion pitted traditionalist Pro-Life activists against Pro-Choice activists permitting abortions. Sex between people of the same gender, the homosexuality that was strictly taboo in times when the Christian Church still exercised much influence in society, yet is still stigmatized to this day. Women and men who lived with each other without marriage sought "palimony" equal to the alimony a divorced husband pays his ex-wife. Teenagers assumed their right to a sexual life with whomever they pleased, and bathers fought to be topless or nude at beaches. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the social movement. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... St. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ... Palimony is a slang term coined by attorney Marvin Mitchelson in 1977 when his client Michelle Marvin (the former Michelle Triola) filed an unsuccessful suit against actor Lee Marvin. ... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage, which can be contrasted with an annulment which is a declaration that a marriage is void, though the effects of marriage may be recognized in such unions, such as spousal support, child custody and distribution of property. ... Nudity is a common subject both in fine arts and popular culture. ...


The normalization of pornography

Further information: History of pornography

The fact that pornography was no longer stigmatized by the end of the 1980s, and more mainstream movies depicted sexual intercourse as "entertainment," was indicative of how normalized sexual revolution had become in society. Magazines depicting nudity, such as the popular Playboy magazine, won some acceptance as mainstream journals, in which public figures felt safe expressing their fantasies. Feminists have had mixed responses to pornography. Some figures in the feminist movement, such as Andrea Dworkin, challenged the depiction of women as objects in these pornographic magazines. Roman oil lamp depicting coitus more ferarum Erotic depictions include paintings, sculpture, photographs, dramatic arts, music and writings that show scenes of a sexual nature. ... Porn redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Andrea Dworkin speaking to a federal commission on pornography in New York in January 1986 Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she linked with rape and other forms of violence against women. ...


The gay porn industry also became much more widespread throughout the western world, even permeating areas better known for the repression of non-normative sexualities, such as Northern Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East[citation needed]. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s pornography depicting homosexual acts was rare and illegal in some US states. Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Notes and References

  1. ^ The term appeared as early as 1929; the book Is Sex Necessary?, by Thurber & White, has a chapter titled The Sexual Revolution: Being a Rather Complete Survey of the Entire Sexual Scene.
  2. ^ Alan Petigny, "Illegitimacy, Postwar Psychology, and the Reperiodization of the Sexual Revolution" Journal of Social History, fall 2004
  3. ^ Herbert Marcuse (1964) One-Dimensional Man, pp.59, 75-82 [1] [2] [3] [4]
  4. ^ Fraenkel 92, p.19
  5. ^ David Allyn, "Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution, An Unfettered History" Routledge, 2002
  • Fraenkel, Boris (1992) Introduction to the Italian version of Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf [Sexuality in the Culture Struggle], for publisher Erre emme
  • Constructing sexual citizenship: theorizing sexual rights -- Richardson 20 (1): 105 -- Critical Social Policy. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  • A Look at the Sexual Revolution in the United States

Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... One-Dimensional Man is a work by Herbert Marcuse, first published in 1964. ... Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf (1936) [Sexuality in the Culture Struggle], is a fundamental work by Wilhelm Reich. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
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