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Encyclopedia > Sex education
An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy.
An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy.

Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns. Image File history File links VictorianPostcard. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sex reproduction is a union that results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ...

Contents

Overview

Education about reproduction typically describes the creation and development of a new human being, from conception and the development of the embryo and fetus, through to childbirth. It often includes topics such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, as well as birth control methods. A sperm cell fertilizing an ovum This article is about reproduction in organisms. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... “Unborn child” redirects here. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ...


Although some form of sex education is part of the curriculum at many schools, it remains a controversial issue in several countries, particularly with regard to the age at which children should start receiving such education, the amount of detail that is revealed, and topics dealing with human sexuality and behavior (eg. safe sex practices, masturbation and sexual ethics). Curriculum has many different conceptions. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ... Sexual ethics is a sub-category of ethics that pertain to acts falling within the broad spectrum of human sexual behavior, sexual intercourse in particular. ...


In 1936, Wilhelm Reich commented that sex education of his time was a work of deception, focusing on biology while concealing excitement-arousal, which is what a pubescent individual is mostly interested in. Reich added that this emphasis obscures what he believed to be a basic psychological principle: that all worries and difficulties originate from unsatisfied sexual impulses.[1] This tendency of overemphasizing biology over pleasure is still typical today of sex education in the West.[citation needed] Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Turn on redirects here. ... Pubescent has several meanings: A pubescent person is a young individual who is undergoing the physical and mental changes associated with puberty. ... The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ...


In many countries, sexual education raises much contentious debate. Chief among the controversial points is whether covering child sexuality is valuable or detrimental; the use of birth control such as condoms and hormonal contraception; and the impact of such use on pregnancy outside marriage, teenage pregnancy, and the transmission of STIs. Increasing support for abstinence-only sex education by conservative groups has been one of the primary causes of this controversy. Countries with conservative attitudes towards sex education (including the UK and the U.S.) have a higher incidence of STIs and teenage pregnancy.[2] Child sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in children. ... A condom is a device, usually made of latex, or more recently polyurethane, that is used during sexual intercourse. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education which emphasizes abstaining from sex, often to the exclusion of all other types of sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control and safe sex. ...


The existence of AIDS has given a new sense of urgency to the topic of sex education. In many African nations, where AIDS is at epidemic levels (see HIV/AIDS in Africa), sex education is seen by most scientists as a vital public health strategy. Some international organizations such as Planned Parenthood consider that broad sex education programs have global benefits, such as controlling the risk of overpopulation and the advancement of women's rights (see also reproductive rights). Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to...


Sex education worldwide

United States

See also: Adolescent sexuality in the United States  and Abstinence-only sex education

Almost all U.S. students receive some form of sex education at least once between grades 7 and 12; many schools begin addressing some topics as early as grades 5 or 6.[3] However, what students learn varies widely, because curriculum decisions are so decentralized. Many states have laws governing what is taught in sex education classes or allowing parents to opt out. Some state laws leave curriculum decisions to individual school districts.[4] This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education which emphasizes abstaining from sex, often to the exclusion of all other types of sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control and safe sex. ...


For example, a 1999 study by the Guttmacher Institute found that most U.S. sex education courses in grades 7 through 12 cover puberty, HIV, STIs, abstinence, implications of teenage pregnancy, and how to resist peer pressure. Other studied topics, such as methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and factual and ethical information about abortion, varied more widely.[5] The Guttmacher Institute (formerly the Alan Guttmacher Institute) is a research institute that provides global and U.S.-specific demographic statistics on reproductive matters such as birth control and abortion. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more offspring in an embryonal or fetal stage of development by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies, between the stages of conception and birth. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, normally conceived of as falling into several significant categories based around the sex or gender that the individual finds attractive. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Two main forms of sex education are taught in American schools: comprehensive and abstinence-only. Comprehensive sex education covers abstinence as a positive choice, but also teaches about contraception and avoidance of STIs when sexually active. A 2002 study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 58% of secondary school principals describe their sex education curriculum as comprehensive.[4] Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education which emphasizes abstaining from sex, often to the exclusion of all other types of sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control and safe sex. ... The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), or just Kaiser Family Foundation, is a U.S.-based non-profit philanthropic private operating foundation headquartered in Menlo Park, California. ...


Abstinence-only sex education tells teenagers that they should be sexually abstinent until marriage and does not provide information about contraception. In the Kaiser study, 34% of high-school principals said their school's main message was abstinence-only.


The difference between these two approaches, and their impact on teen behavior, remains a controversial subject in the U.S. Since 1991, U.S. rates of teenage pregnancy have declined significantly, and a slightly higher percentage of teens say they are abstinent.[6] However, the U.S. still has the highest teen birth rate and one of the highest rates of STIs among teens in the industrialized world.[7] Public opinion polls conducted over the years have found that the vast majority of Americans favor broader sex education programs over those that teach only abstinence, although abstinence educators recently published poll data with the totally opposite conclusion.[8][9][10] Proponents of comprehensive sex education argue that sexual behavior after puberty is a given, and it is therefore crucial to provide information about the risks and how they can be minimized; they also claim that denying teens such factual information leads to unwanted pregnancies and STIs.


On the other hand, proponents of abstinence-only sex education object to curricula that fail to teach moral behavior; they maintain that a morality based on sex only within the bounds of marriage is "healthy and constructive" and that value-free knowledge of the body may lead to immoral, unhealthy, and harmful practices. Within the last decade, the federal government has encouraged abstinence-only education by steering over a billion dollars to such programs.[11] Some states, such as California, decline the funding so that they can continue to teach comprehensive sex education; several other states have recently joined California.[12][13][14][15] Funding for one of the federal government's two main abstinency-only funding programs, Title V, was extended only until September 30, 2007; Congress is debating whether to continue it past that date.[16]


The impact of the rise in abstinence-only education remains a question. To date, no published studies of abstinence-only programs have found consistent and significant program effects on delaying the onset of intercourse.[7] In 2007, a study ordered by the U.S. Congress found that middle school students who took part in abstinence-only sex education programs were just as likely to have sex (and use contraception) in their teenage years as those who did not.[17] Abstinence-only advocates claimed that the study was flawed because it was too narrow and began when abstinence-only curricula were in their infancy, and that other studies have demonstrated positive effects.[18]


Europe

In England and Wales, sex education is not compulsory in schools as parents can refuse to let their children take part in the lessons. The curriculum focuses on the reproductive system, fetal development, and the physical and emotional changes of adolescence, while information about contraception and safe sex is discretionary. Britain has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Europe and sex education is a heated issue in government and media reports. In a 2000 study by the University of Brighton, many 14 to 15 year olds reported disappointment with the content of sex education lessons and felt that lack of confidentiality prevents teenagers from asking teachers about contraception.[19] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


In Scotland, the main sex education program is Healthy Respect, which focuses not only on the biological aspects of reproduction but also on relationships and emotions. Education about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are included in the program as a way of encouraging good sexual health. In response to a refusal by Catholic schools to commit to the program, however, a separate sex education program has been developed for use in those schools. Funded by the Scottish Executive, the program Call to Love focuses on encouraging children to delay sex until marriage, and does not cover contraception, and as such is a form of abstinence-only sex education. This article is about the country. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... Abstinence-only sex education is a form of sex education which emphasizes abstaining from sex, often to the exclusion of all other types of sexual and reproductive health education, particularly regarding birth control and safe sex. ...


In France, sex education has been part of school curricula since 1973. Schools are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms, to students in grades eight and nine. In January 2000, the French government launched an information campaign on contraception with TV and radio spots and the distribution of five million leaflets on contraception to high school students.[19]


In Germany, sex education has been part of school curricula since 1970. It normally covers all subjects concerning the growing-up process, the changing of the body, emotions, the biological process of reproduction, sexual activity, partnership, homosexuality, unwanted pregnancies and the complications of abortion, the dangers of sexual violence, child abuse, and sex-transmitted diseases, but sometimes also things like sex positions. Most schools offer courses on the correct usage of contraception. There are also other media of sex education, in first place the youth magazine "Bravo", which always contains a topic where teenagers pose questions about partnership and sexuality.


Subsidized by the Dutch government, the “Lang leve de liefde” (“Long Live Love”) package, developed in the late 1980s, aims to give teenagers the skills to take their own decisions regarding health and sexuality. Nearly all secondary schools provide sex education as part of biology classes and over half of primary schools discuss sexuality and contraception. The curriculum focuses on biological aspects of reproduction as well as on values, attitudes, communication and negotiation skills. The media has encouraged open dialogue and the health-care system guarantees confidentiality and a non-judgmental approach. The Netherlands has one of the lowest teenage pregnancy rates in the world, and the Dutch approach is often seen as a model for other countries.[20]


In Sweden, sex education has been a mandatory part of school education since 1956. The subject is usually started at grades 4–6, and continues up through the grades, incorporated into different subjects such as biology and history. In Finland, the Population and Family Welfare Federation provides to all 15-year-olds an introductory sexual package that includes an information brochure, a condom and a cartoon love story.[21]


Asia

The state of sex education programs in Asia is at various stages of development. Indonesia, Mongolia, South Korea and Sri Lanka have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools. Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand have assessed adolescent reproductive health needs with a view to developing adolescent-specific training, messages and materials. India has programs that specifically aims at school children at the age group of nine to sixteen years. These are included as subjects in the curriculum and generally involves open and frank interaction with the teachers. In India, there is a huge debate on the curriculum of sex education and when should it be increased. Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan have no coordinated sex education programs.[22]


In Japan, sex education is mandatory from age 10 or 11, mainly covering biological topics such as menstruation and ejaculation. [21]


In China, sex education traditionally consists in reading the reproduction section of biology textbooks. However, in 2000 a new five-year project was introduced by the China Family Planning Association to "promote reproductive health education among Chinese teenagers and unmarried youth" in twelve urban districts and three counties. This includes discussion about sex within human relationships as well as pregnancy and HIV prevention. [23]


The International Planned Parenthood Federation and the BBC World Service ran a 12-part series known as Sexwise, which discussed sex education, family life education, contraception and parenting. It was first launched in South Asia and then extended worldwide.[24] The International Planned Parenthood Federation [1] is a global not for profit organization (or charity) with the broad aims of promoting sexual/reproductive health, and advocating the right of individuals to make their own choices in this area. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ...


Africa

AIDS posters in Côte d'Ivoire
AIDS posters in Côte d'Ivoire

Sex education in Africa has focused on stemming the growing AIDS epidemic. Most governments in the region have established AIDS education programs in partnership with the World Health Organization and international NGOs. These programs commonly teach the 'ABC' of HIV prevention, which has been frequently backed by the Bush Administration: a combination of abstinence (A), fidelity to your partner (Be faithful) and condom use (C). (See Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom.) The efforts of these educational campaigns appear now to be bearing fruit. In Uganda, condom use has increased, youths are delaying the age at which sexual intercourse first occurs, and overall rates of HIV infection have been going down.[25] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a private institution that is independent of the government although many NGOs, particular in the global South, are funded by Northern governments. ... Abstinence, be faithful, use a condom, also known as the ABC strategy or abstinence plus sex education, is a sex education policy based on harm reduction which modifies the strict approach of abstinence-only sex education by including education about safe sex and birth control methods. ...


Egypt teaches knowledge about male and female reproductive systems, sexual organs, contraception and STDs in public schools at the second and third years of the middle-preparatory phase (when students are aged 12–14). There is currently a coordinated program between UNDP, UNICEF, and the ministries of health and education to promote sexual education at a larger scale in rural areas and spread awareness of dangers of female circumcision. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... Female genital cutting (FGC) refers to a number of procedures performed for cultural, rather than medical, reasons on the female genitalia. ...


Morality of sex education

One approach to sex education is to view it as necessary to reduce risk behaviours such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make informed decisions about their personal sexual activity. Additionally, some proponents of comprehensive sex education contend that education about homosexuality encourages tolerance and understanding that homosexuality isn't something that is wrong.


Another viewpoint on sex education, historically inspired by sexologists like Wilhelm Reich and psychologists like Sigmund Freud and James W. Prescott, holds that what is at stake in sex education is control over the body and liberation from social control. Proponents of this view tend to see the political question as whether society or the individual should teach sexual mores. Sexual education may thus be seen as providing individuals with the knowledge necessary to liberate themselves from socially organized sexual oppression and to make up their own minds. In addition, sexual oppression may be viewed as socially harmful. Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897 – November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... James W. Prescott is a developmental psychologist, whose research focused on the origins of violence, particularly as it relates to a lack of mother-child bonding. ... Mores are strongly held norms or customs. ... A sexual norm can be an individual norm or a social norm. ...


To another group in the sex education debate, the question is whether the state or the family should teach sexual mores. They believe that sexual mores should be left to the family, and sex-education represents state interference. They claim that some sex education curricula break down pre-existing notions of modesty and encourage acceptance of practices that those advocating this viewpoint deem immoral, such as homosexuality and premarital sex. They cite web sites such as that of the Coalition for Positive Sexuality as examples. Naturally, those that believe that homosexuality and premarital sex are a normal part of the range of human sexuality disagree with them. For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article is primarily about religious attitudes to sexual morality. ... The Coalition for Positive Sexuality (CPS) is a self-described guerrilla sex education group, created by gay rights organizations ACT_UP, Queer Nation and others. ...


Many religions teach that sexual behavior outside of marriage is immoral, so their adherents feel that this morality should be taught as part of sex education. Other religious conservatives believe that sexual knowledge is unavoidable, hence their preference for a curricula based on abstinence.[26] Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. ...


Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth

Youth seeking his father's advice on loveFrom the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love. His counsel is to choose that lover who desires him for his inner beauty. See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Youth seeking his father's advice on love
From the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love. His counsel is to choose that lover who desires him for his inner beauty. See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are often ignored in sex education classes, including a frequent lack of discussion about safer sex practices for manual, oral, and anal sex, despite these activities' different risk levels for sexually transmitted diseases. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Illustration from Jamis Rose Garden of the Pious, dated 1553. ... The term pederasty or paederasty can refer to a wide range of erotic practices, generally between adult and adolescent males. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... A transgender person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ...


Some people do not agree with comprehensive sexual education that references or discusses such practices, believing that including this additional information might be seen as encouraging homosexual behavior. Proponents of such comprehensive curricula hold that by excluding discussion of these issues or the issues of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderedness, feelings of isolation, loneliness, guilt and shame as well as depression are made much worse for students who belong or believe they may belong to one of these categories, or are unsure of their sexual identity. Supporters of including LGBT issues as an integral part of comprehensive sexuality education argue that this information is still useful and relevant and reduces the likelihood of suicide, sexually transmitted disease, 'acting out' and maladaptive behavior in these students. In the absence of such discussion, these youths are said to be de facto forced to remain in the closet, while youths are left without guidance on dealing with their own possible same-gender attractions and with their LGBT classmates. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... A transgender person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... In psychology, a behavior or trait is adaptive when it helps an individual adjust and function well within their environment. ... The expression being in the closet has been used to describe keeping secret ones sexual behavior or orientation, most commonly homosexuality or bisexuality, but also including transgender and transsexual people, paedophiles, and pederasts. ...


Supporters of comprehensive sex education programs argue that abstinence-only curricula (that advocate that youth should abstain from sex until marriage) ignore and marginalize lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth, who are often unable to marry a partner due to legal restrictions. Proponents of abstinence-only education often have a more conservative view of homosexuality and bisexuality and are against them being taught as normal, acceptable orientations, or placed in equal footing to heterosexual acts/relations, and so they generally do not see this as a problem. While supporters of comprehensive programs feel that this is a major problem as it could lead GLBT youth to feel even more alienated and shameful of their sexual orientation. International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term... LGBT (or GLBT) is an acronym used as a collective term to refer to lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender people. ...


Scientific study of sex education

The debate over teenage pregnancy and STDs has spurred some research into the effectiveness of different approaches to sex education. In a meta-analysis, DiCenso et al. have compared comprehensive sex education programs with abstinence-only programs.[27] Their review of several studies shows that abstinence-only programs did not reduce the likelihood of pregnancy of women who participated in the programs, but rather increased it. Four abstinence programs and one school program were associated with a pooled increase of 54% in the partners of men and 46% in women (confidence interval 95% 0.95 to 2.25 and 0.98 to 2.26 respectively). The researchers conclude: In this diagram, the bars represent observation means and the red lines represent the confidence intervals surrounding them. ...

"There is some evidence that prevention programs may need to begin much earlier than they do. In a recent systematic review of eight trials of day care for disadvantaged children under 5 years of age, long term follow up showed lower pregnancy rates among adolescents. We need to investigate the social determinants of unintended pregnancy in adolescents through large longitudinal studies beginning early in life and use the results of the multivariate analyses to guide the design of prevention interventions. We should carefully examine countries with low pregnancy rates among adolescents. For example, the Netherlands has one of the lowest rates in the world (8.1 per 1000 young women aged 15 to 19 years), and Ketting & Visser have published an analysis of associated factors.[28] In contrast, the rates are:
We should examine effective programs designed to prevent other high risk behaviors in adolescents. For example, Botvin et al. found that school based programs to prevent drug abuse during junior high school (ages 12–14 years) resulted in important and durable reductions in use of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis if they taught a combination of social resistance skills and general life skills, were properly implemented, and included at least two years of booster sessions.
Few sexual health interventions are designed with input from adolescents. Adolescents have suggested that sex education should be more positive with less emphasis on anatomy and scare tactics; it should focus on negotiation skills in sexual relationships and communication; and details of sexual health clinics should be advertised in areas that adolescents frequent (for example, school toilets, shopping centres)."[27]

Also, a US review, "Emerging Answers", by the National Campaign To Prevent Teenage Pregnancy examined 250 studies of sex education programs.[30] The conclusion of this review was that "the overwhelming weight of evidence shows that sex education that discusses contraception does not increase sexual activity". Systematic reviews are named as the highest level of medical evidence, by evidence based medicine professionals. ... Day care is the care of a child during the day by a person other than the childs parents or legal guardians, often someone outside the childs immediate family. ... A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... A skill is an ability, usually learned and acquired through training, to perform actions which achieve a desired outcome. ... Communication is a process that allows beings - in particular humans - to exchange information by several methods. ...


See also

About Your Sexuality, or AYS, was a sex education course published by the Unitarian Universalist Association between 1971 and 1997. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Facts of Life is a euphemism. ... Harmful to Minors: The Perils of Protecting Children From Sex (ISBN 0-8166-4006-8) is a controversial book by Judith Levine that was published in 2002 with a foreword by former United States Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders. ... Judith Levine (born 1952) is a noted author and civil libertarian. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Harm reduction is a philosophy of public health, intended to be a progressive alternative to the prohibition of certain potentially dangerous lifestyle choices. ... Our Whole Lives, or OWL, is a set of sexuality curricula for teenagers and adults prepared by the Unitarian Universalist Association and the United Church of Christ. ... The permissive society is a label given to a society where social norms are becoming increasingly liberal. ... “Promiscuous” redirects here. ... The refusal skills approach of teen celibacy advocates focuses on coaching unmarried high school students how to decline, in a way that promotes self-respect, sexual proposals by others. ... Sir Ian McKellen with Michael Cashman at the 1988 Gay Rights March on Manchester in protest against Section 28. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, normally conceived of as falling into several significant categories based around the sex or gender that the individual finds attractive. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the issues and phenomena pertaining to human sexual function and behavior. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Reich (1936) Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf. Part one "the failure.." 6. The puberty problem - (3°) "A reflection.." - c. sexual relationships of pubescents - paragraph 4.a (pp.198-9 of italian edition)
  2. ^ "Joy of sex education" by George Monbiot, The Guardian, 11 May 2004
  3. ^ (September/October 2000) "Sexuality Education in Fifth and Sixth Grades in U.S. Public Schools, 1999". Family Planning Perspectices 32 (5). Retrieved on 2007-05-23. 
  4. ^ a b Sex Education in the U.S.: Policy and Politics (PDF). Issue Update. Kaiser Family Foundation (October 2002). Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  5. ^ (September/October 2000) "Changing Emphases in Sexuality Education In U.S. Public Secondary Schools, 1988-1999". Family Planning Perspectives 32 (6).  See especially Table 3.
  6. ^ National Youth Risk Behavior Survey: 1991-2005 (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  7. ^ a b Hauser, Debra (2004). Five Years of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education: Assessing the Impact. Advocates for Youth. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  8. ^ Dailard, Cynthia (February 2001). Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  9. ^ On Our Side: Public Support for Comprehensive Sexuality Education (Fact Sheet). SIECUS. Retrieved on 2007-05-23.
  10. ^ NAEA Executive Summary of Key Findings. National Abstinence Education Association (2007-05-03). Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  11. ^ Abstinence-Only Programs: Harmful to Women & Girls: Federal Funding for Abstinence-Only Programs. Legal Momentum. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  12. ^ States that decline abstinence-only funding include California, Connecticut, Maine, Montana, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin.
  13. ^ "Maine Declines Federal Funds for Abstinence-Only Sex Education Programs, Says New Guidelines Prohibit 'Safe-Sex' Curriculum", Medical News Today, 2005-09-23. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
  14. ^ Huffstutter, P.J.. "States refraining from abstinence-only sex education", Boston Globe, Los Angeles Times, 2007-04-09. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. 
  15. ^ An Overview of Federal Abstinence-Only Funding (PDF). Legal Momentum (February 2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-25.[1]
  16. ^ Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Congress extends funding for abstinence education", Washington Times, 2007-07-15. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. 
  17. ^ "Study: Abstinence programs no guarantee", CNN.com, Associated Press, 2007-04-14. Retrieved on 2007-04-18. 
  18. ^ National Abstinence Education Association (2007-04-13). Mathematica Findings Too Narrow. Press release. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  19. ^ a b Britain: Sex Education Under Fire UNESCO Courier
  20. ^ The Dutch model UNESCO Courier
  21. ^ a b Sex Has Many Accents TIME
  22. ^ Adolescents In Changing Times: Issues And Perspectives For Adolescent Reproductive Health In The ESCAP Region United Nations Social and Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific
  23. ^ Sex education begins to break taboos China Development Brief, 2005-06-03
  24. ^ Involve The Young! Interview with Dr Pramilla Senanayake, assistant director-general of the International Planned Parenthood Federation
  25. ^ Uganda reverses the tide of HIV/AIDS
  26. ^ PBS, February 4, 2005 Religion & Ethics Newsweekly, Episode 823 Accessed 2006-12-30
  27. ^ a b DiCenso A. et al.: Interventions to Reduce Unintended Pregnancies Among Adolescents: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. British Medical Journal 2002;324:1426.
  28. ^ Ketting, E. & Visser, A., Contraception in the Netherlands: the low abortion rate explained. Patient Education and Counseling 23
  29. ^ www.ethesis.net {in Dutch)
  30. ^ Douglas Kirby, Ph. D.: Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy. National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2001. Homepage of the study.

Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf (1936) [Sexuality in the Culture Struggle], is a fundamental work by Wilhelm Reich. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A press release (sometimes known as a news release or press statement) is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Systematic reviews are named as the highest level of medical evidence, by evidence based medicine professionals. ... A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a form of clinical trial, or scientific procedure used in the testing of the efficacy of medicines or medical procedures. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sex Education that Works (3123 words)
Sex education, which is sometimes called sexuality education or sex and relationships education, is the process of acquiring information and forming attitudes and beliefs about sex, sexual identity, relationships and intimacy.
Sex education seeks both to reduce the risks of potentially negative outcomes from sexual behaviour like unwanted or unplanned pregnancies and infection with sexually transmitted diseases, and to enhance the quality of relationships.
Sex education that works, also helps equip young people with the skills to be able to differentiate between accurate and inaccurate information, discuss a range of moral and social issues and perspectives on sex and sexuality, including different cultural attitudes and sensitive issues like sexuality, abortion and contraception.
NPR : Sex Education in America (2496 words)
Although there may be some disconnect between the breadth of sex education Americans want taught and what is actually taught in many places, parents whose children have taken sex ed generally like their school's program.
And in spite of the fact that only 15 percent of Americans say they want abstinence-only sex education in the schools, 30 percent of the the principals of public middle schools and high schools where sex education is taught report that their schools teach abstinence-only.
Historically, the impetus for sex education in schools was teaching children about avoiding pregnancy and keeping them safe from sexually transmitted diseases, but many parents say they are more worried about the effects of sexual activity on their child's psyche.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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