FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sewing machine
Elias Howe's lockstitch machine, invented 1845
Elias Howe's lockstitch machine, invented 1845

A sewing machine is a textile machine used to stitch fabric or other material together with thread. Sewing machines were invented during the first Industrial Revolution with the intention of decreasing the amount of manual sewing work performed in cloth companies. Since its invention, the sewing machine has vastly improved the efficiency and productivity of fabric and clothing industries. Fabric may mean: Cloth, a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres Fabric (club), a London dance club Fibre Channel fabric, a network of Fibre Channel devices enabled by a Fibre Channel switch using the FC-SW topology This is a disambiguation page, a... Look up thread in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Sewn redirects here. ...


Though some older machines use a chain stitch, the basic stitch of a modern sewing machine consists of two threads and is known as lockstitch, though industrial machines are usually specialized for a specific task, and so different machines may produce a different type of stitch. Modern sewing machines are designed in such a way that the fabric easily glides in and out of the machine without the hassle of needles and thimbles, and other such tools used in hand sewing and automating the process of stitching, thus saving time. In sewing and embroidery, a chain stitch is a series of looped stitches that form a chain. ... The lockstitch is the mechanical stitch most commonly made by a sewing machine. ...


The fabric shifting mechanism may be a simple workguide or may be pattern-controlled (e.g., jacquard type). Some machines can create embroidery-type stitches. Some have a work holder frame. Some have a workfeeder that can move along a curved path, while others have a workfeeder with a work clamp. Jacquard loom on display at Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, which used the holes punched in pasteboard punched cardpunched card corresponded to one row of the design and the cards were strung together...

Needle plate, foot and transporter of a sewing machine
Needle plate, foot and transporter of a sewing machine
Singer sewing machine (detail 1)
Singer sewing machine (detail 1)

The main stitch of most older sewing machines, chain stitch, has one major drawback – it is very weak and the stitch can easily be pulled apart [1]. When the machines started being used, people realized a stitch more suited to machine production was needed, and it was found in the lock stitch. A lock stitch is created by two separate threads interlocking through the two layers of fabric, resulting in a sturdier stitch that looks the same from both sides of the fabric [2]. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1269 KB) Summary Needle plate, foot and transporter of a sewing machine. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1269 KB) Summary Needle plate, foot and transporter of a sewing machine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1792x1528, 432 KB) Beschrijving Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Sewing machine Isaac Singer ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1792x1528, 432 KB) Beschrijving Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Sewing machine Isaac Singer ...

Contents

History of the Sewing Machine

A Merrow A-Class machine
A Merrow A-Class machine
A Merrow 70-Class machine(2007)
A Merrow 70-Class machine(2007)

In 1790 British inventor Thomas Saint was the first to patent a design for a sewing machine[3]. His machine was meant to be used on leather and canvas. A working model was never built. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 695 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (825 × 712 pixel, file size: 251 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) merrow, merrow sewing machine company, this image is available for public use I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 695 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (825 × 712 pixel, file size: 251 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) merrow, merrow sewing machine company, this image is available for public use I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the... Merrow Sewing Machine Company, based in West Wareham, Massachusetts, is one of the most recognized brands of textile equipment in the world. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Merrow Sewing Machine Company, based in West Wareham, Massachusetts, is one of the most recognized brands of textile equipment in the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In 1830 a French tailor, Barthelemy Thimonnier, patented a sewing machine that sewed straight seams using chain stitch. By 1841 Thimonnier had a factory of 80 machines sewing uniforms for the French Army. The factory was destroyed by rioting French tailors afraid of losing their livelihood. Thimonnier had no further success with his machine. Barthelemy Thimonnier, born on August 19, 1793 in France, invented the first sewing machine that replicated sewing by hand. ...


Although the credit for the lock stitch machine is generally given to Elias Howe, Walter Hunt developed it first over ten years before, in 1834[4]. His machine used an eye-pointed needle (with the eye and the point on the same end) carrying the upper thread, and a shuttle carrying the lower thread. The curved needle moved through the fabric horizontally, leaving the loop as it withdrew. The shuttle passed through the loop, interlocking the thread. The feed let the machine down – requiring the machine to be stopped frequently to set up again. Hunt grew bored with his machine and sold it without bothering to patent it. Elias Howe Elias Howe (July 9, 1819 – October 3, 1867) was an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer. ... Walter Hunt (1796 - 1859) was an American mechanic, who lived and worked in New York State. ...


In 1842, John Greenough was patented the first sewing machine in the United States.


Elias Howe patented his machine in 1845; using a similar method to Hunt's, except the fabric was held vertically. The major improvement he made was to put a groove in the needle running away from the point, starting from the eye. After a lengthy stint in England trying to attract interest in his machine he returned to America to find various people infringing his patent. He eventually won his case in 1854 and was awarded the right to claim royalties from the manufacturers using ideas covered by his patent. Elias Howe Elias Howe (July 9, 1819 – October 3, 1867) was an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer. ...


Isaac Merritt Singer has become synonymous with the sewing machine. Trained as an engineer, he saw a rotary sewing machine being repaired in a Boston shop. He thought it to be clumsy and promptly set out to design a better one. His machine used a flying shuttle instead of a rotary one; the needle was mounted vertically and included a presser foot to hold the cloth in place. It had a fixed arm to hold the needle and included a basic tensioning system. For the Jewish American writer Isaac Bashevis Singer, see that article. ...


This machine combined elements of Thimonnier's, Hunt's, and Howe's machines. He was granted an American patent in 1851 and it was suggested he patent the foot pedal (or treadle) used to power some of his machines; however, it had been in use for too long for a patent to be issued. When Howe learned of Singer’s machine he took him to court. Howe won and Singer was forced to pay a lump sum for all machines already produced. Singer then took out a license under Howe’s patent and paid him $15 per machine. Singer then entered a joint partnership with a lawyer named Edward Clark, and they formed the first hire-purchase (time payment) scheme to allow people to afford to buy their machines.


Meanwhile Allen Wilson had developed a reciprocating shuttle, which was an improvement over Singer’s and Howe’s. However, John Bradshaw had patented a similar device and was threatening to sue. Wilson decided to change track and try a new method. He went into partnership with Nathaniel Wheeler to produce a machine with a rotary hook instead of a shuttle. This was far quieter and smoother than the other methods, and the Wheeler and Wilson Company produced more machines in 1850s and 1860s than any other manufacturer. Wilson also invented the four-motion feed mechanism; this is still seen on every machine today. This had a forward, down, back, and up motion, which drew the cloth through in an even and smooth motion. Alan Wilson, Allan Wilson, or Allen Wilson may refer to: Alan Wilson (born 1939), British scientist and social scientist Alan Wilson (historian), Welsh historian Alan Wilson (musician) (1943-1970), American blues singer Allan Wilson (1934-1991), New Zealand biologist Allan Wilson (Scottish politician) (born 1954), Labour Member of the Scottish... John Bradshaw (1602-59) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Nathaniel Wheeler was the founder and executive of many companies in Bridgeport, CT in the 1800s. ...


Through the 1850s more and more companies were being formed and were trying to sue each other. Charles Miller patented the first machine to stitch buttonholes (US10609). In 1856 the Sewing Machine Combination was formed, consisting of Singer, Howe, Wheeler and Wilson, and Grover and Baker. These four companies pooled their patents, meaning that all the other manufacturers had to obtain a license and pay $15 per machine. This lasted until 1877 when the last patent expired. There have been many people named Charles Miller Charles Miller (inventor) - first U.S. sewing machine to stitch buttonholes (US10609) Charles William Miller father of Brazilian football Charlie Miller Scottish footballer Charles Miller musician in War Charles Miller actor Charles Miller president of Duromatic Products Charles Miller polo player at...


In the 1840s a machine shop was established at the Merrow mill to develop specialized machinery for the knitting operations. In 1877 the world’s first crochet machine was invented and patented by Joseph M. Merrow, then-president of the company. This crochet machine was the first production overlock sewing machine. The Merrow Machine Company went on to become one of the largest American Manufacturers of overlock sewing machines, and continues to be a global presence in the 21st century as the last American overlock sewing machine manufacturer. Detail of a crocheted doily, Sweden Crochet (IPA: krəʊʃeɪ) is a process of creating fabric from yarn or thread using a crochet hook. ... The purl stitch (2007) An overlock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. ... “Merrow” redirects here. ... The purl stitch (2007) An overlock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. ...


James Edward Allen Gibbs (1829-1902), a farmer from Raphine in Rockbridge County, Virginia patented the first chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine on June 2, 1857. In partnership with James Wilcox, Gibbs became a principal in Wilcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Company. Wilcox & Gibbs commercial sewing machines are still used in the 21st century. James Edward Allen Gibbs (1829-1902) was a farmer, inventor, and businessman from Rockbridge County in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. ... James Wilcox is an American novelist born in 1949 in Hammond, Louisiana. ...


In 1905 Merrow won a lawsuit against Wilcox & Gibbs for the rights to the original crochet stitch Merrow Sewing Machine Company, based in West Wareham, Massachusetts, is one of the most recognized brands of textile equipment in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sewing machines continued being made to roughly the same design, with more lavish decoration appearing until well into the 1900s when the first electric machines started to appear. The first electric machines were developed by Singer Sewing Co. and introduced in 1889[5]. At first these were standard machines with a motor strapped on the side. As more homes gained power, these became more popular and the motor was gradually introduced into the casing.


In 1946, the first TOYOTA sewing machine was built under the strict supervision of TOYOTA founder, Mr. Kiichiro Toyoda. Mr. Toyoda had a strong belief that home-use products must be "functional yet beautiful".


Modern machines may be computer controlled and use stepper motors or sequential cams to achieve very complex patterns. Most of these are now made in Asia and the market is becoming more specialized, as fewer families own a sewing machine.


Stitch formation

Sewing machines can make a great variety of plain or patterned stitches. Ignoring strictly decorative aspects, over three dozen distinct stitch formations are formally recognized by the ISO 4915:1991 standard (for a summary see [2], [3], or [4]), involving one to seven separate threads to form the stitch. Plain stitches fall into four general categories: lockstitch, chainstitch, overlock, and coverstitch. The lockstitch is the mechanical stitch most commonly made by a sewing machine. ...


Lock stitch is the familiar stitch performed by most household sewing machines and most industrial "single needle" sewing machines from two threads, one passed through a needle and one coming from a bobbin or shuttle. Each thread stays on the same side of the material being sewn, interlacing with the other thread at each needle hole. Industrial lockstitch machines with two needles, each forming an independent lockstitch with their own bobbin, are also very common. The lockstitch is the mechanical stitch most commonly made by a sewing machine. ...


Chain stitch is less widely used than lockstitch, but it is preferred over lockstitch for applications like sealing bags of grain, garment seams likely to be altered, and as a "safety stitch" on serging machines. A chain stitch may be formed with either one or two distinct threads, one passed through a needle and the other, if used, manipulated by a looper, a device which moves back and forth but does not pass through the fabric. The needle thread is formed on both sides of the material being sewn, and on the bottom of the material either crosses through loops of itself (single thread) or loops of the second thread to prevent it from pulling back to the top of the material. Most household chainstitch machines are either very old, or toys intended for children. Industrial chainstitch machines are still heavily used in their application areas. In sewing and embroidery, a chain stitch is a series of looped stitches that form a chain. ...


Lockstitch and chainstitch can be formed any distance from the edge of the material being sewn.


Overlock can only be formed at the edge itself, where one or more threads pass over the edge. Varieties of overlock stitch can be formed with one to four threads, one or two needles, and one or two loopers. Overlock sewing machines are usually equipped with knives that trim or create the edge immediately in front of the stitch formation. Household and industrial overlock machines are commonly used for garment seams in knit or stretchy fabrics, for garment seams where a clean finish is not required, and for protecting edges against ravelling. Machines using two to four threads are most common, and frequently one machine can be configured for several varieties of overlock stitch. Overlock machines with five or more threads usually make both a chainstitch with one needle and one looper, and an overlock stitch with the remaining needles and loopers. This combination is known as a "safety stitch". Household overlock machines are widely used. The purl stitch (2007) An overlock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. ...


Coverstitch is formed by two or more needles and one or two loopers. Like lockstitch and chainstitch, coverstitch can be formed anywhere on the material being sewn. One looper manipulates a thread below the material being sewn, forming a bottom cover stitch against the needle threads. An additional looper above the material can form a top cover stitch simultaneously. The needle threads form parallel rows, while the looper threads cross back and forth all the needle rows. Coverstitch is so-called because the grid of crossing needle and looper threads covers raw seam edges, much as the overlock stitch does. It is widely used in garment construction, particularly for attaching trims and flat seaming where the raw edges can be finished in the same operation as forming the seam. Machines with three needles are most common, and can be configured to use any two or all three of the needles. Machines with six or more needles are often used for applications like fastening elastic waistbands to garments. Household coverstitch machines are fairly rare, but are becoming more readily available.


Feed mechanisms

Besides the basic motion of needles, loopers and bobbins, all but the most trivial of stitches also requires the material being sewn to move so that each cycle of needle motion involves a different part of the material. This motion is known as feed, and sewing machines have almost as many ways of feeding material as they do of forming stitches. For general categories, we have: drop feed, needle feed, walking foot, puller, and manual. Often, multiple types of feed are used on the same machine. Besides these general categories, there are also uncommon feed mechanisms used in specific applications like edge joining fur, making seams on caps, and blindstitching. A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound. ...


Drop feed involves a mechanism below the sewing surface of the machine. When the needle is withdrawn from the material being sewn, a set of "dogs" is pushed up through slots in the machine surface, then dragged horizontally past the needle. The dogs are serrated to grip the material, and a "presser foot" is used to keep the material in contact with the dogs. At the end of their horizontal motion, the dogs are lowered again and returned to their original position while the needle makes its next pass through the material. While the needle is in the material, there is no feed action. Almost all household machines and the majority of industrial machines use drop feed. Differential feed is a variation of drop feed with two independent sets of dogs, one before and one after the needle. By changing their relative motions, these sets of dogs can be used to stretch or compress the material in the vicinity of the needle. This is extremely useful when sewing stretchy material, and overlock machines (heavily used for such materials) frequently have differential feed.


Needle feed moves the material while the needle is in the material. In fact, the needle may be the primary feeding force. Some implementations of needle feed rock the axis of needle motion back and forth, while other implementations keep the axis vertical while moving it forward and back. In both cases, there is no feed action while the needle is out of the material. Needle feed is often used in conjunction with a modified drop feed, and is very common on industrial two needle machines. The advantage of needle feed over drop feed is that multiple layers of material, especially slippery material, can not slide with respect to one another, since the needle holds all layers together while the feed action takes place. Household machines do not use needle feed as a general rule.


A walking foot replaces the stationary presser foot with one that moves with the feed. A machine might have a single walking foot, or two walking feet with alternating action, and either drop feed or needle feed might be used as well. Walking foot feed is most often used for sewing heavy materials where needle feed is mechanically inadequate. It is also helpful with spongy or cushioned materials where lifting the foot out of contact with the material helps in the feeding action. Only a very few household machines have a walking foot, but this type of feed is common in industrial heavy duty machines.


Factory machines are sometimes set up with an auxiliary puller feed, which grips the material being sewn (usually from behind the needles) and pulls it with a force and reliability usually not possible with other types of feed. Puller feeds are seldom built directly into the basic sewing machine. Their action must be synchronized with the needle and feed action built into the machine to avoid damaging the machine. Pullers are also limited to straight seams, or very nearly so. Despite their additional cost and limitations, pulling feeds are very useful when making large heavy items like tents and vehicle covers.


Manual feed is used primarily in freehand embroidery, quilting, and shoe repair. With manual feed, the stitch length and direction is controlled entirely by the motion of the material being sewn. Frequently some form of hoop or stabilizing material is used with fabric to keep the material under proper tension and aid in moving it around. Most household machines can be set for manual feed by disengaging the drop feed dogs. Most industrial machines can not be used for manual feed without actually removing the feed dogs.


Finally, we turn to zig-zag and decorative stitches. Household machines perform only lockstitch, but almost all of them can do so in many different directions. By moving the needle from side to side, and changing the feed direction and distance, both fancy and utilitarian patterns can be sewn. The simplest example is zig-zag, where the needle moves to the left for one pass through the material, then to the right for the next pass. A household "blind stitch" takes several stitches in a straight line followed by one stitch to the right, then back to the original line. In older machines, the needle and feed motion is controlled by mechanical cams. Some household machines even offer a slot for user-replaceable custom stitch cams. In more recent designs, the needle and feed motion is controlled by electric motors. By adding controlled motion of the material being sewn through an additional set of motors, arbitrary customized patterns of 100cm or more in each direction can be sewn, opening the door to the very popular category of programmable household embroidery machines.


While even extremely basic household sewing machines have zig-zag and a small selection of other stitch patterns, industrial machines do not. Industrial zig-zag machines are available, but uncommon. There are essentially no fancy-pattern stitching industrial machines, other than dedicated embroidery and edge decoration machines. Most industrial machines sew only a straight line of stitches. Even something as simple as a bar-tack or a buttonhole stitch is usually done by a dedicated machine incapable of doing anything else. When a variety of decorative stitching is required rather than a single stitch, a "commercial" machine (basically a heavy duty household machine) is usually employed.


Mechanical configurations

In addition to stitch formation and feed, sewing machines can differ widely in mechanical configuration. The generally recognized configurations are: flat-bed, cylinder-bed, post-bed, and off-the-arm. With the exception of overlock, all basic stitch types and feed mechanisms are available in all these mechanical configurations. Some special applications have distinctive mechanical configurations. For example, industrial blindstitch machines are almost always configured with a cylinder bed and a swing-away auxiliary flat bed.


Most household and industrial sewing machines are flat-bed configurations where the material being sewn feeds across a simple horizontal surface. Flat-bed machines are frequently mounted in a table or cabinet whose top surface is flush with the machine bed, effectively extending the machine bed to an arbitrary size. The flat-bed configuration is excellent for general work. Its primarily limitation is making seams in material that can not be flattened out around the needle, usually due to existing seams or the rigidity of the material being sewn.


The household "free arm" machine is a variation on the industrial cylinder-bed configuration. The material being sewn feeds perpendicular to the axis of a horizontal column containing the feed dogs, bobbins and/or loopers. The fabric can pass freely under and around the column. The cylinder-bed configuration is widely used, and is ideal for operations like attaching cuffs or hems to material already sewn into cylinders. It is also popular for work on non-flat objects like shoes and saddles. The size and cross section of a cylinder-bed varies substantially. Some cylinders are actually cylindrical with a diameter as small as 5 centimeters, or 16 centimeters in circumference. Others, like the household "free arm" have a distinct flat top surface and may be as much as 50 centimeters in circumference.


In a post-bed configuration, the material being sewn feeds across the end of a vertical column containing the feed dogs, bobbins, and/or loopers. The fabric can drape freely downward in all directions. This configuration is never seen in household machines, and is less common in industrial machines than the cylinder-bed configuration. Post-bed machines are used for operations with difficult access to the work area like glove making, shoe repair and attaching trims to mostly-completed garments. A height of a post-bed is not adjustable, but different models range in height from 10 to 45 centimeters, with 18 centimeters being common.


The off-the-arm configuration uses the third remaining possibility for feed direction with respect to a column. The material being sewn feeds along the axis of a horizontal column containing the feed dogs, bobbins, and/or loopers. The length of the column places a limit on the length of the seam that can be sewn, so this is the least common of the four basic mechanical configurations. However, off-the-arm machines are unexcelled for sewing sleeve and shoulder seams or other lengthwise seams that form a tube or cylinder. Multiple needle machines are common in the off-the-arm configuration, set up for double lap seaming, taping or flat-seaming in a single operation. Rarely, a machine will be set up to feed in the opposite direction or up-the-arm.


References

  1. ^ [1] The Home Sewing Machine
  2. ^ The Home Sewing Machine
  3. ^ Sewing Machines
  4. ^ A Brief History of the Sewing Machine
  5. ^ Sewing Machine History - Invention of the Sewing Machine

See also

The Textile industry (also known in the United Kingdom and Australia as the Rag Trade) is a term used for industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles . ... Home appliances are electrical/mechanical appliances which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking or cleaning. ... The purl stitch (2007) An overlock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. ... Merrow Sewing Machine Company, based in West Wareham, Massachusetts, is one of the most recognized brands of textile equipment in the world. ... Bernina is Swiss company that manufactors sewing machines. ... A Singers sewing machine // History Singer Corporation was established as I.M. Singer & Co. ... Pfaff is a manufacturer of sewing machines and is now owned by the VSM Group AB [1]. [edit] External link Pfaff Website Category: ... This article is about Husqvarna Sewing Machines. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Sewn redirects here. ... In sewing, to tack or baste is to make quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed. ... Cut in clothing, sewing and tailoring, is the style or shape of a garment as opposed to its fabric or trimmings. ... Cashmere darn, a fine darning technique for twill fabric, from The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. ... For other uses see Dressmaker (disambiguation) A dressmaker is a person who makes custom clothing for women, such as dresses, blouses, and evening gowns. ... Embellishment is a term used in sewing and crafts. ... Paul Revere in a shirt gathered at shoulder and cuffs, 1776. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Skirt with narrow knife pleats at the hip line, 1929. ... Portrait of a woman wearing a heavily ruffled cap, 1789 . In sewing and dressmaking, a ruffle or frill is a strip of fabric, lace or ribbon tightly gathered or pleated on one edge and applied to a garment, bedding, curtain or other textile as a form of trimming. ... A style line is a line (or curve) in a garment that has a visual effect, e. ... A tailor attending to a customer in Hong Kong. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 1-D stitch. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Buttonhole stitch in embroidery Detached buttonhole stitch Buttonhole stitch and the related blanket stitch are hand-sewing stitches used in tailoring, embroidery, and needle lace-making. ... In sewing and embroidery, a chain stitch is a series of looped stitches that form a chain. ... A sample cross-stitch of a Welsh dresser Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches are used to form a picture. ... In everyday language, a stitch in the context of embroidery or hand-sewing is defined as the movement of the embroidery needle from the backside of the fabric to the front side and back to the back side. ... The lockstitch is the mechanical stitch most commonly made by a sewing machine. ... The purl stitch (2007) An overlock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging, hemming or seaming. ... A running stitch is worked by passing the needle in and out of the fabric. ... Sashiko literally little stabs) is a form of decorative reinforcement stitching (or functional embroidery) from Japan. ... In sewing, to tack or baste is to make quick, temporary stitching intended to be removed. ... The inseams extend from the bottom of the crotch to the bottom hem of the pant legs. ... Seam allowance is the area between the edge and the stitching line on two (or more) pieces of material being stitched together. ... Bias tape or bias binding is a narrow strip of fabric, cut on the bias (UK cross-grain). ... Interfacing is a common term for a variety of materials used on the unseen or wrong side of fabrics in sewing. ... Passementerie of applied gold cord and embroidery worn by Henry VIII of England (detail of a portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. ... In sewing and fashion design, a pattern is an original garment from which other garments of a similar style are copied, or the paper or cardboard templates from which the parts of a garment are traced onto fabric before cutting out and assembling (sometimes called paper patterns). ... The Simplicity Pattern Company is the maker of the Simplicity Pattern, Its So Easy and New Look brands of sewing pattern guides. ... Trim or trimming in clothing and home decorating is applied ornament such as gimp, passementerie, ribbon, ruffles, or, as a verb, to apply such ornament. ... Twill tape is a flat twill-woven ribbon of cotton, linen, polyester, or wool. ... For other uses, see Button (disambiguation). ... A small flat button Metal, plastic and leather shank buttons. ... A Frog is an ornamental braiding for fastening the front of a garment that consists of a button and a loop through which it passes. ... Buttons with shanks. ... Snap fastener (male and female discs) A snap fastener is a pair of interlocking discs commonly used in place of buttons to fasten clothing. ... Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ... Zipper slider brings together the two sides A zipper (British English: zip fastener or zip) is a popular device for temporarily joining two edges of fabric. ... The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as the bias, is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... The Selvage of a piece of curtain fabric. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... A bobbin is a spindle or cylinder, with or without flanges, on which wire, yarn, thread or film is wound. ... A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together. ... A pincushion (or less commonly pin cushion) is a small cushion, typically 3-5 cm across, which is used in sewing to store pins with their heads protruding so as to take hold of them easily. ... Pinking shears Pinking shears are scissors, the blades of which are sawtoothed instead of straight. ... For other uses, see Scissors (disambiguation). ... A seam ripper is a small tool used for unpicking stitches. ... Needles used for sewing A sewing needle is a long slender object with a pointed tip. ... A stitching awl is a simple tool with which holes can be punctured in a variety of materials, or existing holes can be enlarged. ... Self-retracting pocket tape measure plastic tape measure A tape measure or measuring tape is a ribbon of cloth, plastic, or metal with linear-measure markings, often in both imperial and metric units. ... A thimble A thimble is a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb. ... Tracing paper is a type of translucent paper. ... A tracing wheel is a sewing tool that is used to transfer markings from patterns onto fabric using tracing paper. ... Categories: Stub ... In a sewing machine, feed dogs are the feeder mechanism which is typically used to pull fabric through a sewing mechanism. ... A needle guard is a piece of a sewing machine that prevents you from sewing your finger. ... Pfaff is a manufacturer of sewing machines and is now owned by the VSM Group AB [1]. [edit] External link Pfaff Website Category: ... A Singer treadle sewing machine Singer Corporation is a United States of America manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I.M. Singer & Co. ... A type of sewing machine used in the finishing process in the bedding industy. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Howstuffworks "HowStuffWorks - Sewing Machines - How Sewing Machines Work" (1963 words)
Sewing machines are something like cars: There are hundreds of models on the market, and they vary considerably in price and performance.
In the last section, we saw that the heart of a sewing machine is the loop stitch.
Obviously, this sort of high-tech sewing machine is a lot more complex than the fully manual sewing machines of 200 years ago, but they are both built around the same simple stitching system: A needle passes a loop of thread through a piece of fabric, where it is wound around another length of thread.
sewing machine: Definition and Much More From Answers.com (2451 words)
Machine for stitching material (such as cloth or leather), usually having a needle and shuttle to carry thread and powered by treadle or electricity.
In the chain-stitch machine, which uses a single thread, the loop is held under the seam while the needle rises, the cloth is fed forward, and the needle descends again, engaging the loop and drawing it flat under the cloth.
His machine used a flying shuttle instead of a rotary one; the needle was mounted vertically and included a presser foot to hold the cloth in place.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m