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Encyclopedia > Sewer
Look up sewer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A sewer is an artificial conduit (or pipe) or system of conduits used to carry and remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. In the 21st century developed world, sewers are usually pipelines that begin with connecting pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground horizontal mains, which terminate at sewage treatment facilities. Vertical pipes, called manholes, connect the mains to the surface. Sewers are generally gravity powered, though pumps may be used if necessary. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Sewn redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... For other uses, see Manhole (disambiguation). ... This article is about a mechanical device. ...


Storm sewers (also storm drains) (both are American English terms that are usually replaced in the United Kingdom by the term "sewer") are large pipes that transport storm water runoff from streets to natural bodies of water or absorptive areas (also considered as part of the sewer), to avoid street flooding. When the two systems are operated separately, the sewer system that is not the set of storm drains is called a sanitary sewer. Storm drain in use A storm drain, storm sewer, stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) or surface water system (UK) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from paved streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and roofs. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... A city-centre street in Frankfurt, Germany A residential street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA A street is a public thoroughfare in the built environment. ... A sanitary sewer (also called, especially in the UK, a foul sewer) is a type of underground carriage system for transporting sewage from houses or industry to treatment or disposal. ...

Image of a sewer pipe
Image of a sewer pipe

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 171 KB) This image is a work of a United States Geological Survey employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 171 KB) This image is a work of a United States Geological Survey employee, taken or made during the course of the persons official duties. ...

Storm sewer function

Catchbasins are immediately below the vertical pipes connecting the surface to the storm sewers. While sewer grates covering the vertical pipes prevent large objects from falling into the sewer system, the grates are spaced far enough apart that many small objects can fall through. The area immediately below the catchbasin "catches" such detritus. Water from the top of the catchbasin drains into the sewer proper. The catchbasin serves much the same function as the "trap" in household wastewater plumbing in trapping objects. Unlike the trap, the catchbasin does not necessarily prevent sewer gases such as hydrogen sulfide and methane from escaping. Catchbasins contain stagnant water and can be used by mosquitoes for breeding. Catchbasins require regular cleaning to remove the trapped debris. Municipalities typically have large vacuum trucks that clean out catchbasins. Curb, gutter, and grating covering a storm drain A grating is any regularly spaced collection of essentially identical, parallel, elongated elements. ... Detritus may refer to: In geology, detritus is the name for loose fragments of rock that have been worn away by erosion. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ...


Storm sewer water may be treated or not, depending on jurisdiction. Treatment helps purify the storm water before being restored to a natural body of water. Storm water may become contaminated while running down the road or other impervious surface, or from lawn chemical runoff, before entering the sewer. It is a good idea to separate storm sewers from waste sewers because the huge influx of water during a rainstorm can overwhelm the treatment plant, resulting in untreated sewage being discharged into the environment. Usually storm sewers are designed to drain the storm water to rivers or streams as previously described, in the city of Cleveland, Ohio for example on any new catch basins installed have inscriptions on them not to dump any waste usually with a fish imprint as well. Washington, D.C. and other cities with older combined systems have this problem after every heavy rain. Some cities have dealt with this by adding large storage tanks or ponds to hold the water until it can be treated. Chicago has a system of tunnels underneath the city for storing its stormwater.[1] Impervious surfaces are artificial structures, such as pavements and building roofs, which replace naturally pervious soil with impervious construction materials. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A Combined sewer is a type of sewer system which provides partially separated channels for sanitary sewage and stormwater runoff. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


However, completely separating storm sewers from sanitary sewers often means no treatment of stormwater, which is not desirable either, as the first flush from storm runoff can be extremely dirty, although some of the contaminants in the runoff, such as heavy metals, oils and many chemicals, are not removed through waste water treatment systems anyway. Runoff into storm sewers can be minimized by including sustainable urban drainage systems (UK term) or low impact development practices (U.S. term) into municipal plans. Eaves troughs should not discharge directly into the storm sewer system but rather onto the ground where it has a chance to soak into the soil. Where possible, storm water runoff should be directed to unlined ditches before flowing into the storm sewers, again to allow the runoff to soak into the ground. A sanitary sewer (also called, especially in the UK, a foul sewer) is a type of underground carriage system for transporting sewage from houses or industry to treatment or disposal. ... Stormwater is a term used to describe water that originates during precipitation events. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are designed to reduce the potential of flooding on new and existing urban developments. ... A concept that began in Prince Georges County, Maryland in 1990, Low Impact Development (LID) began as an alternative to traditional best management stormwater management practices. ...


Separation of undesired runoff can be done within the storm sewer system, but such devices are new to the market and can only be installed with new development or during major upgrades. They are referred to as oil-grit separators (OGS) or oil-sediment separators (OSS). They consist of a specialized manhole chamber, and use the water flow and/or gravity to separate oil and grit. For other uses, see Manhole (disambiguation). ...


History

The earliest covered sewers uncovered by archaeologists are in the regularly planned cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. In ancient Rome, the Cloaca Maxima, considered a marvel of engineering, disgorged into the Tiber. In medieval European cities, small natural waterways used for carrying off wastewater were eventually covered over and functioned as sewers. London's River Fleet is such a system. Open drains along the center of some streets were known as 'kennels' (= canals, channels). The 19th century brick-vaulted sewer system of Paris offers tours for tourists. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... For the album by CMX, see Cloaca Maxima (album). ... Tiber River in Rome. ... Entrance to the Fleet River, Samuel Scott, c. ... A kennel is the name given to any structure or shelter for dogs. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Sewers in non-fiction

The image of the sewer recurs in European culture as they were often used as hiding places or routes of escape by the scorned or the hunted, including partisans and resistance fighters in WWII. The only survivors from the Warsaw Ghetto made their final escape through city sewers. Some have commented that the engravings of imaginary prisons by Piranesi were inspired by the Cloaca Maxima, one of the world's earliest sewers. Monument to the Ghetto Heroes in Warsaw The Warsaw Ghetto was the largest of the Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany in Warsaw, former capital of Poland in the General Government during the Holocaust in World War II. Between 1941 and 1943, starvation, disease and deportations to concentration camps and... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi (4th October 1720 in Mogliano Veneto (near Treviso) - 9th November 1778 in Rome) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious prisons. Etching of the Pyramid of Cestius Piranesi studied his art at Rome, where the remains of that city... For the album by CMX, see Cloaca Maxima (album). ...


Sewers in fiction

The theme of traveling through, hiding, or even residing in sewers is a common cliché in media, where unsanitary conditions or the strong smell of sewage are seldom mentioned. A famous example of sewer dwelling is Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... TMNT redirects here. ...


Sewer alligators

A well-known urban legend, the sewer alligator, is that of giant alligators or crocodiles residing in sewers, especially of major metropolitan areas. The Thomas Pynchon novel, 'V.', features extended passages in which one of the protagonists, Benny Profane, works with a fictional New York City task force to track alligators in the city sewers. His goal is to bag the great albino alligator, reputed to inhabit the system. This literary conceit grows from the persistent urban legend that baby pet alligators, flushed down toilets by tourists returning from Florida, continue to live and flourish in the pipes below. An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... A model of an alligator emerging from a sewer in a mall. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... book cover V. is the debut novel of Thomas Pynchon published in 1963, concerning the journey of discharged U.S. Navy sailor Benny Profane through a decadent group of artists in 1956, along with the attempt of an aging traveller named Herbert Stencil to locate the mysterious woman he knows... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... Albino Alligator is a 1996 film directed by Kevin Spacey. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Two public sculptures in New York depict an alligator dragging a hapless victim into a manhole.[1]


Alligators have been known to get into combined storm sewers in the Southeastern United States. Closed-circuit television by a sewer repair company captured an alligator in a combined storm sewer on tape. [2]


Accidents

A sewer main in Guadalajara, Mexico had to be diverted down through an inverted siphon (culvert) to allow space for a metro railway to be built. The inverted siphon allowed water and waste to pass, but not fumes. Petrol which spilled or leaked into the sewer on one side of the inverted siphon could not easily escape to the safe exit on the other side, and petrol vapor accumulated and finally exploded killing hundreds. These explosions occurred in 1983 and most seriously on April 22, 1992. Coordinates: , Country State Foundation 1542 Government  - Mayor Alfonso Petersen Farah ( PAN) Area  - City 187. ... Not to be confused with Psiphon. ... A culvert is a flowing body of water which passes underneath a road, railway, or embankment, or the part thereof that does so. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


A sewer trap is a U-shaped bend in a water conduit, as found on toilets, and wash basin outlets. Most of the time, traps are used to block the fumes, but not the waste and water. Water seal under a sink. ... Sewer gas is gases produced in sewers by decomposing sewage and other decomposing organic matter. ...


Lessons learned

The sewer inverted siphon should have had a second siphon over the metro tunnel to allow fumes to get from one side to the other, as if the metro tunnel were not there. Not to be confused with Psiphon. ...


Notes

  1. ^ 1996-06-01. "Chicago digs deep to better manage stormwater" American City & Country, via americancityandcountry.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-16.

Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sewers

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The 1992 explosion in Guadalajara took place on April 22 in the downtown district of Analco. ... // History Early in the 19th century the town of Brighton, then known as Brighthelmstone, had a population of around 7000. ... A chemical toilet is a toilet using chemicals to disinfect the waste instead of simply storing it in a hole, or piping it away to a sewage treatment plant. ... Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan, is a modern alternative to conventional sanitation techniques. ... Humanure is a neologism designating human waste (feces and urine) that is recycled via composting for agricultural or other purposes. ... Male Latrine. ... The new Abbey Mills Pumping Station The original Abbey Mills pumping station The London sewerage system is part of the water infrastructure serving London. ... The Orangi Pilot Project refers to a project carried out in the slum areas of Orangi, Karachi, Pakistan. ... Outhouse near Crabapple Lake, Washington, United States, with wafer board walls, and a fiberglass ceiling An outhouse, (also known as a privy, kybo, jakes or earth-closet) usually refers to a type of toilet in a small structure separate from the main building which does not have a flush or... Pit toilet in Tunisia A pit toilet is a method of collection of human waste, used for composting, controlled decomposition, or waste disposal used most often in areas with no sewer system. ... A septic tank, the key component of a septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes provided by private corporations or local governments. ... Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ... example of a JE Webb type lamp // Gasses forming in sewers can be a potentially smelly and explosive hazard (chiefly due to methane). ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Grease traps (also known as grease interceptors, and grease recovery devices) are . ... An infiltration gallery is a structure used to supplement a storm sewer, by directing storm runoff from non-road areas. ...

Images

External links

  • History of sewers
  • Dealing with Sewer and Manhole Odors

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sewer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1125 words)
A well-known urban legend, known as Sewer alligator, is that of giant alligators or crocodiles residing in sewers, especially of major metropolitan areas.
A sewer main in Guadalajara, Mexico had to be diverted down through an inverted siphon (culvert) to allow space for a metro railway to be built.
A Sewer trap is a U-shaped bend in a water conduit, as found on toilets, and wash basin outlets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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