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Encyclopedia > Severnaya Zemlya
Severnaya Zemlya, Russia

Severnaya Zemlya (Russian: Се́верная Земля́, Northern Land) is an archipelago located in the Russian high Arctic at around 80°00′N, 100°00′E. Located off Siberia's Taymyr Peninsula between the Kara and Laptev Seas in the Arctic Ocean, Severnaya Zemlya was first noted in 1913 and first charted in 1933, making it the last archipelago on Earth to be discovered. Politically, they are part of Russia's Krasnoyarsk Krai. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Taymyr Peninsula is a peninsula in Siberia that forms the most northern part of mainland Asia. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian: ) (2002 pop. ...


It is annotated in the Dorling Kindersley Reference Atlas of the World as "Novosibiskiye Ostrova" (New Siberian Islands). However, that is an entirely separate archipelago. New Siberian Islands (Russian: Новосиби́рские острова), an archipelago, located to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ...

Contents

History

Satellite image of Severnaya Zemlya, courtesy NASA
Satellite image of Severnaya Zemlya, courtesy NASA

Although located not far off the northern coast of Russia, Severnaya Zemlya was not formally recorded until the 20th century, although earlier explorers gave reports of a land mass in the general area, most notably a report by Matvey Hedenstrom and Yakov Sannikov in 1810 from their explorations out of Novaya Sibir. [1] Sattelite image of Severnaya Zemlya, from http://visibleearth. ... Sattelite image of Severnaya Zemlya, from http://visibleearth. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... New Siberia (Russian: Но́вая Сиби́рь; English transliteration: Novaya Sibir) is one of the New Siberian Islands lying between the Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea. ...


Nested among the ice-locked waters of the Arctic Ocean, Severnaya Zemlya was not recorded until the 1913-1915 expedition of the icebreaker ships Taimyr and Vaigach on a hydrographic expedition led by Boris Vilkitsky to exploring the Northern Sea Route. On August 22, 1913 (September 3, 1913 in the Gregorian calendar), the expedition raised the Russian flag on what they believed to be a single island and named it "Nicholas II Land," after the Emperor of Russia. [2] [3] It was given the name "Severnaya Zemlya" in 1928. [4] Icebreaker Polarstern Track of research vessel Polarstern while breaking ice in the Southern Ocean An icebreaker is a special purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters. ... Boris Andreyevich Vilkitsky (Вилькицкий, Борис Андреевич in Russian)(3. ... The Northern Sea Route (Russian Северный морской путь) is a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast of Russia. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The 1931 polar flight of the Graf Zeppelin determined that there were at least two islands. Later study by the expedition of Nikolay Urvantsev and Georgy Ushakov (19311933) showed Severnaya Zemlya to be further divided, and the first detailed map of the archipelago was made during this expedition. [5] The islands were further studied by a team of geologists from NIIGA (the Scientific Research Institute of Arctic Geology) in St. Petersburg under B. Kh. Egiazarov from 1948 to 1954, who compiled a comprehensive geological map. [6] Graf Zeppelin, filled with abundant hydrogen, circumnavigated the globe. ... Nikolay Nikolayevich Urvantsev (Russian: , 1893–1995) was a Soviet geologist and explorer. ... Georgy Alexeyevich Ushakov (Russian: ) (January 17(30), 1901 - December 3, 1963) was a Soviet explorer of the Arctic, Doctor of Geographic Sciences (1950). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...


Resolution approved December 1, 2006 - the archipelago "Severnaya Zemlya" has been renamed as "arkhipelag Zemlya Imperatora Nikolaia II" in honor of Emperor Nicholas II; the island "Maly Taimyr" is renamed as the island of the Tsarevich Alexy; the island "October Revolution" is renamed as the island of St. Alexandra; the island "Bolshevik" is renamed as the island of St. Olga; the island "Komsomoletz" is renamed as the island of St. Maria; the island "Pioneer" is renamed as the island of St. Tatiana; the island "Domashny" is renamed as the island of St. Anastasia.[7]


Geography

Severnaya Zemlya is located in the Arctic Ocean across the Vilkitsky Strait from the mainland Taymyr Peninsula, between the Kara Sea to the west and the Laptev Sea to the east. It is comprised of four major islands — October Revolution, Bolshevik, Komsomolets, and Pioneer — and around 70 smaller islands, covering a total area of about 37,000 km² (14,300 sq mi). [8] Created from Image:RussiaKrasnoyarsk. ... Vilkitsky Strait, Russia. ... Taymyr Peninsula is a peninsula in Siberia that forms the most northern part of mainland Asia. ... A map showing the location of the Kara Sea. ... A map showing the location of the Laptev Sea. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


October Revolution

October Revolution Island (Russian: Остров Октябрьской Революции, Ostrov Oktyabrskoy Revolyutsii) is the largest island of the Severnaya Zemlya group. The area of this island has been estimated at 14,170 km² (5,471 sq mi) and it rises to a height of 965 m (3,170 ft) on Mount Karpinsky. Half the island is covered with glaciers reaching down into the sea. In the sections free from ice, the vegetation is desert or tundra. October Revolution Island (Russian: Остров Октябрьской Революции, Ostrov Oktyabrskoy Revolyutsii) is the largest island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic. ... October Revolution Island (Russian: Остров Октябрьской Революции, Ostrov Oktyabrskoy Revolyutsii) is the largest island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... Mount Karpinsky is the highest point on the Russian Arctic island of October Revolution at 965 m. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


Bolshevik

Bolshevik Island (Russian: о́стров Большеви́к IPA [ostrəv bəlʲʂɨˈvʲik]) is the southernmost and second largest island in the group, located across the Shokalsky Strait from October Revolution Island. The area of this island has been estimated at 11,312 km² (4,368 sq mi). The island is mountainous reaching a height of 935 m (3,070 ft), and it houses an arctic base named Prima. About 30% of the island is covered by glaciers, while the coastal plains have a sparse vegetation of moss and lichen. Bolshevik Island (Russian: Остров Большевик) is the southernmost island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic, and the second largest island in the group. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as the phycobiont) that can produce food for the lichen from sunlight. ...


Bolshevik Island houses at least three glacier systems: Leningrad and Semenov-Tyan Shansky glaciers, as well as a smaller glacier, Kropotkin. [9]


Komsomolets

Komsomolets Island (Russian: остров Комсомолец) is the northernmost island group in the Russian Arctic, and the third largest island in the group. The northernmost point of the island is called the Arctic Cape. The area of this island has been estimated at 9,006 km² (3,477 sq mi) and it rises to a height of 780 m (2,600 ft). Some 65% of island are covered with glaciers, which is mostly composed of loose loam and sands. The island was first explored and named by the expedition of Georgy Ushakov and Nikolay Urvantsev in 1930 - 32. In keeping with their scheme of naming the islands after events and movements of the Russian Revolution, this island was named in honour of the members of the Komsomol, the "Communist Union of Youth". Komsomolets Island (Russian: остров Комсомолец) is the northernmost island of the Severnaya Zemlya group in the Russian Arctic, and the third largest island in the group. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The Arctic Cape is the northernmost point of Komsomolets Island, which in turn is the northernmost island of the Russian Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Georgy Alexeyevich Ushakov (Russian: ) (January 17(30), 1901 - December 3, 1963) was a Soviet explorer of the Arctic, Doctor of Geographic Sciences (1950). ... Nikolay Nikolayevich Urvantsev (Russian: , 1893–1995) was a Soviet geologist and explorer. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist...


Komsomolets island is largely covered by the Academy of Sciences Ice Cap — an 819 m (2,690 ft) thick ice dome reaching 749 m (2,460 ft) above sea level and covers covers 5,575 km² (2,153 sq mi) of the island. [10]


Pioneer Island

Pioneer Island, measuring 1,527 km² (590 sq mi) in area, houses Pioneer Glacier. [11] Severnaya Zemlya (Russian, Northern Land) is an archipelago located in the Arctic Ocean. ...


Schmidt Island

Schmidt Island, measuring 467 km² (180 sq mi), at the far northwestern end of the archipelago, is almost entirely covered by the Schmidt Ice Cap. [12] Severnaya Zemlya (Russian, Northern Land) is an archipelago located in the Arctic Ocean. ...


Minor Islands

  • Maly Taymyr Island (232 km² or 90 sq mi) is located at the far southeastern end of the archipelago.
  • Sedov Archipelago, located just west of October Revolution Island. Golomyanniy Meteorological Station, located on the western Tip of Sredniy Island at 79°33′N, 90°38′E, has been taking continuous measurements since 1954. [13]. The archipelago consists of six islands: Sredny, Golomyanny, Domashny, Figurny, Vostochny, and Smaoylovich.
  • Bolshoy Island, located just south of October Revolution Island.
  • Vostochny Island, located south of Bolshevik Island.

Climate

Severnaya Zemlya is consistently cold and dry, with a mean annual temperature of -16 degrees C (3 °F), mean annual precipitation of about 420 mm (16½ in), and generally overcast skies. Monthly average temperature ranges from -29 C (-20 °F) in February to -0.5 C (31 °F) in July. The archipelago sees large temperature fluctuations during winter months, as low-pressure cyclonic activity originating in the North Atlantic make their way across the Arctic, bringing precipitation and higher temperatures. These cyclones are most common in September and October, which see 30% of annual precipitation. Snowfall in summer is not uncommon as temperatures fluctuate around 0 C (32 °F), although higher temperatures occur when warm air masses move north from Siberia. [14] Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Flora and fauna

See also: List of species on Severnaya Zemlya
The Purple Saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia), a common plant in the high Arctic, also occurs on Severnaya Zemlya.
The Purple Saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia), a common plant in the high Arctic, also occurs on Severnaya Zemlya.

Severnaya Zemlya is a polar desert with sparse vegetation and permafrost at less than 50 cm. Rare vascular plants include species of Cerastium and Saxifraga. Non-vascular plants include the moss genera Detrichum, Dicranum, Pogonatum, Sanionia, Bryum, Orthothecium and Tortura, as well as the lichen genera Cetraria, Thamnolia, Cetraria, Cornicularia, Lecidea, Ochrolechia and Parmelia. [15] Species recorded on Severnaya Zemlya: // Most common: Cerastium sp. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x667, 88 KB) Purple Saxifrage, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Svalbard, July 2002, by Michael Haferkamp File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Severnaya Zemlya Purple Saxifrage County flowers of the... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x667, 88 KB) Purple Saxifrage, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Svalbard, July 2002, by Michael Haferkamp File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Severnaya Zemlya Purple Saxifrage County flowers of the... Binomial name Saxifraga oppositifolia L. The Purple Saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) is a species of plant that is very common all over the high arctic and also some high mountainous areas further south, including northern Britain, the Alps and the Rocky Mountains. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... Polar deserts are areas with annual precipitation less than 250 millimetres and a mean temperature during the warmest month of less than 10° C. Polar deserts on Earth cover nearly 5 million square kilometres and are mostly bedrock or gravel plains. ... In geology, permafrost or permafrost soil is a thermal condition where ground material stays at or below 0°C for two or more years. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... Species Cerastium arvense Cerastium fontanum Cerastium tomentosum et al. ... Species many, see text Saxifraga is a plant genus with about 440 known species of perennials, making it the largest genus of the Saxifragaceae family. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (the mycobiont) with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as the phycobiont) that can produce food for the lichen from sunlight. ... Species xx Cetraria is used as a bulking agent in garam masala of traditional Indian cuisine. ... Species xx Cetraria is used as a bulking agent in garam masala of traditional Indian cuisine. ... Parmelia is a genus of lichen (strictly, a genus of fungus) with around 1000 species world wide. ...

Severnaya Zemlya is the easternmost point in the breeding range of the little auk (Alle Alle).
Severnaya Zemlya is the easternmost point in the breeding range of the little auk (Alle Alle).

According to a survey of prior observations by De Korte, Volkov, and Gavrilo, thirty-two bird species have been observed on Severnaya Zemlya, 17 of which are known to breed on the islands. Eight species are widespread across the archipelago: five species of colonial seabirds: little auk (Alle alle), kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus); and three species of tundra bird: the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), purple sandpiper (Calidris maritima), and brent goose (Branta bernicla). [16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Little auk, Alle alle, Svalbard 2002, Michael Haferkamp Source: selfmade by Michael Haferkamp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 853 pixel, file size: 296 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Little auk, Alle alle, Svalbard 2002, Michael Haferkamp Source: selfmade by Michael Haferkamp File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Binomial name Alle alle (Linnaeus, 1758) The Little Auk, or Dovekie, Alle alle, is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle (Link, 1806). ... Binomial name Alle alle (Linnaeus, 1758) The Little Auk, or Dovekie, Alle alle, is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle (Link, 1806). ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... Binomial name Cepphus grylle Linnaeus, 1758 The Black Guillemot or Tystie, Cepphus grylle, is a medium-sized alcid at 32-38 cm in length, and with a 49-58 cm wingspan. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Plectrophenax nivalis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Snow Bunting, (Plectrophenax nivalis), is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a family now separated by most modern authors from the finches Fringillidae. ... Binomial name Calidris maritima Brünnich, 1764 The Purple Sandpiper, Calidris maritima is a small shorebird. ... Binomial name Branta bernicla (Linnaeus, 1758) The Brent Goose (Branta bernicla) is a goose of the genus Branta, known in North America as Brant. ...


The most common mammal on Severnaya Zemlya is the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), which is present on all of the large islands and, in some places has been recorded to reach a density of 500 per km² (1,300 per sq mi) . The Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) has been known to den on the islands, with several hundred observed in the 1980s. Other mammals occasionally observed include the wolf (Canis lupus), ermine (Mustela erminea), and Arctic hare (Lepus timidus), and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). [17] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Arctic Fox range Synonyms Vulpes lagopus Arctic Fox, also known as the polar fox, is a small fox native to cold Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... The ermine (Mustela erminea) is a dark brown weasel, with a distinctive black-tipped tail. ... Binomial name Lepus timidus Linnaeus, 1758 The Mountain Hare (Lepus timidus) is a hare, which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ...


In fiction

The discovery of Severnaya Zemlya is the subject of Veniamin Kaverin's novel, The Two Captains. Veniamin Alexandrovich Kaverin (Вениамин Александрович Каверин in Russian; real name - Вениамин Александрович Зильбер, or Veniamin Alexandrovich Silber) (April 6 (19), 1902, Pskov — May 2, 1989, Moscow) was a Soviet writer associated with the early 1920s movement of the Serapion Brothers. ... The Two Captains (Russian: ) is a novel, written by Soviet author Veniamin Kaverin between 1938 and 1944. ...


In the James Bond film GoldenEye, a fictional Russian satellite control station was located on Severnaya Zemlya. However, in the film and game, it is depicted in a wooded section of central Russia, coordinates 62.08 N, 108.59 E, about 2,300 km (1,400 mi) from the actual region of Severnaya. Flemings commissioned image of James Bond to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... GoldenEye is a 1995 spy film. ... GoldenEye 007 is a first-person shooter video game for the Nintendo 64 based on the James Bond film GoldenEye. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ...


External links

  • Oceandots - Severnaya Zemlya
  • Arctic photos of Severnaya Zemlya by Ólafur Ingólfsson

  Results from FactBites:
 
Severnaya Zemlya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (176 words)
The last archipelago on Earth to be discovered, Severnaya was first noted in 1913 and originally named Nicholas II Land.
Initially believed to be a single island, the 1931 polar flight of the Graf Zeppelin determined them to be at least two islands; later study by the expedition of Nikolay Urvantsev and Georgy Ushakov (1931-1933) showed Severnaya Zemlya to be further divided.
Severnaya is also the setting of a chapter in the James Bond movie, Goldeneye.
Severnaya Zemlya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (217 words)
Severnaya Zemlya (Северная Земля, Russian, Northern Land) is an archipelago located in the Arctic Ocean.
Initially believed to be a single island, the 1931 polar flight of the Graf Zeppelin determined them to be at least two islands; later study showed Severnaya Zemlya to be further divided.
A fictional Russian satellite control base in the James Bond movie GoldenEye was called "Severnaya", although maps and satellite images in the movie place the site in a heavily forested region somewhere in central Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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