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Encyclopedia > Seventh and eighth dynasties of Egypt
Dynasties of Pharaohs
in Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
1st 2nd
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
7th 8th 9th 10th
11th (Thebes only)
Middle Kingdom
11th (All Egypt)
12th 13th 14th
Second Intermediate Period
15th 16th 17th
New Kingdom
18th 19th 20th
Third Intermediate Period
21st 22nd 23rd
24th 25th 26th
First Persian Occupation
Late Period
28th 29th 30th
Second Persian Occupation
Graeco-Roman Period
Alexander the Great
Ptolemaic Dynasty
Roman Egypt
Arab Conquest


Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties. Italic textIf youre interested in IAMX theater see, the mystery of the river Nile Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with king Narmer. ... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... This article has recently been written with incorrect information that actually corresponds with the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt ... The last shadowy pharaohs of the Old Kingdom period, probably having a very limited nominal authority in and around the capital of Memphis, Egypt, the real power now in the hands of the nobility (nomarchs). ... The Ninth Dynasty was founded at Hereklepolis by Meryibra, and the Tenth Dynasty continued there. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... Thebes For the ancient capital of Boeotia, see Thebes, Greece. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th... Manethos statement that the Eleventh dynasty consisted of 16 kings who reigned 43 years is contradicted by contemporary inscriptions and the evidence of the Turin King List, whose combined testimony proves that it consisted of seven kings who ruled about 160 years. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... Unlike as explained as being chaos and disorder by later texts, the Thriteenth dynasty wasnt as bad as once thought. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifteenth Dynasty. ... Categories: Articles to be expanded ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (1550-1292 BCE) – often combined with the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties under the group title, New Kingdom – is perhaps the most famous of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Nineteenth Dynasty. ... The Twentieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was founded by Setnakhte, but its only important member was Ramesses III, who modelled his career after Ramesses II the Great. ... The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ... The Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Libyan kings, who ruled ancient Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. ... The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt originated in Kush at the city-state of Napata, whence they invaded and took control of Egypt under Piye (spelled Piankhi in older works). ... The Saïte or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest, and had its capital at Sais. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ... The Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt had one ruler, Amyrtaeus, who was a descendant of the Saite kings of the Twenty-sixth dynasty, and led a successful revolt against the Persians on the death of Darius II. No monuments of his reign have been found, and little is known of... Nefaarud I, or Nepherites, founded the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt (according to an account preserved in a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum) by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. ... The Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt followed Nectanebo Is deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ...


The Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh (Thebes only) Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, First Intermediate Period. The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ...


The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties are a little-known line of kings (pharaohs) during a confusing time in the history of Egypt. Italic textIf youre interested in IAMX theater see, the mystery of the river Nile Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ...

Contents

Kings

Seventh Dynasty[1]
Nomen Prenomen Comments
- Netjerkare? This person is possibly Nitocris, and if so would belong in the sixth dynasty.
- Menkare -
- Neferkare II -
Nebi Neferkare Neby -
- Djedkare Shemai -
- Neferkare Khendu -
- Merenhor -
Seneferka Neferkamin -
- Nikare -
- Neferkare Tereru -
- Neferkahor -
Eighth Dynasty[1]
Nomen Prenomen Comments
- Neferkare Pepiseneb -
- Neferkamin Anu
Iby Qakare Ibi Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day[2]
- Neferkaure II Turin Canon gives rule of four years, two months[3]
Khwiwihepu Neferkauhor Turin Canon gives rule of two years, one month, one day[4]
- Neferirkare Turin Canon gives a reign of one and a half years[5] -

For the band Nitocris see Nitocris (Band) Nitocris (Greek Νίτωκρις) has been claimed to have been the last Pharaoh of the 6th Dynasty of Egypt, and perhaps the first female ruler of Egypt, the first known Queen regnant in the world, and the first of three women to take the title... Qakare Ibi was an ancient Egyptian ruler of the 8th Dynasty. ... Neferkauhor was an eighth dynasty king of ancient Egypt during the First Intermediate Period. ... For the better known Fifth dynasty pharaoh by this name, see Neferirkare Kakai. ...

Sources

Manetho

The three sources which provide our knowledge on this period is exceedingly difficult to work with. Manetho's full history does not survive intact, but is known through other writers who quoted from it. Unfortunately, the two ancient historians who quote from this section, Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius of Caesarea, provide inconsistent accounts of both dynasties. Africanus claims that the Seventh dynasty consisted of 70 kings that ruled during a period of seventy days in Memphis, and the Eighth consisted of 27 kings who reigned for 146 years. However, Eusebius records that during the Seventh Dynasty five kings ruled over seventy five days, and the Eighth includes five kings who ruled for 100 years. Seventy kings in seventy days is usually considered the correct version of Manetho, but obviously not the actual correct dates. This epithet is interpreted to mean that the pharaohs of this period were extremely ephemeral, and the use of seventy may be a pun on fact that this was Manetho's seventh dynasty.[6] The fact that Manetho does not provide actual historical data on this period is interpreted by many as meaning that the seventh dynasty is fictitious. Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in AD 195. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Memphis, coordiates , , was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi...


The Turin Canon of Kings and Abydos King List

Two Egyptian documents record the names of the kings of Egypt, however they do not divide them into dynasties. Kings 42 to 56 on the Abydos King List come between the end of the sixth dynasty and the beginning of the eleventh, and do not appear to be from the ninth or tenth dynasties either.[7] The Turin Canon is heavily damaged, and cannot be read without much difficulty. However, the fragment containing what is believed to be the name of Nitocris has two mangled names and a third name on it which is clearly that of Qakare Ibi, the 53rd king on the Abydos king list. There seems to be left room for two more kings before the end of the dynasty.[8] This would indicate that the the missing parts of the Turin Papyrus probably contained the kings in the 51st to 55th registers of the Abydos King list. Because the Turin papyrus omits the first nine kings on the Abydos list, W.C. Hayes thinks it reasonable that the Egyptians may have divided the seventh and eighth dynasties at this point.[9][10] Qakare Ibi was an ancient Egyptian ruler of the 8th Dynasty. ...


Decline into Chaos

Given that five names of the kings from this period have Pepi II's throne name Neferkare in their own names, they may have been descendants of the sixth dynasty who were trying to hold on to some sort of power.[11] Some of the acts of the final four eighth dynasty kings are recorded in their decrees to Shemay, a vizier during this period, however only Qakare Ibi can connected to any monumental construction. His pyramid has been found at Saqarra near Pepi II and continues to have the pyramid texts written on the walls.[12]


However many kings there actually were, it is clear that during this time period a breakdown of the central authority of Egypt was underway. The rulers of these dynasties were based in Memphis; with the exception of the final eighth dynasty kings, all that is known of most of these rulers is their names. This group of kings was eventually overthrown by a rival group, the Ninth Dynasty, based in Herakleopolis Magna. Memphis, coordiates , , was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi... The Ninth Dynasty was founded at Hereklepolis by Meryibra, and the Tenth Dynasty continued there. ... Herakleopolis Magna is the Greek name of the capital of the Twentieth nome of ancient Egypt. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Division between dynasties is on the assumption that the omission of nine kings in the Turin Canon separates the two dynasties.
  2. ^ J. von Beckerath, The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, JNES 21 (1962), p.143
  3. ^ Beckerath, op. cit., p.143
  4. ^ Beckerath, op. cit., p.143
  5. ^ Beckerath, op. cit., p.143
  6. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.138. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  7. ^ Abydos King List, Accessed November 9, 2006
  8. ^ Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History," vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  9. ^ Smith, W. Stevenson. The Old Kingdom in Egypt and the Beginning of the First Intermediate Period, in The Cambridge Ancient History," vol. I, part 2, ed. Edwards, I.E.S, et al. p.197. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1971
  10. ^ Piccione's King Lists
  11. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.140. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  12. ^ Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p.140. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.

 
 

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